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The Civil Rights Movement. What are “Civil Rights”. ?. Civil Rights means equal rights and fair treatment for all citizens as guaranteed by our Constitution regardless of race or other distinctions (such as gender , religion , sexuality , etc.). What is the greatest

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The Civil Rights Movement

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The civil rights movement

The

Civil

Rights

Movement


The civil rights movement

What are

“Civil Rights”

?


The civil rights movement

Civil Rights means equal rights and fair treatment for all citizens as guaranteed by our Constitution regardless of race or other distinctions (such as gender, religion, sexuality, etc.)


The civil rights movement

What is the greatest

power you have as an

Americancitizen

?


The civil rights movement

Does our Constitution

give you the right to vote

just because

you are a citizen

?


The civil rights movement

African American

Voting Rights

Gained and Denied


The civil rights movement

15thAmendment

  • 1869

  • The right of citizens to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.


The civil rights movement

But did the 15th Amendment

guarantee that

African Americans

would be able to vote

?


The civil rights movement

Poll Tax

a fee charged for voting


The civil rights movement

Literacy Tests

  • Reading tests given to prove a person was literate (able to read) in order to register to vote

  • Often included questions, such as

    • “How many words are in the Constitution?”

    • “How many bubbles are in a bar of soap?”

    • “Write a one page essay explaining Article II of the Mississippi State Constitution.”


The civil rights movement

How could poll taxes

and literacy tests

keep African Americans

from voting

?


The civil rights movement

Grandfather

Clause

  • Laws that exempted voters from the literacy test or poll tax if they had voted before or if their grandfathers had voted

  • This ensured that even poor illiterate whites could vote.


The civil rights movement

Plessy v. Ferguson

1896 - Supreme Court ruled that segregation of the races was legal as long as the public facilities provided were essentially equal.

“Separate but equal” became the standard as several more Southern states legalized segregation.


The civil rights movement

Jim Crow Laws

After the Civil War ex -Confederate states passed laws that required separation of the races.

When the Supreme Court ruled that such laws were legal (Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896), several more southern states began to separate Blacks and Whites.

Bus Station in Dallas, Texas


The civil rights movement

Segregation

  • A policy of keeping the races separated in public facilities.

  • Different schools, parks, restaurants, hospitals, etc. for different races


The civil rights movement

Segregation


The civil rights movement

Segregation


The civil rights movement

Segregation


The civil rights movement

discrimination

Unfair treatment because of differences in race, religion, gender, sexuality, etc.


The civil rights movement

The Slow Progress

Toward

African American

Civil Rights


The civil rights movement

W.E.B. DuBois

  • First Black man to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University

  • Founded the NAACP in 1909

  • Demanded immediate and full equality for African Americans


The civil rights movement

NAACP

  • Founded in 1909

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

  • Organization dedicated to achieving equality for people of all races and ending racial violence in the South


The civil rights movement

But the first real

breakthrough

for African American

Civil Rights comes

60 years after the

Plessy v. Ferguson case . . .


The civil rights movement

Brown v. Topeka Board

of Education

Oliver Brown

9 year old Linda Brown


The civil rights movement

Brown v. Topeka Board

of Education

  • May, 1954

  • Supreme Court case

  • Ruled that separate facilities could never really be equal. (Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson )

  • Declared segregated schools were illegal

  • The Court ordered schools to integrate the races with “all deliberate speed.”


The civil rights movement

But what does

“all deliberate speed”

really mean

?


The civil rights movement

So school districts in

Southern states

begin the process of

“integration”

slowly

and

deliberately.


The civil rights movement

Integration

The process of combining the races in public facilities

(de-segregation)

Clinton, TN Schools Integrated: Dec. 1956


The civil rights movement

Do you think

the process of

integrating schools

went smoothly

?


The civil rights movement

Little Rock

Central High School

  • 1957

  • The Governor of Arkansas defied the Supreme Court and President Eisenhower by refusing to integrate Central High.

  • The Governor used National Guard troops to block the entry of 9 African-American students who had volunteer to be the first to attend this all white school.


