Central european monarchs clash
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Central European Monarchs Clash. Chapter 5 Section 3. DLT: . I can explain how th e clash of Central European monarchs led to war. I can describe the impact of the Thirty Years War. I can analyze how the causes of war are the same yesterday, today, and forever.

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Central European Monarchs Clash

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Central european monarchs clash

Central European Monarchs Clash

Chapter 5 Section 3


Central european monarchs clash

DLT:

  • I can explain how the clash of Central European monarchs led to war.

  • I can describe the impact of the Thirty Years War.

  • I can analyze how the causes of war are the same yesterday, today, and forever.


Huh religion causes war maybe

Huh? Religion causes war? Maybe.

  • Peace of Augsburg

    • German princes determined religion of their states

  • Tension

    • Both Lutherans and Catholics felt threatened by Calvinism

  • Protestant Union

    • Lutherans joined together

  • Catholic League

    • Catholics joined together a year later

  • Alliances are formed…waiting on the spark!


The spark was ferd a turd

The spark…was Ferd a turd?

  • Ferdinand II, future HRE and head of the Hapsburg family ruled Bohemia

    • He was Catholic, they were protestant

  • Bohemians did not trust ol’ Ferd

    • He was a foreigner and a Catholic

  • Ferd closed some Protestant Churches

  • The Bohemian Protestants revolted

  • Ferd sent in an army to crush the rebellion

  • Several German Protestant princes took this chance to challenge their Catholic emperor


Opinion poll on ol ferd

Opinion Poll on Ol’Ferd


The thirty years war begins

The Thirty Years’ War Begins

  • 1618-1648

  • Conflict over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families

  • Two main phases of the war…

    • Hapsburg Triumphs

    • Hapsburg Defeats


Hapsburg triumphs

Hapsburg Triumphs

  • First twelve years

  • Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crushed the armies of the German Protestant princes

  • Hapsburg put down a Czech uprising and defeated the German Protestants who supported the Czechs


Hapsburg defeats

Hapsburg Defeats

  • Tide turned in 1630 with Protestant GustavusAdolphus of Sweden and his army of 23,000

  • Drove Hapsburgs out of northern Germany

  • The French Cardinals, Richelieu and Mazarin, joined the Protestants

    • WHY?


Results of war

Results of War

  • Great damage to Germany

  • Population dropped from 20 million to 16 million

  • Trade and agriculture were disrupted

  • Economy was ruined

  • Long, difficult recovery

  • Germany would not be a unified state until the 1800s


Peace of westphalia 1648

Peace of Westphalia 1648

  • Weakened the Hapsburg states (Spain&Austria)

  • Strengthened France (gave German territory)

  • German princes independent of HRE

  • Ended religious wars

  • New method of peace negotiation that we still use today


Most important results

Most important results

  • Catholic Empire would no longer rule over most of Europe

  • Europe was a group of equal, independent states

  • Marked the beginning of the modern state system


Economic contrasts with the west

Economic Contrasts with the West

  • Serfs in Western Europe slowly won freedom and moved to towns during the late Middle Ages

  • Serfs in Central Europe restricted from gaining freedom and moving to cities

    • This way the nobles could produce a large harvest and sell the surplus to Western Europe at a great profit


Several weak empires

Several Weak Empires

  • Nobles held down the serfs, but also blocked the development of strong kings

  • Kingdom of Poland

    • Little income, no law courts, no standing army

  • Holy Roman Empire

    • Weakened by the 30 Years’ War, no control of German states, HRE had no real power

  • Ottoman Empire

    • Reached its peak in 1529 and declined


Austria grows stronger

Austria Grows Stronger

  • Hapsburgs took steps to become absolute monarchs

  • 1st Conquered Bohemia and wiped out Protestantism, new Czech nobility pledged loyalty to them

  • 2nd Ruler centralized govt and created standing army

  • 3rd 1699 they had reclaimed Hungary from Ottomans

  • 1711 Charles VI ruled a diverse group

    • Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, and Germans

  • Wore the Austrian, Hungarian, and Bohemian crowns to keep the empire together


Maria theresa inherits austria 1717 1780

Maria Theresa Inherits Austria 1717-1780

  • Charles VI’s eldest daughter

  • Charles had bargained with other leaders, making an agreement to ensure a peaceful reign

  • Instead, she faced years of war

  • Her main enemy: Prussia (north of Austria)


Prussia challenges austria

Prussia Challenges Austria

  • Ruling Family: Hohenzollerns

  • Their ambition threatened to disrupt the delicate balance of power in Europe

  • Their land: German states of Brandenburg and Prussia


Frederick william elector of brandenburg 1640

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg 1640

  • “Great Elector”

  • Decided that having a strong army was the only way to ensure safety

  • 80,000 men to protect their lands

  • Permanent taxation

  • Weakened representative assemblies

  • Junkers resisted, but were then offered military positions


Frederick ii the great 1712 1786

Frederick (II) the Great 1712-1786

  • His father believed he was soft (made him witness friend’s death)

  • Followed his father’s military policies

  • Softened some laws

    • Religious toleration

    • Legal reform

  • Believed ruler should be a father to his people


War of the austrian succession 1740 1748

War of the Austrian Succession 1740-1748

  • Frederick the Great wanted the Austrian land of Silesia because of its rich natural resources

  • He assumed Maria Theresa wouldn’t fight back

  • She went to the Hungarian nobles for aid

  • Great Britain also joined the Austrians to fight their long time enemy (France), who was helping Prussia

  • Maria Theresa stopped Prussia, but lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    • With Silesia, Prussia became a major European power


Seven years war 1756 1763

Seven Years War 1756-1763

  • Maria Theresa made an alliance with France

  • Frederick then signed a treaty with Britain

  • Now Austria, France, Russia, and others were allied against Britain and Prussia

  • 1756 Frederick attacked Saxony (Austrian ally)

  • Every great European power joined the war

  • Fought in Europe, India, and North America (French and Indian War)

  • Didn’t change territories in Europe

  • British won, as France lost its colonies in North America, and British gained economic dominance of India


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