Organic Agriculture in Sudan. PROF.EL HAG MAKKI AWOUDA ORGANIC CONSULTANT.
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PROF.EL HAG MAKKI AWOUDA
The traditional rain-fed agriculture.The mechanized rain-fed agriculture.Irrigated agriculture.Specific area was selected in each sector in which the organic farming will be introduced. The organic crops were intended to be produced wide the standards guideline of EU.
Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organization (SSMO) is responsible for the execution of the program concerning the standards of organically produced products and guarantee a faire trade in organically produced food.
Sudanese Standards and
The National Committee for Organic Foods and products The Director of the SSMO issued on the 10th of April 2005 the administrative decision No. 10 to form a national committee for organic foods and products .The committee operates under the umbrella of SSMO.The terms of reference of the committee include: 1- To develop a national plan that will provide basic information on areas, in different ecological zones, where crop, horticultural , animal and forestry production is practiced. These areas include deltas, rivers, Khors, flood plains, islands, areas behind dams , areas of rain-fed agriculture and land under permanent and underground irrigation.2 - To broaden awareness about organic farming among farmers and to highlight the chances of its success.3 - To inform the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) with the formation of the Sudanese National Committee of Organic Agriculture and the initiation of arrangements that prepare the Sudan to join the IFOAM organization. 4 - To collect documents, basic information and scientific references on global organic production from international resources and national consultants.5 - To prepare a directory on organic agriculture in the Sudan and the Sudanese specifications for organic products.
Sudanese Guidelines For The Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing Of Organically Produced Foods The national committee has adopted the Codex Alimentarious standards and guidelines for the production, processing, labelling and marketing of organically produced food, these guidelines include general sections describing the organic production concept and the scope of the text, description and definitions; labelling and claims (including products in transition/conversion); rules of production and preparation, including criteria for the substances allowed in organic production; inspection and certification system and import control.
Project Prospects: The Sudan proposed projects aim towards production of biologically organic commodities. The idea is to produce clean and green products on a sustainable basis. Clean in the sense that they are natural, no chemical fertilizers, pesticides are being used, and green in the sense that they are organic, biologically tested and no genetic modification. All this is being done on a sustained yield basis to satisfy the present generation and to hand over the system clean and green to future generations. It is a present obligation with a future responsibility. It is ecologically tested environmentally sound, socially accepted and economically feasible.
Agricultural in Sudan is practiced in three different ecological spheres 1- Traditional rain fed sector, mainly sandy soils in Central and Western Sudan. Main products are sesame, groundnut. Sorghum, hibiscus \'millet\', senna pods, water melon seeds, guar and gum Arabic.
The Sudan proposed project is based on ten principals according to IFOAM principals and in order to maintain full cooperation between the producers of Africa and the consumers of the Western World. These principals are: Biodiversity:All organic - no use of chemicals. All natural input. Integrated approach:Gum cultivation cycle, to maintain soil fertility in the rain fed areas and rotation with legumes in the irrigated sector. Environmental protection:Sustainability. Participatory approach. Agro-forestry - pastoral system. Export oriented.
2-Rainfed mechanized sector, clay plains in central, Eastern and Southern Sudan. Main products are sesame, sunflower, cotton, sorghum, guar, natural gums, medicinal and aromatic plants and nonwood forest products.
3- Irrigated sector - along rivers and near watercourses and underground aquifers. They could be small-scale private holdings or large scale private or public owned. Main products are fruits, vegetables, sorghum, sunflower, sesame, groundnuts, cotton, wheat, guar etc
In all these sectors animals are kept making use of natural pastures and agricultural residues (Code of Ethics, internal control trace ability inspection system for organic farming).The proposed project covers the three distinct areas, they vary in soils, climatic conditions, etc
Area 1:Area cropped small traditional farms, the soil fertility is maintained through crop rotation with gum trees, the pest control is by the traditional biological means. The crops grown are hibiscus, senna pod, groundnut, sorghum, guar, gum Arabic
Area 2:Mechanized rain fed farms, the soil fertility is maintained through crop rotation with gum trees, pest control is by traditional biological means. The crops grown are white and mixed sesame, sorghum, guar gum and gum Arabic.
Area 3:Large and small farmers, the soil fertility is maintained through flooded slit from the Nile, the pest control is through biological means.The crop grown are cotton, sunflower, guar, sorghum and vegetables.
In all three cases animals are kept for domestic use, sheep, goats, cows and camels. The three areas do not use any chemicals and fertility is maintained through crop rotation with legumes for production of guar and Gum Arabic. The rotation system is a traditional Sudanese system well known all over the world as the gum cultivation cycle authenticated by FAO and all International organizations.
The Northern Kordofan area has been the scene of Dutch Project executed by FAO and even the 20 cooperatives, have been initiated and formed by the project for the production and marketing. Both FAO and the Dutch aid can certify the non-use of chemicals in the area during the execution period (20 years). Additional to this in the irrigated area the fertility is replenished annually by silt flooded from the Nile. FAO financed a project formulation mission to study and formulate projects to introduce organic farming in Sudan.