The civil rights movement

The Little Rock Nine

  • Mobs of angry Whites swarmed the high school to protest integration.

  • President Eisenhower placed the National Guard under federal control.

  • He then sent more federal troops (101st Airborne) to Little Rock to escort the “Little Rock Nine” to classes.


The civil rights movement

Army transport of Black students to Central High School was necessary for their protection all year.


The civil rights movement

101st Airborne escort the Little Rock Nine into

Central High School and stand guard outside their classrooms throughout the day.


The civil rights movement

Whites protest integration at the Arkansas State Capitol.


The civil rights movement

Teacher –

not a student

The Little Rock Nine


The civil rights movement

The Little Rock Nine 50 years later attend the dedication ceremony of a museum built in their honor (2007).


The civil rights movement

But de-segregation of

public schools was only

the beginning.

Much more work

would need to be done.


The civil rights movement

The question became

HOW ?


The civil rights movement

Peaceful Strategies

and People


The civil rights movement

Henry David Thoreau

Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?

1849


The civil rights movement

Translation:

When a law is bad,

BREAK IT!


The civil rights movement

Civil Disobedience

  • Citizens have a duty to disobey a law when it is unjust, especially when it’s unjust to others.

  • Always involves non-violence

  • Method adopted by many civil rights leaders and activists

  • Those who choose to break the law must be willing to suffer the consequences.


The civil rights movement

Passive Resistance

Ancient strategy of non-violent protest and civil disobedience use throughout history to bring about social and political change. Made famous by Mahatma Gandhi in overthrowing the British control of India.


The civil rights movement

Boycott

  • People refuse to buy goods and services from a business.

  • This causes an economic hardship on the company and sometimes forces them to change their policy.

  • It’s a very effective strategy when large numbers of people participate.

  • This strategy was used by the American colonists before the Revolutionary War to force England to repeal tax laws.


The civil rights movement

Sit-in

  • Non violent strategy in which protestors (both Black and White) go to a segregated business (such as a restaurant), sit down, and attempt to place an order.

  • If they are refused service, they just sit there until forced to leave by the police.

  • Business operators must choose between serving Black customers or having their business disrupted and loosing profit.


The civil rights movement

February 1960 - Sit-in at a lunch counter in Greensboro North Carolina


A sit in at a nashville lunch counter becomes violent

A sit-in at a Nashville lunch counter becomes violent.


April 1960 home of nashville attorney who defended sit in participants was bombed

April, 1960Home of Nashville attorney who defended sit-in participants was bombed.


The civil rights movement

March

  • A form of non-violent protest

  • A large group of people walk together and meet at a designated endpoint.

  • Usually the march ends in a rally with motivational speakers.

  • Our 1st Amendment right to peaceful assembly gives protestors the right march peacefully.


The civil rights movement

Peaceful

Organizations

Activists &

Protests


The civil rights movement

CORE

  • Congress Of Racial Equality

  • It was the first Civil Rights organization.

  • 1942 – Founded by an interracial group of students at University of Chicago.

  • Its early work was in the North and Midwest, and the majority of its members were middle class Whites.

  • They were devoted to Gandhi’s teachings on non-violence and were the first to organize sit-ins.


The civil rights movement

CORE

  • In the 1950s they began working for racial equality in the South, and their membership became mostly African American.

  • The were directly involved in organizing the Freedom Rides (1961), the March on Washington, (1963) and Freedom Summer (1964).

  • When their national director changed in 1968, they became somewhat more militant and adopted the “Black Power” ideology.


The civil rights movement

Rosa Parks

  • Dec. 1, 1955 – Montgomery, Alabama

  • State segregation law required Blacks to sit in the back of city buses and give up their seats to white passengers if told to do so by the driver.

  • Rosa refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested.


The civil rights movement

Rosa Parks

Secretary for the local chapter of the NAACP

Criminal


The civil rights movement

The bus on which Rosa Parks was riding on December 1, 1955

National City Lines Bus # 2857


The civil rights movement

Montgomery Bus

Boycott

  • Dec. 1955 - After the arrest of Ms. Parks, Civil Rights leaders organized a boycott of the city bus system in Montgomery, Alabama.

