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Central European Monarchs Clash. Chapter 5 Section 3. DLT: . I can explain how th e clash of Central European monarchs led to war. I can describe the impact of the Thirty Years War. I can analyze how the causes of war are the same yesterday, today, and forever.

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slide2
DLT:
  • I can explain how the clash of Central European monarchs led to war.
  • I can describe the impact of the Thirty Years War.
  • I can analyze how the causes of war are the same yesterday, today, and forever.
huh religion causes war maybe
Huh? Religion causes war? Maybe.
  • Peace of Augsburg
    • German princes determined religion of their states
  • Tension
    • Both Lutherans and Catholics felt threatened by Calvinism
  • Protestant Union
    • Lutherans joined together
  • Catholic League
    • Catholics joined together a year later
  • Alliances are formed…waiting on the spark!
the spark was ferd a turd
The spark…was Ferd a turd?
  • Ferdinand II, future HRE and head of the Hapsburg family ruled Bohemia
    • He was Catholic, they were protestant
  • Bohemians did not trust ol’ Ferd
    • He was a foreigner and a Catholic
  • Ferd closed some Protestant Churches
  • The Bohemian Protestants revolted
  • Ferd sent in an army to crush the rebellion
  • Several German Protestant princes took this chance to challenge their Catholic emperor
the thirty years war begins
The Thirty Years’ War Begins
  • 1618-1648
  • Conflict over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families
  • Two main phases of the war…
    • Hapsburg Triumphs
    • Hapsburg Defeats
hapsburg triumphs
Hapsburg Triumphs
  • First twelve years
  • Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crushed the armies of the German Protestant princes
  • Hapsburg put down a Czech uprising and defeated the German Protestants who supported the Czechs
hapsburg defeats
Hapsburg Defeats
  • Tide turned in 1630 with Protestant GustavusAdolphus of Sweden and his army of 23,000
  • Drove Hapsburgs out of northern Germany
  • The French Cardinals, Richelieu and Mazarin, joined the Protestants
    • WHY?
results of war
Results of War
  • Great damage to Germany
  • Population dropped from 20 million to 16 million
  • Trade and agriculture were disrupted
  • Economy was ruined
  • Long, difficult recovery
  • Germany would not be a unified state until the 1800s
peace of westphalia 1648
Peace of Westphalia 1648
  • Weakened the Hapsburg states (Spain&Austria)
  • Strengthened France (gave German territory)
  • German princes independent of HRE
  • Ended religious wars
  • New method of peace negotiation that we still use today
most important results
Most important results
  • Catholic Empire would no longer rule over most of Europe
  • Europe was a group of equal, independent states
  • Marked the beginning of the modern state system
economic contrasts with the west
Economic Contrasts with the West
  • Serfs in Western Europe slowly won freedom and moved to towns during the late Middle Ages
  • Serfs in Central Europe restricted from gaining freedom and moving to cities
    • This way the nobles could produce a large harvest and sell the surplus to Western Europe at a great profit
several weak empires
Several Weak Empires
  • Nobles held down the serfs, but also blocked the development of strong kings
  • Kingdom of Poland
    • Little income, no law courts, no standing army
  • Holy Roman Empire
    • Weakened by the 30 Years’ War, no control of German states, HRE had no real power
  • Ottoman Empire
    • Reached its peak in 1529 and declined
austria grows stronger
Austria Grows Stronger
  • Hapsburgs took steps to become absolute monarchs
  • 1st Conquered Bohemia and wiped out Protestantism, new Czech nobility pledged loyalty to them
  • 2nd Ruler centralized govt and created standing army
  • 3rd 1699 they had reclaimed Hungary from Ottomans
  • 1711 Charles VI ruled a diverse group
    • Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, and Germans
  • Wore the Austrian, Hungarian, and Bohemian crowns to keep the empire together
maria theresa inherits austria 1717 1780
Maria Theresa Inherits Austria 1717-1780
  • Charles VI’s eldest daughter
  • Charles had bargained with other leaders, making an agreement to ensure a peaceful reign
  • Instead, she faced years of war
  • Her main enemy: Prussia (north of Austria)
prussia challenges austria
Prussia Challenges Austria
  • Ruling Family: Hohenzollerns
  • Their ambition threatened to disrupt the delicate balance of power in Europe
  • Their land: German states of Brandenburg and Prussia
frederick william elector of brandenburg 1640
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg 1640
  • “Great Elector”
  • Decided that having a strong army was the only way to ensure safety
  • 80,000 men to protect their lands
  • Permanent taxation
  • Weakened representative assemblies
  • Junkers resisted, but were then offered military positions
frederick ii the great 1712 1786
Frederick (II) the Great 1712-1786
  • His father believed he was soft (made him witness friend’s death)
  • Followed his father’s military policies
  • Softened some laws
    • Religious toleration
    • Legal reform
  • Believed ruler should be a father to his people
war of the austrian succession 1740 1748
War of the Austrian Succession 1740-1748
  • Frederick the Great wanted the Austrian land of Silesia because of its rich natural resources
  • He assumed Maria Theresa wouldn’t fight back
  • She went to the Hungarian nobles for aid
  • Great Britain also joined the Austrians to fight their long time enemy (France), who was helping Prussia
  • Maria Theresa stopped Prussia, but lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
    • With Silesia, Prussia became a major European power
seven years war 1756 1763
Seven Years War 1756-1763
  • Maria Theresa made an alliance with France
  • Frederick then signed a treaty with Britain
  • Now Austria, France, Russia, and others were allied against Britain and Prussia
  • 1756 Frederick attacked Saxony (Austrian ally)
  • Every great European power joined the war
  • Fought in Europe, India, and North America (French and Indian War)
  • Didn’t change territories in Europe
  • British won, as France lost its colonies in North America, and British gained economic dominance of India
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