Module 3:  Nature vs. Nurture

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Module 3: Nature vs. Nurture

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1. Module 3: Nature vs. Nurture I. What makes us who we are?

2. A. Nature – biological dispositions that we’re born with (genes) The human genome contains 30,000 genes!

3. C. Individual Differences 1. Identical Twins – share the same genes, develop from the same egg. The best way to study human development. Raised together: same “nature” AND “nurture” (Most likely to have same personality) Raised apart: same “nature” but different “nurture” experiences

4. 2. Fraternal Twins – develop from two different eggs Can be different sex (1 boy, 1 girl) “Nature” – genetically no different than regular siblings “Nurture” – very similar experiences

6. Twin Studies United Streaming video clip

8. Module 4: The Beginnings of Life Physical Development – first stage is Zygote (0-2 weeks)

11. B. Cognitive Development – Neural connections are still forming Example: Most people have no memory prior to age 4

12. Neural Development

13. 1. Piaget’s Stages Sensorimotor – touching, tasting, moving Pre-Operational – pretend play, object permanence (knowing an object continues to exist even when out of sight) Concrete Operational – understand conservation (quantity does not change despite changes in shape), math Formal Operational – abstract thinking, hypothetical situations, moral reasoning

14. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

15. C. Social Development – bonding with parents 1. Ainsworth Study – 3 types of attachment Secure: a healthy bond with caregivers Ambivalent: child is unsure, lacks trust in caregivers Avoidant: child is insecure and distant, caused by neglect (ignoring the baby’s cries of distress)

16. 2. Harry Harlow Study Infant monkeys preferred a cloth “mother” without milk than a wire “mother” with milk. CONCLUSION: Body contact is more important for bonding than nourishment. Worth Digital Media Archive Clip

17. Erik Erikson’s Stages of Social Development Infants and children must develop trust, autonomy, initiative, and competence in order to become healthy adults

18. 4. Parenting Styles Authoritarian: Cold, high in discipline, parent in control Permissive: Warm/loving, low in discipline, child in control Authoritative: Warm, moderate discipline, parent and child negotiate and compromise

19. Module 5: Adolescence A. Physical Development Adolescence – transition from puberty to independence Puberty – period of sexual maturation Sex Characteristics - Primary (reproductive) vs. Secondary (non-reproductive) Sexual Orientation – an enduring sexual attraction to same or other gender

20. B. Cognitive Development Kohlberg’s Stages of Morality Pre-conventional: childhood to age 9 Decisions are based on reward or punishment

21. Conventional: teens and most adults Decisions are made to fit in, to be a good citizen, to “do the right thing” (follow rules and laws).

22. Post-conventional: Few people reach this level of reasoning. Decisions made with respect to the rights of all people

23. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: Teenagers are in the Formal Operational Stage: can understand abstract ideas, capable of mature moral reasoning

24. C. Social Development Erik Erikson’s Stages: Identity – teenagers refine their sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them

25. Module 6: Adulthood and Aging Physical Changes Deterioration: senses (sight, smell, hearing), muscle mass, memory Increased immunity to common cold Menopause (in women)

26. 4. Diseases Related to Aging a. Alzheimer’s disease – a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning (final stage) b. Senile Dementia – mental disintegration that can be caused by alcoholism, stroke, brain tumor, aging, or Alzheimer’s disease

27. Physical Changes: Vision

28. Physical Changes: Sense of Smell

29. Physical Changes: Hearing

30. B. Cognitive Changes 1. Deficits in Recall (it’s not as good anymore) Ex: what is your phone number? Ex: Describe the burglar’s appearance. Recognition stays strong Ex: is 555-1234 your phone number? Ex: Pick from this line-up of suspects.

31. 2. Less Fluid Intelligence The ability to reason speedily and abstractly, decreases with age Crystallized Intelligence (wisdom) – one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, increases with age

32. C. Social Changes Social Clock: the culturally preferred timing of certain social events (marriage, parenthood, retirement) Erikson’s Stage of Social Development: INTIMACY

33. 2. Empty Nest Alone for the first time in 18+ years Erikson’s Stage of Social Development: GENERATIVITY

34. 3. Death and Dying a. INTEGRITY (Erikson’s Stage of Social Development): Facing their own mortality, older adults must maintain a sense of hope and pride despite friends and family passing away.

35. b. Grief and Loss: (DABDA) Not Supported By Research

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