  • 50,000 Blacks refused to use buses for a year.

  • The bus company lost huge amounts of money, but the city still refused to integrate until a Supreme Court ruling declared segregation on buses (as in schools) was unconstitutional.

  • Dec. 1956 – The Supreme Court ruling took effect and the boycott ended.


The civil rights movement

Rosa Parks finally takes her place at the front of the bus.


The civil rights movement

SCLC

  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

  • In Jan 1957, 60 black ministers met in Atlanta to organize non-violent action to continue de-segregating buses throughout the South.

  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. - President

  • Many Black churches were afraid to join because of threats from White groups.

  • Some Black religious leaders believed that political activism was not the proper role of the church.


The civil rights movement

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.


The civil rights movement

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • 1929 – Born in Atlanta, GA, the son of a Baptist preacher.

  • 1944 – Age 15 – Enrolled in college after skipping 9th and 12th grades in high school.

  • 1948 – Age 19 – Received a Bachelor’s Degree in sociology.

  • 1951 – Age 22 – Received a Bachelor’s Degree in divinity.


The civil rights movement

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • 1954 – Age 25 – Becomes a Baptist preacher in Montgomery, Alabama.

  • 1955 – Age 26 - Helped organize the Montgomery bus boycott.

  • 1957 – Age 28 – Became president of the SCLC.

  • 1959 – Age 30 – Visited the birthplace of Gandhi in India and became even more committed to non-violence and passive resistance.


The civil rights movement

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • 1963, April – Arrested and jailed during protests in Birmingham, AL.

  • 1963, August – Helped organize the March on Washington where he delivered his “I Have a Dream Speech.”

  • 1964 – Age 35 - Won the Nobel Peace Prize.

  • 1968 – Age 39 - Assassinated in Memphis, TN.


The civil rights movement

SNCC

  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (“Snick”)

  • Organized in 1960

  • Created so college students could actively participate in the struggle for racial equality.

  • They organized sit-ins, marches, boycotts and other peaceful protests.


The civil rights movement

Freedom Rides

  • Organized by SNCC and CORE

  • May 4, 1961 - 2 buses filled with black and white activists depart Washington D.C. destined to travel through 7 southern states on the way to New Orleans.

  • Their goal was to test whether the South would obey the Supreme Court rulings to desegregate buses and other facilities.


The civil rights movement

“Freedom Ride” route through the South


The civil rights movement

Freedom Rides

  • Riders were beaten by angry white mobs and arrested along the way

  • One bus was disabled and firebombed in Alabama, and escaping riders were attacked.

  • A new bus was sent out and other riders took the places of the injured to continue.

  • The “freedom riders” continued throughout the summer of 1961.


The civil rights movement

Freedom Rider bus burns in Alabama, May 1961


The civil rights movement

Freedom Riders protected by National Guardsmen


The civil rights movement

Project c

  • C = Confrontation

  • April, 1963 – MLK and the SCLC organized peacefulprotests, demonstrations, and sit-ins to protest segregation and unfair hiring practices in Birmingham, Alabama.

  • MLK and the SCLC decided to allow children to participate in the protests.


The civil rights movement

Why do you think the

organizers decided to

allow children to

participate in the protests

?


The civil rights movement

Some people thought

including children was

a bad idea. Why

?


The civil rights movement

Peaceful protestors in Birmingham, April 1963


The civil rights movement

Birmingham Riot

  • Public Safety Commissioner, Bull Conner, a bigoted racist ordered the police and firemen to stop the protestors.

  • They used attack dogs and high-pressure fire hoses to disperse crowds.

  • Protesters were beaten with clubs.

  • 900 protesters were jailed, including children as young as 6 years old.


The civil rights movement

Thaddeus “Bull” Conner

A symbol of southern white bigotry and hatred

Birmingham:

“The Citadel of Segregation”


The civil rights movement

Passive Resistance: When attacked, do not fight back.


