First Column of Id and Sigs . Kathryn Wilson and Michelle Taylor Group Leaders. Tigris and Euphrates. Two rivers surrounding Mesopotamia Beginning of a development of a civilization Fertile soil from waters allowed for crop growth and growth of populations
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Kathryn Wilson and Michelle Taylor
Two rivers surrounding Mesopotamia
Beginning of a development of a civilization
Fertile soil from waters allowed for crop growth and growth of populations
The diagram: rivers; agriculture; populations; cities; specialization; hierarchy
Just as Nile does for Egypt and the Yellow and the Yanzi did for China
Government allocation of agricultural land during the Tang Dynasty
Equal distribution of land to avoid unfair social problems of the Han dynasty
Example of centralization (someone had to come up with the plan and government controls who gets what)
Based on land’s fertility and recipient's needs
One-fifth of land was able to be passed down to future generations; rest of land was up for redistribution
There were two other ways Tang dynasty centralized: Grand Canal and Bureaucracy of merit, while the Shang and Zhou centralized based on rivers, bronze, agriculture, silk, etc.
System established by Byzantine rulers in which specific areas were governed by generals for military defense and civil administration duties
It allowed the Byzantine empire to rule a larger area and have better defenses against invaders
Example of centralization since all power was centralized to one ruler of each theme and proved an effective way to keep order by the general drafting peasants into the army who received land in exchange for their military service.
The Bantu adopted a similar organized community based system with Chiefdoms in charge instead of generals, although the Bantu was not a centralized society
Standards for behavior and stern punishments for violators in Mesopatamia
Created by Kind Hammurabi of the Babylonian Empire (1792-1750 B.C.)
Based on lex talionis, or the law of retaliation
Created to bring justice to an area in which the belief of no afterlife provided no consequences for one’s actions
Ancient China did believe that there was some sort of afterlife and believed the ancestors in the afterlife watched over the living so therefore the living had a reason to act according to law
Founded by Kong Fuzi (Confusius) in China
Confucianism promoted human relationships, qualified government officials, the importance of education and social activism
Before Confucianism, china was in a period of chaos, as a result of the dynasties
Confucianism, and legalism as well as Daoism wanted to identify princicples that would restore political and social order. Confucianism was seen as a cause and effect." Junzi "superior individuals" did not allow personal interests to influence their judgements. Confucianism focused on social activism and Confucis believes goverenments were not governing on behalf of the people so he wanted to change that.
Daoism can be seen as an opposite of Confucianism because it focuzes on thinking inwardly and not outwardly like confucianism does.
wants high ethical standards and applies them in a social way.
Legalism ultimately restored order and unified China
Focuses on the well being of the state, holistically, unlike Confuscianism
Encouraged military service or cultivation over other careers like educators and merchants
Harsh penalties for even minor infractions
Expected family members to report infractions and suffered penalty if found guilty of hiding the infraction
Believed that people are inherently bad
Legalism is about what serves the intereest of the state instead of COnfucianism and Daoism focues on the individual. The individuality of meaningless in legalism. In legalism the loyalty of a person is not to their family or friends but to the state.
Subordinates self interest to the interests of the state and has harsh punishments.
Example of legalism: Rudy Guiliana became mayor of NY he vowes to clean up crime or the Broken Window Theory.
Founded by Muhummad
It governed every Muslim’s everyday life
Of the Five Pillars, four concern practice (acts, deeds or endeavors) that adherents must fulfill (prayer, fasting, almsgiving, pilgrimage)
Part of the salvation for the religion of Islam
Muhammad's status as a merchant brough him in contact with Jews and Christians and they influenced him on his belief in only one god, Allah. He wanted to instruct his followers on his faith as well. He made a journy to Medina where he organized the communtiy called community of the faitful and named them Umma. He came up with the 5 Pillars of Islam, and also influenced the Ramadan and the Jihad as well. The 5 pillars governs Muslim's everyday life.