Unit 2
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Unit 2. Structure of Essay . Introduction –lead Body ( 最重要的 ) Conclusion . Introduction 30 w. Background Importance/influence/ prevalence Controversy Main point (Highlight-optional ) . Importance. …play an important(essential/vital/pivotal) role in

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Unit 2

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Unit 2

Unit 2

Structure of Essay


Unit 2

Introduction –lead

Body (最重要的)

Conclusion


Introduction 30 w

Introduction 30 w

  • Background

    Importance/influence/ prevalence

  • Controversy

  • Main point

  • (Highlight-optional )


Importance

Importance

  • …play an important(essential/vital/pivotal) role in

  • …be of (great, key, vital) importance to

  • …be an integral part of


Unit 2

推荐工具

  • Lingoes

  • 牛津学生英语搭配词典

比如,你搜索“peace”,那么你会看到作为名词“peace”前面可以用lasting, permanent, fragile等形容词修饰;作为宾语, peace前面的动词有bring about, establish, make, keep。作为主语, peace后面的谓语动词可以是come, prevail, reign。


Unit 2

推荐英文学习网站

  • http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/

  • http://www.nytimes.com/


Importance1

Importance--练习

  • 2009-02-27 Do you agree or disagree? A job with more vacation time but a low salary is better than a job with a high salary but less vacation time.

  • 工作是人们生活的一个重要组成,工资也是人们选择工作的一个关键参考。对于我来说。。。


Influence

影响Influence

  • --- had a widespread(pervasive)/

    considerable/(significant/huge/tremendous/enormous) influence(effect, impact) on


Unit 2

练习

  • 2009-01-17 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Advertising is the only important cause of unhealthy eating habits.

  • 广告已经影响了人们的生活方式,比如吃,喝,旅游等等。很多食品广告会影响人们对食物和餐厅的选择,尽管有一些是不健康的,但是它们不是造成不健康饮食的唯一原因。


Prevalence

Prevalence

  • There is a general (growing) trend that …..

  • It is a common practice that….

    2009.6.12Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:University students should take part-time jobs.(Education & Work)


Sample

SAMPLE

It is a common practice that university students take part-time jobs due to the financial benefits for their tuition and living expense. In my opinion, having extra working experiences in college has more than one merit, such as practicing communication skills and enlarging social network. (暗示下文分论点)


Controversy

Controversy

  • People have conflicting/differing opinions about ______

  • The opinions about _______vary among people.

  • There exists a debate that …..

  • …is /has been a controversial issue discussed by people.


Main point

Main Point

  • I believe/ (in my opinion)/as far as I’m concerned.

  • 注意

  • 1.不能连用

  • 2.Main point 不一定写 I agree or I disagree


Unit 2

Optional introductions……


Unit 2

E.G. 2006-11-17Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Being happy with a job is more important than having a high salary.

典型具体表现指代抽象概念

下义词上义词


Job satisfaction

Job Satisfaction

  • The environment of the job, working pattern, working state, pressure involved, challenge, interpersonal relationship etc.


Unit 2

  • E.G. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?It is better to work in a larger company than a small one.


Highlight

Highlight 亮点

Shocking statement

Interesting stories(不实用)

Quotations 较实用!


Unit 2

The unexamined life is not worth living. – Socrates

Plato

Aristotle


Unit 2

2008.1.27Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:Successful people accept new things and take risks rather than hold on to the things that they have done well.


Unit 2

  • 2008.1.18Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:People are happier when they finish a challenging or difficult job than when they complete an easy task.


Paraphrase

如何paraphrase

  • Read and understand its central theme.

  • Note down anything that grabs your attention. (word, phrase, thought)

  • Write a paraphrase in your own words. Avoid using the original words, phrases, and expression.

  • At the same time, make sure that your words convey the same central theme.