The civil rights movement

Fire hoses turned on protestors in Birmingham, April, 1963


The civil rights movement

Fire hose water pressure can be as great 1200 pounds of force. Professional boxers punch with a force between 700 and 1200 pounds, often causing injury to internal organs.


The civil rights movement

Birmingham Riot

  • King spent a week in jail where he wrote the famous essay, “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.”

  • The public was shocked by the police violence they witnessed on TV.

  • President Kennedy said it made him “sick.”

  • Led to desegregation and changes in fair hiring practices in the city.


The civil rights movement

MLK spends a week in a Birmingham jail.


The civil rights movement

March on Washington

  • August 1963 - Over 200,000 people gathered in the capital city to support the civil rights bill proposed by JFK.

  • Kennedy was afraid there would be violence.

  • Protesters adopted the slogan “jobs and freedom.”

  • MLK delivered his “I have a dream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.


The civil rights movement

200,000 marchers gather before the Lincoln Memorial.

The Washington Monument in background


Speakers on the steps of the lincoln memorial

Speakers on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial


The civil rights movement

Folk singers Joan Baez and Bob Dylan sing “Blowing in the Wind.”


Blowing in the wind

How many roads must a man walk down before you call him a man?

How many seas must the white dove sail before she sleeps in the sand?

How many times must the cannon balls fly before they’re forever banned?

The answer my friend is blowing in the wind.

The answer is blowing in the wind.

How many years can a mountain exist before it is washed to the sea?

How many years can some people exist before they’re allowed to be free?

How many times can a man turn his head and pretend that he just doesn’t see?

The answer my friend is blowing in the wind.

The answer is blowing in the wind.

How many times can a man look up before he can see the sky?

How many ears does one man have before he can hear people cry?

And how many deaths will it take till he knows that too many people have died?

“Blowing in the Wind”


The civil rights movement

March on Washington, August 1963

Martin Luther King – “I have a dream.”


The civil rights movement

Video: March on Washington, MLK’s “I have a dream” speech

Some historians consider this the greatest speech ever given in American history.

11:00


The civil rights movement

Selma March

  • 1965 - Blacks in Selma, Alabama were arrested for trying to register to vote.

  • John Lewis organized a 50-mile march from Selma to the capital, Montgomery.

  • Sunday, March 7 - Started with 545 marchers

  • Armed state troopers on horseback rode into the crowd with whips, clubs and tear gas

  • “Bloody Sunday”


The civil rights movement

Marchers start out peacefully from Selma, Alabama


The civil rights movement

Alabama National Guard moves in on marchers.


The civil rights movement

Marchers cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge leaving Selma.


The civil rights movement

“Bloody Sunday “

Marchers attacked by the Alabama National Guardsmen.

John Lewis clubbed in the head


The civil rights movement

Selma March

  • President Johnson immediately put the Alabama National Guard under federal control and sent federal troops and marshals to protect the protesters on the rest of their march.

  • MLK arrived to encourage the protestors and march with them.

  • Marchers began again.

  • By the time they reached Montgomery, 25,000 marchers had gathered.


The civil rights movement

MLK speaks to the failed marchers and promises to march with them.


The civil rights movement

The march begins again from Selma.


The civil rights movement

This time 25,000 cross the bridge on their way to the capital.


The civil rights movement

Notable

Politicians


The civil rights movement

George Wallace

  • Democratic Governor of Alabama from 1963 – 1968.

  • June 1963, he attempted to block the entrance of two Black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood to the University of Alabama.

  • President Kennedy nationalized the Alabama National Guard and they forced Wallace to step aside.

  • He ran for President in 1968 and 1972.

  • He was shot and paralyzed by an assassin in 1972.


The civil rights movement

Wallace’s 1963 Inaugural speech as Alabama Governor

In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.


The civil rights movement

Governor George Wallace blocks the doorway of the University of Alabama to prevent the entrance of Black students in 1963.


The civil rights movement

John F. Kennedy

  • President 1961 – 1963

  • He promised to end housing discrimination “with the stroke of a pen” (Executive Order).

  • But as President, he was cautious about civil rights protests, preferring that progress be made peacefully through the court system instead.

