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Jeannette Mancuso. The Importance of Diet and Exercise for Students and It’s Effect on Their Schoolwork Brooklyn College 703.22 Professor O’Connor- Petruso Spring 2008. Table of Contents. Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of the Hypothesis

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Jeannette mancuso

Jeannette Mancuso

The Importance of Diet and Exercise for Students

and It’s Effect on Their Schoolwork

Brooklyn College


Professor O’Connor-Petruso

Spring 2008

Table of contents
Table of Contents

  • Introduction

  • Statement of the Problem

  • Review of Related Literature

  • Statement of the Hypothesis

  • Participants

  • Experimental Design

  • Procedure

  • Graphs

  • Charts

  • Correlation

  • Results

  • Discussion

  • Implications

  • Threats to Internal validity

  • Threats to External validity


  • The importance of proper nutrition and exercise has been ↓ even though the obesity rate has been ↑.

  • Unfortunately, when dieting and exercising is done improperly, there can be some serious personal and physical side effects.

  • Each person needs to decide for themselves through research and proper information from highly established professionals what is clearly right or wrong.

Statement of the problem
Statement of the Problem

  • How can we deliver proper nutrition and exercise in a child’s daily routine accurately to positively affect their schoolwork and their health?

Review of related literature
Review of Related Literature

  • Colquhoun & Kirk, 1989 p. 423-424

  • French, Kaphingst, & Story, 2006, p.115-117

  • Christie, Kathy, 2005, p. 5-7

  • Adeyanju & Greene, 1991, p. 439-441

Statement of the hypothesis
Statement of the Hypothesis

  • Monitoring correct diet and exercise of both male and female adolescent students to ensure that they are living a healthy lifestyle will positively affect their academic performance in all subject areas and lower their chances of health complications for the future.


  • Sample Size (N) =23 students

  • Ages ranged from12-19

  • 13 Caucasian students, 3 Hispanic, 7 African American

  • 19 are female (two 19, one 18, two 17, six 16, one 15, three 14, two 13, and two 12 year olds)

  • 4 are male (two 13, one 14, and one 15 year old)

Experimental design
Experimental Design

  • This is a Quasi Experimental Design. It includes a pre-test, and/or post-test design, a sample size, and instruments.

  • These pretests and posttests were a self-created study and has not been tested. To date, there are no validity and reliability coefficients; this is pilot tested.

    One Group Pretest-Posttest Design

  • Single group is pretested (o), exposed to a treatment (X), and posttested (0).

  • Symbolic Design OXO


  • 23 kids not randomly selected

  • Received pretest survey (Appendix B)

  • Received sample diary (Appendix D)

  • Received name of doctor (Appendix E)

  • List of foods that would help them along with their new diet (Appendix F)

  • Finally, children received posttest survey (Appendix C)

Discussion of chart for pretest survey
Discussion of Chart for Pretest Survey

  • The students wished to remain anonymous so their first letter of their first name is listed.

  • Columns B through J in Row 1 represent the questions from the pretest survey-actual questions found in Appendix B

  • This graph/chart is based on a Likert Scale 1=Absolutely, 2=Possibly, 3= Unlikely, and 4=No Way.

Correlation of pretest posttest survey for questions 1 2
Correlation of Pretest-Posttest Surveyfor Questions 1 & 2

X column=number of students who picked Absolutely, Possibly, Unlikely, and No Way

Y column=number of students who picked Absolutely, Slightly, Want more of a change, and No Way

Question 1: Do you think that by altering your exercise and eating habits, you will/do feel better about yourself?

Question 2: You will be/are more alert during school?

Graph of correlation of pretest posttest survey
Graph of Correlation of Pretest-Posttest Survey

These results show a positive correlation of r = 0.716 with one degree of freedom

Results pretest vs posttest
Results:Pretest vs. Posttest


  • Adolescent students of both the male and female gender would generate a positive effect in both their schoolwork and their personal lives

  • Positive results are consistent with the opinions and findings of Colquhoun & Kirk (1989), Gortmaker, Kim, Lindsay, & Sussner (2006), Deusinger, Deusinger, Highstein, Racette, & Strube (1996), Adeyanju, & Greene (1991), etc…

  • Disagreements came from Lee, & Owen (1989),

    Taubes (2001) and Edwards (1988)


  • If we had the right training for the children and teachers, we could find a way to get students and ourselves to start leading a healthier lifestyle to avoid the problems we could encounter in the future and allow students to work harder and better at their academic subjects.

  • It is with this conclusion that I believe that more empirical research is needed to establish how to instill these ideas effectively.

Threats to internal validity
Threats to Internal Validity

  • History

  • Maturation

  • Mortality

  • Testing

  • Instrumentation

Threats to External Validity

  • Pretest Treatment

  • Selection-Treatment Maturation

  • Experimenter Effects

  • Ecological Validity