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Meaning of Development Measuring Development Location of More and Less Developed Countries Strategies for International Development. International Development. Chapter 9. What Do We Mean By Development?. The three objectives of development

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International development

  • Meaning of Development

  • Measuring Development

  • Location of More and Less Developed Countries

  • Strategies for International Development

International Development

Chapter 9


What do we mean by development
What Do We Mean By Development?

  • The three objectives of development

    • increases in availability and improvements in the distribution of food, shelter, health, protection, etc.

    • improvements in ‘levels of living,’ including higher incomes, more jobs, better education, etc.

    • expansions in the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations


Measuring development
Measuring Development

  • Economic Indicators

    • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

    • Types of Jobs (Economic Sectors)

    • Natural Resources

      • Deemed essential, but Japan?

      • Some more important than others.

    • Consumer Goods (Nonessentials)

      • Motor Vehicles, Telephones, Televisions



Gross domestic product gdp
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

  • Total value of goods and services produced in a country each year, usually stated in per capita terms.

  • Gap Between MDCs and LDCs growing

    • Last two decades: GDP up $10,000 in MDCs compared to $200 in LDCs. Many in Africa and Latin America actually decreased!

  • Measures average, not distribution of wealth

Source: U.N. World Development Report, 1998


Measuring development1
Measuring Development

  • Social Indicators

    • Education and Literacy

    • Health and Welfare


Measuring development2
Measuring Development

  • Social Indicators

    • Education and Literacy

    • Health and Welfare


Measuring development3
Measuring Development

  • Demographic Indicators

    • Life Expectancy (37 - 80 years)

    • Infant Mortality (<10 - >100 per thousand)

    • Natural Increase (0 - 4.7 %)


Life Expectancy

Source: CIA World Factbook, 2001


Measuring development4
Measuring Development

  • Human Development Index (HDI):

  • Economic - GDP

  • Social - literacy and education

  • Demographic - life expectancy

  • * The single most important geographic fact of development is its striking unevenness.

* Read pages 293 - 301 carefully. You’re expected to be familiar with the information for each region.


Location of more and less developed countries
Location of More and Less Developed Countries

Development generally reflects a North-South split in the world.


Institutions of international development
Institutions of International Development

  • United Nations- formed in 1945 to promote peace. 189 current members.

  • World Bank - financial assistance and loans. Owned by 189 United Nations members.

  • International Monetary Fund - arm of U.N. that surveys and oversees international money exchange to prevent monetary crises. Also provides loans and training to help countries with balance of payment problems.

  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) - World Watch, Human Rights Watch, World Commission on Dams, many others.


Strategies for international development
Strategies for International Development

  • Self-Sufficiency Model

  • International Trade Model (Economic Growth)

    • Rostow’s Model

  • Basic Needs Model/Appropriate Technology Model

  • Revolutionary/Radical Reform Model


Rostow s model
Rostow’s Model

  • American economist and political advisor during 1950s developed model, arguing that each country passes through five stages from traditional society to high mass consumption.

    • TRADITIONAL SOCIETY

    • PRECONDITIONS FOR TAKE-OFF - elite group initiates economic innovations, leads to productivity.

    • TAKE-OFF - rapid growth in a number of specific economic activities, technical advances.

    • DRIVE TO MATURITY - Modern technology diffuses to a wide variety of industries

    • AGE OF MASS CONSUMPTION - economy shifts from heavy industry to consumer goods.


Problems in international development
Problems in International Development

  • High Debt Countries

  • Structural Adjustment Programs

    • IMF Requirements for Loans and Assistance

  • Warfare and Instability Limit Foreign Investment

  • Core-Periphery Relationships May Be Necessary for Economic Growth

    • Within Countries

    • Globally


High debt countries
High Debt Countries

Loans to LDCs now exceed $2.1 trillion dollars. Interest payments consume some small economies, encouraging export earnings instead of internal improvements.



Problem s with rostow s model and the international trade approach
Problem’s with Rostow’s Model and the International Trade Approach

  • Developmentalism: the idea that every country and region will eventually make economic progress toward “high mass consumption” provided that they compete to the best of their ability. This is not likely and is hard on the planet.

  • Increased dependence on MDCs and their markets. Undue influence on many global policies, including those of the U.N. and World Bank.

  • Market Stagnation: the MDCs have very limited population growth. Markets for low-cost manufactured goods grow slowly today. Undervalues the obstacles and competitive disadvantages faced by late starters versus those in the Core.


Other problems in international development
Other Problems in International Development Trade Approach

  • High Debt Countries

  • Hostility Regarding World Bank and IMF Structural Adjustment Programs

    • IMF “Free Market” Requirements for Loans and Assistance

  • Warfare and Instability Limit Foreign Investment

  • Core-Periphery Relationships May Be Necessary for Economic Growth

    • Within Countries

    • Globally


Progress towards development
Progress Towards Development Trade Approach

NIR = Natural Increase Rate

IMR = Infant Mortality Rate


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