  • Submitted a Civil Rights bill to Congress in June 1963 but was assassinated in November.


The civil rights movement

Lyndon Baines Johnson

  • LBJ became President in Nov. 1963 when JFK was assassinated.

  • He pushed through Congress the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.


The civil rights movement

Lyndon Baines Johnson

It is wrong—deadly wrong—to deny any of your fellow Americans the right to vote in this country. There is no issue of States' rights or National rights. There is only the struggle for human rights.


The civil rights movement

Non-Peaceful

Organizations

&

People


The civil rights movement

Nation of Islam

  • African American Muslims, also called “Black Muslims”

  • Founded by Elijah Muhammad in 1930

  • Had 500,000 members by 1964

  • Taught that Africans were the original people but the Bible had prophesied that they would be in captivity “in a strange land” for 400 years.

  • Believed that white society was the enemy

  • They promoted “black nationalism” (a separate nation of Africans within America).


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X

  • Malcolm Little – b. 1925

  • Son of a Baptist preacher who had been a follower of Marcus Garvey’s “back to Africa” movement in the 1920s.

  • Grew up in ghettos of Detroit, Boston and New York

  • Joined the Nation of Islam while in jail for burglary from 1945 to 1952


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X

  • 1952 – He replaced his surname “Little” with an X, because all black surnames were imposed by white masters in place of their original African names .

  • He soon became First Lieutenant in the Nation of Islam (2nd to Elijah Muhammad)

  • Rejected passive resistance

  • “No sane black man really wants integration.”


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X

“But once we all realize that we have this common enemy, then we unite on the basis of what we have in common. And what we have foremost in common is that enemy —— the white man.”

Oct. 1963


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X

Our religion teaches us to be intelligent. Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery. That’s a good religion.

Oct. 1963


The civil rights movement

Video: Malcolm X explains “Black Nationalism”

3:44


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X

  • 1964 – traveled on a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holy city of Islam

  • Came home with changed ideas about his hatred of whites

  • He returned with a new vision of blacks and whites working together for civil rights.

  • Left the Nation of Islam


The civil rights movement

Video: Malcolm X speaks of leaving the Nation of Islam

3:00


The civil rights movement

Video: Malcolm X “I am a dead man already”

2:00


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X

February 1965 - Assassinated by three members of the Nation of Islam


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X shot in chest and taken to hospital


The civil rights movement

Malcolm X, aged 39


The civil rights movement

Black Panthers

  • Founded in 1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton who met at Oakland City College in California.

  • Their philosophy was militantpride – “Black Power” and “Black is beautiful.”

  • Their strategy was to encourage Blacks to carry guns and protect blacks from police brutality in inner city neighborhoods.


The civil rights movement

Bobby Seale and Huey Newton

Black Panther Party founders


The civil rights movement

Video: Huey P. Newton speaks of police brutality

2:00


The civil rights movement

Black Panther poster promoting armed resistance to police authority


The civil rights movement

Raised fist becomes the symbol of “Black Power”


The civil rights movement

Black Panthers

  • 1968 – Huey Newton killed a policeman in a New York City march and was convicted of voluntary manslaughter.

  • His conviction sparked protests throughout country.

  • His conviction was later overturned.


The civil rights movement

Progress

For

African

Americans


The civil rights movement

24th Amendment

1962

abolished the poll tax


The civil rights movement

Civil Rights Act

  • Signed by LBJ in 1964

  • It gave federal govt. the power to enforce desegregation laws and voting rights. (denial of states’ rights)

  • It required the same voter registration standards in all states.

  • It prohibited discrimination in public facilities such as theaters, motels, and restaurants.


The civil rights movement

Civil Rights Act

  • It banned discrimination by employers on the basis of race, religion, or gender.

  • It created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to investigate charges of discrimination.

  • It allowed the federal government to withhold funds from institutions (such as schools) that violate civil rights laws.


The civil rights movement

Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, 1964


The civil rights movement

Voting Rights Act

  • 1965

  • LBJ promised this act in response to the Selma March.

  • Federal officials would register voters in places where local officials were blocking the registration of Blacks.

