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Humanistic Perspectives “ Work ought to dignify rather than diminish the human spirit ” George Cheney Human Relations Movement Hawthorne Studies – Western Electric Plant Illumination studies Relay Assembly Test Room Studies – determine influence of working conditions on productivity

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humanistic perspectives

Humanistic Perspectives

“Work ought to dignify rather than diminish the human spirit”

George Cheney

human relations movement
Human Relations Movement
  • Hawthorne Studies – Western Electric Plant
  • Illumination studies
  • Relay Assembly Test Room Studies – determine influence of working conditions on productivity
  • Interviews – interviewees more interested in talking about personal feelings/attitudes
  • Bank Room Wiring Studies – how social groups exercise control over behavior
implications
Implications
  • Social/emotional needs of workers key variables
  • Importance of employee feedback/upward cx
  • Discovery of “informal organization”
  • “Hawthorne effect” – tendency for people to alter behaviors when studied
human relations
Human Relations
  • Promoted model of human behavior based on self-actualization (Maslow)
  • Assumes employee’s major motivation is personal development and growth
  • Goal of mgmt: focus on fulfilling needs of individuals; higher job satisfaction
human resources model
Human Resources Model
  • Based on idea that organizational effectiveness is a function of BOTH structure/design AND individual needs
  • Motivation: tap potential (versus needs satisfaction)
blake mouton s managerial grid
Blake & Mouton’sManagerial Grid

Country Club Management

High

Team Management

Concern for People

Middle-of-the-Road Management

Impoverished Management

Authority Compliance

Low

Low

High

Concern for Production

systems theory ludwig von bertalanffy 1968
Systems TheoryLudwig von Bertalanffy (1968)
  • Metaphor – organism
  • An organization is a living entity in an environment that can provide it with energy and to which it can return and output
  • Principle of Interdepence – system parts are dependent on one another in the performance of organizational activity
slide9

System– Set of parts which interrelate to form a whole and work together to adapt to a changing environment.

    • Open systems – import and export material from and to the environment
    • Environment – entities outside of the system that are relevant to the survival of the system
    • Boundary – part of the system that separates it from its environment (permeable)
slide10

Cx – system binder; binds part of system together and binds the system to the environment

    • Boundary-spanners – move information across boundaries (adaptive function)
      • Sales, customer service, PR, advertising
    • Maintenance function – provide flow of information among the sub-systems
slide11
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