Sedimentary rocks
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Sedimentary Rocks. Bits and Pieces. Sedimentary rocks form as sediment is: l Deposited l Buried l Compacted l Cemented. Sedimentary rocks fall into 3 groups:. Clastic/inorganic Organic Chemical. Physical Weathering.

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Sedimentary Rocks

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Sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Bits and Pieces


Sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary rocks form as sediment is:

lDeposited

lBuried

lCompacted

lCemented


Sedimentary rocks fall into 3 groups

Sedimentary rocks fall into 3 groups:

  • Clastic/inorganic

  • Organic

  • Chemical


Physical weathering

Physical Weathering

  • Clastic sediments are produced when rock physically weathers, which means it breaks apart.

  • Big rocks break into smaller rocks.

  • Weathering is an extremely slow process.


There are 6 sizes of clastic sediments

There are 6 sizes of clastic sediments.

  • Boulders

  • Cobbles

  • Pebbles

  • Sand

  • Silt

  • Clay


Particles are collected and transported by running water

Particles are collected and transported by running water.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fATA1SOLICo


Abrasion

Abrasion

  • Sediments become smoothed and rounded as they bounce along the bottom of the stream and hit against each other.


Deposition and sorting

Deposition and Sorting

  • A stream loses velocity when entering quiet waters so its ability to transport sediment decreases. Particles drop to the bottom. This is deposition.

  • Large particles settle first. Other particles settle according to size. Smallest particles last. This is sorting.


Burial and compaction

Burial and Compaction

  • As more sediments accumulate, the bottom ones are buried.

  • This increased weight of the top sediments physically squeezes the lower sediments together which compacts them.

Heavy Weight

OUCH!


Cementation

Cementation

  • All the waters of the Earth contain dissolved minerals. These dissolved minerals and sometimes clay fill up spaces between the rock fragments and bind them together. This is cementation.


Stratification

Stratification

  • Sedimentary rocks often form in horizontal layers called strata.


Fossils

Fossils

  • These layers or strata often contain fossils.

  • Only sedimentary rocks contain fossils.


Fossil structures

Fossil Structures

  • Mud cracks and ripple marks give evidence of environment at formation.


Organic bioclastic sediments

Organic(Bioclastic)Sediments

  • The remains of plants and animals. The two most common are shells and plant material.


Chemical sediments

Chemical Sediments

  • Chemical sediments form when water evaporates and the materials dissolved in the water precipitate (settle).


Bonneville salt flats

Bonneville Salt Flats

  • Home of the land speed record.

Thrust SSC –

763 mph

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKQ-xj5C2m8


Sedimentary rocks

Yucca Mountain

  • Nuclear waste depository

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tbq9a2oyMAo

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q41vzLjwZqM


Characteristics of sedimentary rocks

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks

  • Sedimentary rocks are the most common type of rocks on Earth’s surface.

  • Sedimentary rocks usually form underwater.

  • Sedimentary rocks may contain fossils.

  • Sedimentary rocks often form in layers or strata.

  • Sedimentary rocks are our keys to the past.


Nature s palette

Nature’s Palette

Antelope Canyon


Sedimentary rocks

Bryce Canyon


Sedimentary rocks

Mexican Hat


Clastic sedimentary rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Breccia – angular

  • Conglomerate - rounded


Clastic sedimentary rocks1

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Sandstone – can be various size grains.


Clastic sedimentary rocks2

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Siltstone


Clastic sedimentary rocks3

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Shale – breaks along bedded planes.


Bioclastic sedimentary rocks

Bioclastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Bituminous coal – plant remains = carbon


Bioclastic sedimentary rocks1

Bioclastic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Limestone – cemented shell fragments or precipitates of biologic origin = calcite


Chemical sedimentary rocks

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

  • Rock salt - Crystalline texture composed of halite.


Chemical sedimentary rocks1

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

  • Dolostone – Crystalline texture composed of dolomite.

Fossil


Chemical sedimentary rocks2

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

  • Rock Gypsum – Crystalline texture composed of gypsum.


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