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Humanistic Perspectives “ Work ought to dignify rather than diminish the human spirit ” George Cheney Human Relations Movement Hawthorne Studies – Western Electric Plant Illumination studies Relay Assembly Test Room Studies – determine influence of working conditions on productivity

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Humanistic Perspectives

“Work ought to dignify rather than diminish the human spirit”

George Cheney


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Human Relations Movement

  • Hawthorne Studies – Western Electric Plant

  • Illumination studies

  • Relay Assembly Test Room Studies – determine influence of working conditions on productivity

  • Interviews – interviewees more interested in talking about personal feelings/attitudes

  • Bank Room Wiring Studies – how social groups exercise control over behavior


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Implications

  • Social/emotional needs of workers key variables

  • Importance of employee feedback/upward cx

  • Discovery of “informal organization”

  • “Hawthorne effect” – tendency for people to alter behaviors when studied


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Human Relations

  • Promoted model of human behavior based on self-actualization (Maslow)

  • Assumes employee’s major motivation is personal development and growth

  • Goal of mgmt: focus on fulfilling needs of individuals; higher job satisfaction


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Human Resources Model

  • Based on idea that organizational effectiveness is a function of BOTH structure/design AND individual needs

  • Motivation: tap potential (versus needs satisfaction)


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Blake & Mouton’sManagerial Grid

Country Club Management

High

Team Management

Concern for People

Middle-of-the-Road Management

Impoverished Management

Authority Compliance

Low

Low

High

Concern for Production


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Systems TheoryLudwig von Bertalanffy (1968)

  • Metaphor – organism

  • An organization is a living entity in an environment that can provide it with energy and to which it can return and output

  • Principle of Interdepence – system parts are dependent on one another in the performance of organizational activity


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  • System– Set of parts which interrelate to form a whole and work together to adapt to a changing environment.

    • Open systems – import and export material from and to the environment

    • Environment – entities outside of the system that are relevant to the survival of the system

    • Boundary – part of the system that separates it from its environment (permeable)


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  • Cx – system binder; binds part of system together and binds the system to the environment

    • Boundary-spanners – move information across boundaries (adaptive function)

      • Sales, customer service, PR, advertising

    • Maintenance function – provide flow of information among the sub-systems


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