1. Module 3: Nature vs. Nurture I. What makes us who we are?
2. A. Nature – biological dispositions that we’re born with (genes)
The human genome contains 30,000 genes!
3. C. Individual Differences 1. Identical Twins – share the same genes, develop from the same egg. The best way to study human development.
Raised together: same “nature” AND “nurture” (Most likely to have same personality)
Raised apart: same “nature” but different “nurture” experiences
4. 2. Fraternal Twins – develop from two different eggs Can be different sex (1 boy, 1 girl)
“Nature” – genetically no different than regular siblings
“Nurture” – very similar experiences
6. Twin Studies United Streaming video clip
8. Module 4: The Beginnings of Life Physical Development – first stage is Zygote (0-2 weeks)
11. B. Cognitive Development – Neural connections are still forming
Example: Most people have no memory prior to age 4
12. Neural Development
13. 1. Piaget’s Stages Sensorimotor – touching, tasting, moving
Pre-Operational – pretend play, object permanence (knowing an object continues to exist even when out of sight)
Concrete Operational – understand conservation (quantity does not change despite changes in shape), math
Formal Operational – abstract thinking, hypothetical situations, moral reasoning
14. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
15. C. Social Development – bonding with parents 1. Ainsworth Study – 3 types of attachment
Secure: a healthy bond with caregivers
Ambivalent: child is unsure, lacks trust in caregivers
Avoidant: child is insecure and distant, caused by neglect (ignoring the baby’s cries of distress)
16. 2. Harry Harlow Study Infant monkeys preferred a cloth “mother” without milk than a wire “mother” with milk.
CONCLUSION: Body contact is more important for bonding than nourishment.
Worth Digital Media Archive Clip
17. Erik Erikson’s Stages of Social Development Infants and children must develop trust, autonomy, initiative, and competence in order to become healthy adults
18. 4. Parenting Styles Authoritarian: Cold, high in discipline, parent in control
Permissive: Warm/loving, low in discipline, child in control
Authoritative: Warm, moderate discipline, parent and child negotiate and compromise
19. Module 5: Adolescence A. Physical Development
Adolescence – transition from puberty to independence
Puberty – period of sexual maturation
Sex Characteristics - Primary (reproductive) vs. Secondary (non-reproductive)
Sexual Orientation – an enduring sexual attraction to same or other gender
20. B. Cognitive Development Kohlberg’s Stages of Morality
Pre-conventional: childhood to age 9
Decisions are based on reward or punishment
21. Conventional: teens and most adults
Decisions are made to fit in, to be a good citizen, to “do the right thing” (follow rules and laws).
22. Post-conventional: Few people reach this level of reasoning.
Decisions made with respect to the rights of all people
23. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: Teenagers are in the Formal Operational Stage: can understand abstract ideas, capable of mature moral reasoning
24. C. Social Development Erik Erikson’s Stages: Identity – teenagers refine their sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them
25. Module 6: Adulthood and Aging Physical Changes
Deterioration: senses (sight, smell, hearing), muscle mass, memory
Increased immunity to common cold
Menopause (in women)
26. 4. Diseases Related to Aging a. Alzheimer’s disease – a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning (final stage)
b. Senile Dementia – mental disintegration that can be caused by alcoholism, stroke, brain tumor, aging, or Alzheimer’s disease
27. Physical Changes: Vision
28. Physical Changes: Sense of Smell
29. Physical Changes: Hearing
30. B. Cognitive Changes 1. Deficits in Recall (it’s not as good anymore)
Ex: what is your phone number?
Ex: Describe the burglar’s appearance.
Recognition stays strong
Ex: is 555-1234 your phone number?
Ex: Pick from this line-up of suspects.
31. 2. Less Fluid Intelligence The ability to reason speedily and abstractly, decreases with age
Crystallized Intelligence (wisdom) – one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, increases with age
32. C. Social Changes Social Clock: the culturally preferred timing of certain social events (marriage, parenthood, retirement)
Erikson’s Stage of Social Development: INTIMACY
33. 2. Empty Nest Alone for the first time in 18+ years
Erikson’s Stage of Social Development: GENERATIVITY
34. 3. Death and Dying a. INTEGRITY (Erikson’s Stage of Social Development): Facing their own mortality, older adults must maintain a sense of hope and pride despite friends and family passing away.
35. b. Grief and Loss: (DABDA) Not Supported By Research