  • It abolished literacy tests.

  • In 1966, 400,000 African Americans registered to vote in the South.


The civil rights movement

Thurgood Marshall

First African American Supreme Court Justice

Appointed by LBJ

in 1967


The civil rights movement

What other groups were demanding equality during this time period

?


The civil rights movement

latino

Civil rights


The civil rights movement

Latinos

term for people whose family origins are in Spanish-speaking Latin America


The civil rights movement

What is the largest

group of Latinos

in the U.S.

?


The civil rights movement

Chicanos

A term used in the 1960s and 70s for Mexican-Americans


The civil rights movement

Why did large numbers

of Mexicans migrate

North to America during

and after World War II

?


The civil rights movement

The Bracero Program

  • During World War II there was a shortage of farm workers in American and widespread poverty in Mexico.

  • A U.S. and Mexican governments agreed to bring 1000’s of peasant farmers in from Mexico to work on farms for a limited time in the Southwest (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona California).

  • Program lasted from 1942 to 1964.


The civil rights movement

Migrant workers from Mexico travel by train to Los Angeles 1942


The civil rights movement

Migrant Workers

  • Workers who “migrate” or travel from farm to farm, and often state to state

  • Provide the labor required to grow and harvest many of our nation’s crops

  • Extremely low pay

  • Little or no education opportunity for their children


The civil rights movement

Children of Mexican migrant workers


The civil rights movement

School for white migrant workers’ children , 1945


The civil rights movement

Migrant child picks grapes in California


The civil rights movement

Migrant melon picker in California, 1980


The civil rights movement

Migrant workers picking parsley for .90 per crate, 1986


The civil rights movement

Migrant vineyard workers in California


The civil rights movement

Cesar Chavez

  • 1927 - Born in Arizona

  • 1937 – His family lost their farm during the Dust Bowl.

  • They became migrant workers in California.

  • He attended 30 different schools.

  • He grew up determined to improve working conditions for farm workers.


The civil rights movement

Cesar Chavez

  • In the 1960’s Cesar began to organize Mexican field hands to form a union.

  • 1965 – Formed the United Farm Workers (UFW)

  • UFW soon had 1,700 members.

  • The used nonviolent methods, such as protests and boycotts.


The civil rights movement

Cesar and his sister as children


The civil rights movement

Cesar Chavez


The civil rights movement

Native

American

Rights


The civil rights movement

What two things had

Native Americans

lost in the 1800s

that they wanted back

?


The civil rights movement

LAND

Native American tribes wanted protection of tribal lands to preserve hunting, fishing, homes and sacred burial sites.


The civil rights movement

AUTONOMY

  • Native American wanted their individual tribes restored and self-government by tribal leaders as it had been before assignment to reservations controlled by federal and state governments.


The civil rights movement

Indian nations re-formed and created tribal flags.


The civil rights movement

A.I.M.

  • American Indian Movement

  • Began in cities, encouraging racial and cultural pride in young Native American people.


The civil rights movement

A.I.M.

  • Later, AIM joined in more militant protests for the return of land to tribes across the nation and for better treatment of those living on reservations.

  • Over time, Native Americans regained some land along with mineral and water rights.


The civil rights movement

A.I.M. Banner


The civil rights movement

A.I.M. Rally


The civil rights movement

Occupation of

Wounded Knee

  • 1973 - AIM leaders descended upon Wounded Knee, South Dakota to protest the poverty and poor living conditions on the reservation.

  • The protesters refused to leave until the government took action to better living conditions and review over 300 Indian treaties.


The civil rights movement

Occupation of

Wounded Knee

  • Federal marshals and FBI agents besieged the city until it surrendered.

  • In exchange, the government launched investigations of treaties and living conditions on the reservation.


The civil rights movement

AIM protestors block the road at Wounded Knee


The civil rights movement

Protestors at Wounded Knee

1973


The civil rights movement

AIM representatives and government authorities negotiate at Wounded Knee


The civil rights movement

Indian Education Act

1972 - gave parents and tribal councils more control over schools and school programs rather than the federal and state governments.


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