Effective introduction

Effective Introduction

  • 恰当的引言(Proper Quotation)

  • 修辞性疑问句(Rhetorical Question)

  • 个人经历(Autobiography)

  • 事实和统计数字(Facts and Statistics)

  • 驳斥(Refutation)


Unit 2

Body

  • Sub point 1 80-100 words

    Logical words Topic sentence Develop

  • Sub point 2

  • Sub point 3


Unit 2

INTRO+主旨句

简单来说,body部分的论证就是横竖结构。

每一个论点(横)都需要有论据(竖)来支撑

每一个论点和论证都要支持主旨句


Paragraph structure

Paragraph Structure

  • Topic sentence主题句

    在段落中用于概括段落主旨大意

  • Supporting sentence 辅助句

    在段落中对主题句用来表达,解释,说明或者扩展的句子

  • Concluding sentence 结尾句

    表示段落结束的句子


Unit 2

段落结构图

Topic Sentence

Supporting sentence Supporting sentence

Supporting sentence Supporting sentence

Concluding sentence


Unit 2

如何写好主题句

  • Specific and focused 具体和有针对性

  • 能正确引导读者的思路

  • 使读者对段落的中心思想和意图, 一目了然


Unit 2

一个中国学生的例子

  • In my childhood, there were so many things that were worth calling to mind. Some made me happy, some made me excited, and some made me sad. But among them was an unforgettable thing, when I think of it, my good friend Tong Tong will occur to me.


Unit 2

美国编者认为:

  • This is a moving story about friends who have quarreled. It needs a good topic sentence to bring the reader into the feelings and message the writer wants to convey.

    美国编者提供了这样的开头:

  • One of the most unforgettable experiences of my childhood involves my good friend Tong Tong. It happened when I was eight years old…..


Unit 2

2.如何写好辅助句

  • 也称展开句或推展句

  • 段落内容紧密相关,逻辑上具有一致性

  • 充分论证主题观点


Unit 2

Bad example:跑题

见讲义


Unit 2

如何写好结尾句

  • 结尾句有3个作用

    a.表示一个段落的结束

    b.对段落加以总结

    c.对主题加以评论,给读者留下深刻印象


Unit 2

Ex. Topic sentence: There are three things that would make me the happiest person in the world.

  • A happy family life

  • A satisfying career

  • Inner peace and security


Unit 2

Concluding Sentence:

if I could have a good home life, a challenging job, and inner strength, I would be contented and satisfied with my life.

(Leonhard, 1999, p.83)


Unit 2

中国学生的段落写作问题

  • 常常前两句话写的并不是一个段落所讲的内容。因为有些学生还没有形成一种TS完了就是支持句的模式。

  • 另外,主题句出现在段落的中间或者没有。

  • Topic sentence 不够具体和具有针对性。有些学生虽然大体上表达了段落要讲的意思,但是表达太抽象。


Unit 2

  • 最严重的是Topic sentence和主旨句没有相关性。也就是说论点和文章中心思想没有关联。

  • 各段之间没有承上启下的粘合。学生有时会把论点段很生硬的罗列。


Conclusion

Conclusion

最简单,最基本的------重申&强化


Unit 2

完美文章的漂亮结尾

三点建议:

(1)重现主旨句:synthesize, don’t summarize

  • 强调你的论点的重要性,而不是单纯的复述或者总结你的Thesis statement.


Unit 2

(2)完善全文—总结前文的分论点。

(3)给读者一个深刻的印象,这一点比较难做到,有三个方法:

  • 挑战读者的思维

  • 展望未来和提出建议

  • 提出问题


Unit 2

Suggestions

As a result, it is advisable for ___to do____.

Therefore, it is strongly recommended that____

do ______.

I strongly advocate that_______.


Unit 2

2009.7.25

Do you agree or disagree the following statement?

Movies and TV programs made in one’s own country is always more interesting than those made in other countries.


Unit 2

  • Due to the difference between our domestic cultures and foreign countries, audience are more intrigued by the programs made by other nations.

  • Plot designing and elements of humor are more appealing made by exotic cultures.

  • Actors from American and European countries are sexier and more attractive to watchers than those in my own country.

  • Very often, our country’s special technology is inferior to those of other developed countries.


Unit 2

Disagree: Cultural difference ; high-tech(special effect); better directors and actors; better plot

Agree: life connection(culture similarity); language for understanding; participation; cater to native audience


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