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Alexander the Great. Background Information. Phillips II reorganized Macedonian army to the point where it became an actual threat. He was extremely cunning in his diplomatic maneuvers, specifically his marriages, which helped Macedonia rise is power.

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background information
Background Information
  • Phillips II reorganized Macedonian army to the point where it became an actual threat. He was extremely cunning in his diplomatic maneuvers, specifically his marriages, which helped Macedonia rise is power.
  • 356 B.C.E.-352 B.C.E. Phillip II leads a series of army advancements through neighboring nations of Illyria, Thrace, and several Greek city-states.
  • 350 B.C.E. Greek city-states are united by the kingdom of Macedon, even though Macedonians were seen as backwards, uncivilized people. Great Athens orator Demosthenes delivered several orations known as Phillipicsand Olynthiacs that were meant to arouse Greek people against this new ruling nation of Macedon.
  • 336 B.C.E. Phillips II is assassinated, leaving behind his throne and legacy of unification to Alexander III.
childhood adolescence
Childhood & Adolescence
  • Born on 356 B.C.E. in Pella, capital of Macedonia, Alexander III was the son of Phillip II and Olympias, one of Phillip’s several wives.
  • Alexander was raised watching his father transform Macedonia into a military power, winning battle after battle in the Balkans.
  • At the age of 12, Alexander exhibited equestrian skill through horse Bucephalus, the horse that Alexander would eventually ride on all his battles till the very end.
  • At 13, Alexander would begin his studies in rhetoric and literature, science, medicine, and philosophy under Aristotle.
early recognition
Early Recognition
  • 340 B.C.E. Phillips II invaded Thrace with a large Macedonian army, leaving a 16-years-old Alexander with the power to rule.
  • While Phillip’s army was deep in Thrace, the Thracian tribe of Maedi led a revolt against Macedonia, only to be conquered by Alexander’s rash and skillful actions.
  • 338 B.C.E. Alexander is given a senior post amongst commanding generals of the Macedonian army set to invade Greece. At the Battle of Chaeronea, Alexander demonstrated his bravery and skill by destroying the elite Greek force, the Theban Secret Band.
assassination of phillip ii
Assassination of Phillip II
  • 336 B.C.E. Phillip II was assassinated by young Macedonian noble Pausanias.
  • As the new skillful ruler, Alexander executed domestic enemies. As a result of Phillip’s death, revolts rose among conquered nations, leading to Alexander’s swift action of forcing his way into Greece and restoring Macedonian rule in Greece.
  • Alexander established his authority in Greece through large military action in order to suppress neighboring conquered lands and revolts in Greece.
alexander s great conquest
Alexander’s Great Conquest
  • Once Macedonia’s rule was firm, Alexander began his Asia campaign around 334 B.C.E. after crossing the Hellespont. Upon crossing, Alexander portrayed his eagerness to conquer the entire Persian Empire by throwing a spear into Asian soil.
  • 40,000 Persians and Greeks awaited Alexander’s 39,600 men at the crossing of the Granicus river near Troy.
  • 333 B.C. Alexander led his forces against larger Persian force once again led by King Darius III in Syria.
  • 332 B.C. Struggle arose from the people in Tyre ( island city in northwestern Syria), leading to a 7 month siege of the city. A two month siege occurred in Gaza for similar reasons, and similar results.
alexander s great conquest cont
Alexander’s Great Conquest cont.
  • 331 B.C. Alexander entered Egypt, where Macedonians were accepted as liberators.
  • 331 B.C. Led army for Babylon, where Alexander would once again encounter and defeat Darius, allowing for the capture of Babylon.
  • 327 B.C.-326 B.C. Alexander led forces to India, where one of Alexander’s greatest battles took place against King Porus.
  • Upon reaching the Hydaspes river, Alexander reluctantly stopped his campaign after hearing word of massive Indian forces armed with Elephants past the river.
  • 325 B.C.-324 B.C. Alexander led his men across the notorious Gordian desert, resulting in causalities due to heat and exhaustion.
alexander s great legacy
Alexander’s Great Legacy
  • 324 B.C. Alexander died due to a fever that he acquired after drinking wine at a festive gathering.
  • Alexander would not get to see the unity of his kingdom that he desired when he arranged marriages between the Persians and Macedonians.
  • Alexander’s kingdom was split into four major parts, ruled by Seleucus (Asia), Ptolemy (Egypt), Lysimachus (Thrace), and Cassander (Macedonia & Greece).
  • Alexander’s spread of the cultures of his conquered lands led to a great deal of cultural diffusion amongst his empire.
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