Chapter 22 the civil war
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Chapter 22: The Civil War. South: voluntarily joined, could voluntarily leave; defend Southern Independence North: South were traitors, needed to preserve the union Southern States: SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX, VA, AK, TN, NC

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Chapter 22: The Civil War

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Chapter 22 the civil war

Chapter 22: The Civil War


22 1 introduction

  • South: voluntarily joined, could voluntarily leave; defend Southern Independence

  • North: South were traitors, needed to preserve the union

  • Southern States: SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX, VA, AK, TN, NC

  • Northern States: CA, CT, IL, IN, IA, KS, ME, MA, MI, MN, NV, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PN, RI, VT, WI, DE, MD, MO, KT, WV

22.1 Introduction


22 2 north vs south

  • Abraham Lincoln: Union

    • Protect the Union, the country had “matured and continued”

  • Jefferson Davis: Confederacy

    • States rights, “asserted a right which the Dec of Ind defined as unalienable”

22.2 North vs. South


The north

  • North’s Strengths

    • 22 million population

    • Technological advantages (factories, resources)

    • Banks

    • More farms (food)

    • Iron, coal, copper, gold

    • Controlled seas

    • Railroad for supplying

    • Lincoln

  • North’s Weaknesses

    • Military Leadership

The North


The south

  • South’s Strengths

    • Military Leadership (Lee)

    • Size of south made conquering difficult

    • Defend and protect

  • South’s Weaknesses

    • Could be divided by Mississippi River

    • Economic and transportation disadvantages

      • Few factories

      • Railroads

The South


22 3 bull run

  • Anaconda Plan

    • Surround South and cut off trade

    • Divide Confederacy in half

    • Capture Richmond

  • Bull Run

    • Rose Greenhow supplied information on attack

    • Stonewall Jackson held firm with Union assault

    • Huge victory for South, shock for north

  • Women and the war

    • Spies

    • Ran farms and businesses

    • Nurses, teachers, government workers

    • Red Cross

22.3 Bull Run


22 4 antietam a bloody affair

  • The Anaconda Plan

    • North blockades southern ports; Great Britain refuses to push through, hurts Southern economy

    • Admiral Farragut leads 46 ships down Mississippi, NOLA falls without a shot

    • General Grant leads forces through KT and TN; “Unconditional Surrender”

22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair


22 4 antietam a bloody affair1

  • The Battle of Antietam

    • Lee invades MD, hoping to change allegiance and bring European powers into war

    • McClellan hammers Lee’s troops for a day, Lee retreats

    • Between the two forces almost 5,000 were dead and over 20,000 wounded/missing

22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair


22 4 antietam a bloody affair2

  • The New Realities of War

    • Improved weapons; rifles and artillery

    • Medicine not advance; no understanding of bacteria

    • Disease in war camps

22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair


22 5 gettysburg a turning point

  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    • Lincoln made goal of Civil War abolition

    • January 1st, 1863 declared slaves free

    • Confederate states ignored, states in Union with slaves also ignored

22.5: Gettysburg: A Turning Point


22 5 gettysburg a turning point1

  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    • Lee invades the North

    • General Meade meets Lee in Pennsylvania, 3 day battle

    • George Pickett charges to attempt to break Union lines, fails

    • Lee withdraws and fights defensive the rest of the war, 40,000 dead/wounded on both sides

22.5: Gettysburg: A Turning Point


22 5 gettysburg a turning point2

  • Opposition on Union Home Front

    • Tired of long war, some looking for peace

    • Copperheads: Democrats more interested in restoring peace than saving Union

    • Lincoln has to keep order in Maryland

  • The Gettysburg Address

    • “The Great Civil War” “Conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal”

    • Honor the men who died

    • Everyone must remain devoted to the cause of the Civil War

22.5: Gettysburg: A Turning Point


22 6 vicksburg a besieged city

  • Advances

    • Railroad

    • Telegraph

    • Photographs

    • Iron-plated ships

22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City


22 6 vicksburg a besieged city1

  • Merrimac and Monitor

    • Confederacy put iron plates on wooden ship with powerful ram called the Merrimac (renamed Virginia)

    • Merrimac attacks wooden ships in the Chesapeake, almost destroys blockade

    • Union build the Monitor and the two meet and attack

    • Neither is destroyed; ends wooden ships and changes the navy

22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City


22 6 vicksburg a besieged city2

  • Control of the Mississippi

    • Although Union controlled, they could not transport soldiers/supplies safely because of Vicksburg

  • Siege of Vicksburg

    • Cannons on top of Vicksburg hill could attack ships going down river

    • For six weeks Union bombards Vicksburg by land and sea

    • Surrenders July 4th, 1863

22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City


22 6 vicksburg a besieged city3

  • Problems on the Confederate Home Front

    • Blockade=no imported goods

    • Food scarce, Union often destroyed farmland

    • Morale slowing failing

22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City


22 7 fort wagner african americans and the war

  • 54thMassachusetts

    • First all black regiment, commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw

    • Paid less, refused to accept money until pay was equal

    • Fort Wagner, paved way for African Americans to be used in battle

22.7 Fort Wagner: African-Americans and the War


22 8 appomattox total war brings an end

  • Ulysses S. Grant becomes commander of Union Forces in March of 1864

  • Grant Invades Virginia

    • Grant and Lee meet at the Wilderness, Cold Harbor and Petersburg

      • Grant suffers huge losses but can reinforce, Lee cannot

    • Total War: war on enemy’s ability to fight, massive damage to resources

    • Sherman invades South; captures Atlanta and burns it

22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End


22 8 appomattox total war brings an end1

  • The Reelection of Lincoln

    • Northern Democrats nominate George McClellan

      • Immediate end to war

    • Sheridan destroys Shenandoah and Sherman capturing Atlanta helps Lincoln

  • Sherman’s March through Georgia

    • Marches through Georgia to Savannah

      • Destroy the last untouched supply base in South

    • Destroys everything useful in 60-mile-wide path

22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End


22 8 appomattox total war brings an end2

  • The War Ends

    • Grant breaks through Petersburg and captures Richmond

    • April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House

      • Grant generous with terms

  • Touched by Fire

    • Slavery and secession had no place in new nation

    • “The United States are” became “the United States is”

    • 620,000 dead from both sides; billions spent on war

    • States rights and status of African Americans still an issue

22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End


Post war

  • Lincoln assassinated April 14th, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth

    • Andrew Johnson becomes president

  • No Confederate soldiers punished

  • South must create governments loyal to Union

  • Begin Reconstruction Era

Post War


Chapter questions

  • How was the Northern economy helped by the war?

  • What was the North’s tactic to win the war?

  • What was the South’s tactic to win the war?

  • What was the North’s goal in the war?

  • Why did the North win the war?

Chapter Questions


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