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Sedimentary Rocks. Bits and Pieces. Sedimentary rocks form as sediment is: l Deposited l Buried l Compacted l Cemented. Sedimentary rocks fall into 3 groups:. Clastic/inorganic Organic Chemical. Physical Weathering.

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sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Bits and Pieces


Sedimentary rocks form as sediment is:





sedimentary rocks fall into 3 groups
Sedimentary rocks fall into 3 groups:
  • Clastic/inorganic
  • Organic
  • Chemical
physical weathering
Physical Weathering
  • Clastic sediments are produced when rock physically weathers, which means it breaks apart.
  • Big rocks break into smaller rocks.
  • Weathering is an extremely slow process.
there are 6 sizes of clastic sediments
There are 6 sizes of clastic sediments.
  • Boulders
  • Cobbles
  • Pebbles
  • Sand
  • Silt
  • Clay
particles are collected and transported by running water
Particles are collected and transported by running water.

  • Sediments become smoothed and rounded as they bounce along the bottom of the stream and hit against each other.
deposition and sorting
Deposition and Sorting
  • A stream loses velocity when entering quiet waters so its ability to transport sediment decreases. Particles drop to the bottom. This is deposition.
  • Large particles settle first. Other particles settle according to size. Smallest particles last. This is sorting.
burial and compaction
Burial and Compaction
  • As more sediments accumulate, the bottom ones are buried.
  • This increased weight of the top sediments physically squeezes the lower sediments together which compacts them.

Heavy Weight


  • All the waters of the Earth contain dissolved minerals. These dissolved minerals and sometimes clay fill up spaces between the rock fragments and bind them together. This is cementation.
  • Sedimentary rocks often form in horizontal layers called strata.
  • These layers or strata often contain fossils.
  • Only sedimentary rocks contain fossils.
fossil structures
Fossil Structures
  • Mud cracks and ripple marks give evidence of environment at formation.
organic bioclastic sediments
  • The remains of plants and animals. The two most common are shells and plant material.
chemical sediments
Chemical Sediments
  • Chemical sediments form when water evaporates and the materials dissolved in the water precipitate (settle).
bonneville salt flats
Bonneville Salt Flats
  • Home of the land speed record.

Thrust SSC –

763 mph


Yucca Mountain

  • Nuclear waste depository

characteristics of sedimentary rocks
Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks are the most common type of rocks on Earth’s surface.
  • Sedimentary rocks usually form underwater.
  • Sedimentary rocks may contain fossils.
  • Sedimentary rocks often form in layers or strata.
  • Sedimentary rocks are our keys to the past.
nature s palette
Nature’s Palette

Antelope Canyon

clastic sedimentary rocks
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Breccia – angular
  • Conglomerate - rounded
clastic sedimentary rocks1
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Sandstone – can be various size grains.
clastic sedimentary rocks3
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Shale – breaks along bedded planes.
bioclastic sedimentary rocks
Bioclastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Bituminous coal – plant remains = carbon
bioclastic sedimentary rocks1
Bioclastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Limestone – cemented shell fragments or precipitates of biologic origin = calcite
chemical sedimentary rocks
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • Rock salt - Crystalline texture composed of halite.
chemical sedimentary rocks1
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • Dolostone – Crystalline texture composed of dolomite.


chemical sedimentary rocks2
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • Rock Gypsum – Crystalline texture composed of gypsum.