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RLIUP (summary). R eview of L HC and I njector U pgrade P lans. Excerpts from the presentation of S. Myers, November 7 th , 2013. History. Present “10 year” schedule was proposed and developed at a time when we had much less information than now

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Rliup summary

RLIUP (summary)

Review of LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans

Excerpts from the presentation of S. Myers, November 7th, 2013


  • Present “10 year” schedule was

    • proposed and developed at a time when we had much less information than now

    • and was not developed in a self-consistent (iterative) way.

  • Comment on Machine Performance

  • In the early years of operation, spectacular performance increase can be attained by pushing accelerator physics limitations (intensity, beta*, emittance …)

  • After some years of operation, these possibilities become exhausted

  • Slower performance increases then comes by upgrades and small (%) improvements on a multitude of fronts including machine availability etc

  • LHC is entering this new phase (upgrades and small improvements on many fronts)

    • Both need careful planning

From the presentation of S. Myers, November 7th, 2013

Answers from rliup to important questions
Answers (from RLIUP) to Important Questions

  • Radiation Limit for detectors and machine

    • 300 – 500 fb-1 (machine possibly more critical)

  • LS2 needs 18-24 months

  • LS3 needs  24-36 months

  • Run2 should last for 3 years

From the presentation of S. Myers, November 7th, 2013

Important comments
Important Comments

  • (A. B.1st Talk), ESB: Europe’s top priority should be the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with a view to collecting ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030.

  • (F.G. 2nd Talk)

    • The STRONG physics case for the HL-LHC with 3000 fb-1 comes from the imperative necessity of exploring this scale as much as we can with the highest-E facility we have today (note: no other planned machine, except a 100 TeV pp collider, has a similar direct discovery potential). ……..

    • We have NO evidence of new physics. implies that, if New Physics exists at the TeV scale and is discovered at √s ~ 14 TeV in 2015++, its spectrum is quite heavy it will require a lot of luminosity (HL-LHC 3000 fb-1) and energy to study it in detail ..implications for future machines (e.g. most likely not accessible at a 0.5 TeV LC)

    • HL-LHC is a Higgs Factory. It can measure the Higgs coupling with an accuracy of a few %

From the presentation of S. Myers, November 7th, 2013


  • LHC has been constructed, operated and will continue to be operated on a CONSTANT BUDGET

  • We have a beautiful scientific facility, unique in the world.

  • The community has invested (and are investing) a huge amount of their resources in this unique facility both for construction and for operation.

  • The FULL operational costs integrated over the future operating years exceeds the proposed upgrade costs. Hence we should operate this unique facility in the most efficient way possible.

This means

  • Both Upgrades, LIU and HL-LHC, should aim for the maximum useful integrated luminosity possible

  • LS3 should come as soon as possible in order to maximize the integrated luminosity (every delay by one year of LS3 “costs” 200fb-1)

  • LS2 should not delay LS3.

The goal of 3000fb-1 by 2035 is challenging but attainable

From the presentation of S. Myers, November 7th, 2013

Summary of summary of summaries list
Summary of Summary of Summaries (list)

  • Performance

    • Pile-up and pile-up density (detectors and machine)

    • 25ns: e-cloud, scrubbing, short term mitigation, long term solution

    • Machine availability: minimise down time, speed up turn around

  • Shutdowns

    • Plan well in advance: global resource loaded schedule, identify and rectify weaknesses in expertise areas

    • Design for ALARA; minimum intervention time and use of correct materials (actiwys)

  • Beam Energy

    • Investigate increase of maximum beam energy in the medium term (?? Use of 11T magnets for collimation??)

  • From the presentation of S. Myers, November 7th, 2013

    Shutdown schedule until 2035

    K. Foraz

    Shutdown schedule until 2035

    Scenario 1

    from 2015 to 2035: beam = 57%

    % of time





    RLIUP workshop = Baird, Foraz

    Shutdown schedule until 20351

    K. Foraz

    Shutdown schedule until 2035

    Scenario 2

    from 2015 to 2035: beam = 54 % of time






    RLIUP workshop = Baird, Foraz

    What could stop us
    What could stop us?

    • Potential causes of mechanical failures of SC magnets

      • Mechanical fatigue on coil, structure, busses:

        • Powering cycles: 104 per magnet

        • Thermal cycles: a few for the LHC

      • Singular events and associated thermal and electrical stress:

        • Quenches: order of 10 per magnet

        • Heater discharges (triggers): order of 10 per magnet

      • Radiation and associated degradation of mechanical and electrical strength:

        • Magnet in the triplet region (Point 1 and Point 5)

        • Magnets in the collimators region (Point 7)

    L. Bottura

    What could stop us1

    L. Bottura

    What could stop us?

    • Electromechanical failures:

      • An MTBF of 400…500 years has been estimated for the LHC superconducting magnets

      • This translates in approximately 3…4 magnet electrical NC’s per year of operation, and at least 10…15 magnets exchanges every long shutdown  need to have tools to evaluate (on-line) effect of non-conformities

      • Given the estimated MTBF, the probability of electrical failure of one of the triplet magnets within the next 10 years of operation is 3 %, i.e. 1 magnet

    • Questions:

      • Ageing?

      • Impact of number of cycles?

      • Experimental magnets

    What could stop us2
    What could stop us?

    • Radiation and Inner Triplets

    L. Bottura

    • Expected dose by LS3 (300 fb-1)

      • Range of 27 [18…40] MGyin the Q2

      • Range of 20 [13…30]MGyin the MCBX

    • IT may experience mechanically-induced insulation failure in the range of 300 fb-1 (LS3 ± 1 year) consistent with previous analyses.

    • Effects:

      • Premature quenches (cracks in end spacers)

      • Insulation degradation (monitor on line)

      • Mechanical failure (nested coils in MCBX)

    What could stop us3

    L. Bottura

    What could stop us?

    • Radiation on the warm magnets (collimation area)

    • Expected dose by LS3 (300 fb-1)

      • Range of 80….90 MGy in the MBW and MQW

    • Actions have been proposed and approved to avoid insulation failure in the period LS2 to LS3

    • Starting in LS1

    Shield inserts and masks for MQW, by courtesy of P. Fessia

    What could stop us4

    L. Bottura

    What could stop us?

    • Point 5

    • Point 1

    Radiation to the personnel

    The triplet will be a limited stay area

    Access and work in the triplet and collimator area will be subject to ALARA-level III rules

    Measures must be taken to reduce intervention time  in LS3 at the latest

    Ambient dose equivalent rates in µSv/h at 40cm extrpolated from measurements after LS1


















    My summary
    My summary

    • The upgrade program is fully supported by the CERN management

    • We will change the working mode in the LHC, approaching what is done in the injectors

    • Radiation issues are coming up, especially radiation dose during interventions, and we need to prepare for this