Chapter 15 the Civil War. 1861. As Lincoln prepared to take office there were two large questions he faced. Did the power of the Federal Government outweigh state’s rights? Can some one actually be allowed to own another person?. Succession .
As Lincoln prepared to take office there were two large questions he faced.
Did the power of the Federal Government outweigh state’s rights?
Can some one actually be allowed to own another person?
The election of Lincoln in 1860 lead to the succession of seven deep south states.
Originally the decision occurred December 20, 1860 in Charleston South Carolina.
The Capital was in Montgomery Alabama, but moved to Richmond Virginia.
The major statement at the meeting was that “The Union had dissolved.”
South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas.
Though Kentucky sided with the North.
The election of delegates for these states lead to close races.
Those who wrote the constitutions for the confederates were less divisive .
Small group known as Cooperationists, they wanted to act the South as a unit, and tried to slow succession.
Many southern constitutions were similar to the U.S. Constitution.
Central Government could not impose tariffs,
nor could it interfere in slavery.
Jefferson Davis will become the President
Alexander Stevens will become the Vice President
Many thought the succession crisis could be solved without violence.
John Crittenden of Kentucky would propose a Compromise: Looked to extend the Missouri Compromise , would protect slavery in southern states, Prohibit Federal Government from abolishing slavery.
The Republican’s considered and went along with Crittenden compromise.
Eventually they would refer to President Lincoln for his stance.
Lincoln rejected the compromise referencing his inaugural address.
Lincoln was convinced that backing down would undermined the principal of majority rule.
Called for cautious and limited use of force
The government would defend forts in confederate states.
Fort Sumter was off the coast of South Carolina a key succession state
Lincoln refused to turn over Ft. Sumter
Jefferson Davis ordered the attack the fort.
On April 15, Lincoln then called for 75,000 troops from the states to recapture the fort and other federal property.
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas elected to join them in secession.
North and South the response to Ft. Sumter was an overwhelming demand for war to uphold national honor. Only
North: Physical strength, industrial build up, railroads.
South: On the defense , Stronger fighting men, better trained officers
At one point Lee was offered the position of leading the forces of the union.
Lee was more successful in succeeding in complex plans.
Remained loyal to the South's capital of Virginia.
The idea of Total war meant that the war affected every aspect of society.
Lincoln spent a tremendous amount of time teaching himself about warfare. As well as continually trying to give input on the war. Put in place martial law in the North and arrested any Confederate supporters.
Jefferson Davis did have control of the military but decided to secede many of the descions to the confederate congress.
General Winfield Scott developed the idea, proposed blockading the coasts of the South. Control the Mississippi River and the flow of supplies.
Lincoln developed the idea of fighting on two fronts:
Attacking and invading the Capital of Virginia, while invading Texas and Louisiana
Both sides had trouble supplying troops.
Both sides relied on private industry.
Neither side believed in paying high taxes to pay for the war.
Depositories printed paper money known as greenbacks lead to runaway inflation
Considered to be a blunder for union forces.
General Winfield Scott lead a poorly trained group of Union soldiers against General Thomas J. Jackson.
Jackson with highly trained troops won the day.
The loss lead to the firing of General Scott for George McLellan
1862 In the West the North was very successful
Grant took Fort Henry in Tennessee, and Fort Donaldson.
He would be slowed down at the surprise attack at the battle of Shiloh, which was the bloodies battle in the war.
Other forces took New Orleans, so things went well for the north in the west but not the east.
McLellan was supposed to move into the South. He did so slowly.
While General Thomas Jackson won a series of victories in the North
Fear of Jackson lead to Lincoln moving troops to defend Washington and Fired McLellan.
General Halleck replaced McLellan
After a series of losses he was fired and McLellan was rehired.
The point is the North is lacking Leadership in the East.
Robert E. Lee decided to invade the Maryland going for Washington D.C.
He met the forces of McLellan, it lead to the bloodiest day and Civil war history and a draw.
Lee’s forces returned to the South
McLellan was fired and replaced by Ambrose Burnside.
McLellan also ran for President against Lincoln and lost.
By 1862 Lincoln was looking for strategic means to win the war. He would propose his first draft of the Emancipation proclamation.
Bill was passed January of 1863. It stated that all slaves in the confederate states were free.
Lincoln made sure not to free slaves in the northern states for fear of angering southern allies.
The southern Economy began to crumble.
If the North could have taken advantage of this they would have won the war easily.
The North was suffering though from low moral.
In the North the Enrollment act passed Drafting white citizens. The act was unpopular and lead to violent revolts in New York
Martial law was used to quell the action.
But the copperheads, or militant anti-war protestors still existed in the North.
African Americans played a critical role in keeping the union together.
200,000 volunteered and were segregated and lead by white officers.
Most famous was the victory at Fort Wagner.
Grant continued to have a successful series of battles.
Eventually after a drawn out siege hew would take the strategic point of Vicksburg of Mississippi.
During the siege the confederacy sent Lee to invade Pennsylvania in hope it would stop Grant’s assault