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Unit 2. Structure of Essay . Introduction –lead Body ( 最重要的 ) Conclusion . Introduction 30 w. Background Importance/influence/ prevalence Controversy Main point (Highlight-optional ) . Importance. …play an important(essential/vital/pivotal) role in

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Unit 2

Unit 2

Structure of Essay

Introduction –lead

Body (最重要的)


Introduction 30 w
Introduction 30 w

  • Background

    Importance/influence/ prevalence

  • Controversy

  • Main point

  • (Highlight-optional )


  • …play an important(essential/vital/pivotal) role in

  • …be of (great, key, vital) importance to

  • …be an integral part of


  • Lingoes

  • 牛津学生英语搭配词典

比如,你搜索“peace”,那么你会看到作为名词“peace”前面可以用lasting, permanent, fragile等形容词修饰;作为宾语, peace前面的动词有bring about, establish, make, keep。作为主语, peace后面的谓语动词可以是come, prevail, reign。


  • http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/

  • http://www.nytimes.com/


  • 2009-02-27 Do you agree or disagree? A job with more vacation time but a low salary is better than a job with a high salary but less vacation time.

  • 工作是人们生活的一个重要组成,工资也是人们选择工作的一个关键参考。对于我来说。。。


  • --- had a widespread(pervasive)/

    considerable/(significant/huge/tremendous/enormous) influence(effect, impact) on


  • 2009-01-17 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Advertising is the only important cause of unhealthy eating habits.

  • 广告已经影响了人们的生活方式,比如吃,喝,旅游等等。很多食品广告会影响人们对食物和餐厅的选择,尽管有一些是不健康的,但是它们不是造成不健康饮食的唯一原因。


  • There is a general (growing) trend that …..

  • It is a common practice that….

    2009.6.12Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:University students should take part-time jobs.(Education & Work)


It is a common practice that university students take part-time jobs due to the financial benefits for their tuition and living expense. In my opinion, having extra working experiences in college has more than one merit, such as practicing communication skills and enlarging social network. (暗示下文分论点)


  • People have conflicting/differing opinions about ______

  • The opinions about _______vary among people.

  • There exists a debate that …..

  • …is /has been a controversial issue discussed by people.

Main point
Main Point

  • I believe/ (in my opinion)/as far as I’m concerned.

  • 注意

  • 1.不能连用

  • 2.Main point 不一定写 I agree or I disagree

E.G. 2006-11-17Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Being happy with a job is more important than having a high salary.



Job satisfaction
Job Satisfaction

  • The environment of the job, working pattern, working state, pressure involved, challenge, interpersonal relationship etc.

Highlight 亮点

Shocking statement

Interesting stories(不实用)

Quotations 较实用!

2008.1.27Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:Successful people accept new things and take risks rather than hold on to the things that they have done well.

  • 2008.1.18Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:People are happier when they finish a challenging or difficult job than when they complete an easy task.


  • Read and understand its central theme.

  • Note down anything that grabs your attention. (word, phrase, thought)

  • Write a paraphrase in your own words. Avoid using the original words, phrases, and expression.

  • At the same time, make sure that your words convey the same central theme.

Effective introduction
Effective Introduction

  • 恰当的引言(Proper Quotation)

  • 修辞性疑问句(Rhetorical Question)

  • 个人经历(Autobiography)

  • 事实和统计数字(Facts and Statistics)

  • 驳斥(Refutation)


  • Sub point 1 80-100 words

    Logical words Topic sentence Develop

  • Sub point 2

  • Sub point 3





Paragraph structure
Paragraph Structure

  • Topic sentence主题句


  • Supporting sentence 辅助句


  • Concluding sentence 结尾句



Topic Sentence

Supporting sentence Supporting sentence

Supporting sentence Supporting sentence

Concluding sentence


  • Specific and focused 具体和有针对性

  • 能正确引导读者的思路

  • 使读者对段落的中心思想和意图, 一目了然


  • In my childhood, there were so many things that were worth calling to mind. Some made me happy, some made me excited, and some made me sad. But among them was an unforgettable thing, when I think of it, my good friend Tong Tong will occur to me.


  • This is a moving story about friends who have quarreled. It needs a good topic sentence to bring the reader into the feelings and message the writer wants to convey.


  • One of the most unforgettable experiences of my childhood involves my good friend Tong Tong. It happened when I was eight years old…..


  • 也称展开句或推展句

  • 段落内容紧密相关,逻辑上具有一致性

  • 充分论证主题观点

Bad example:跑题



  • 结尾句有3个作用




Ex. Topic sentence: There are three things that would make me the happiest person in the world.

  • A happy family life

  • A satisfying career

  • Inner peace and security

Concluding Sentence: me the happiest person in the world.

if I could have a good home life, a challenging job, and inner strength, I would be contented and satisfied with my life.

(Leonhard, 1999, p.83)

中国学生的段落写作问题 me the happiest person in the world.

  • 常常前两句话写的并不是一个段落所讲的内容。因为有些学生还没有形成一种TS完了就是支持句的模式。

  • 另外,主题句出现在段落的中间或者没有。

  • Topic sentence 不够具体和具有针对性。有些学生虽然大体上表达了段落要讲的意思,但是表达太抽象。

  • 最严重的是 me the happiest person in the world.Topic sentence和主旨句没有相关性。也就是说论点和文章中心思想没有关联。

  • 各段之间没有承上启下的粘合。学生有时会把论点段很生硬的罗列。

Conclusion me the happiest person in the world.


完美文章 me the happiest person in the world.的漂亮结尾


(1)重现主旨句:synthesize, don’t summarize

  • 强调你的论点的重要性,而不是单纯的复述或者总结你的Thesis statement.

(2) me the happiest person in the world.完善全文—总结前文的分论点。


  • 挑战读者的思维

  • 展望未来和提出建议

  • 提出问题

Suggestions me the happiest person in the world.

As a result, it is advisable for ___to do____.

Therefore, it is strongly recommended that____

do ______.

I strongly advocate that_______.

2009.7.25 me the happiest person in the world.

Do you agree or disagree the following statement?

Movies and TV programs made in one’s own country is always more interesting than those made in other countries.

  • Due to the difference between our domestic cultures and foreign countries, audience are more intrigued by the programs made by other nations.

  • Plot designing and elements of humor are more appealing made by exotic cultures.

  • Actors from American and European countries are sexier and more attractive to watchers than those in my own country.

  • Very often, our country’s special technology is inferior to those of other developed countries.

Disagree: Cultural difference ; high-tech(special effect); better directors and actors; better plot

Agree: life connection(culture similarity); language for understanding; participation; cater to native audience