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The PROGRESSIVE ERA. Nation of Nations Chapter 22. The Spirit of Progressivism. Progressivism not a __________ movement Shared values sense of evangelical Protestant duty faith in the benefits of _______ commitment to improve all aspects of American life. The Rise of the Professions.

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The progressive era


Nation of Nations

Chapter 22

The spirit of progressivism
The Spirit of Progressivism

  • Progressivism not a __________ movement

  • Shared values

    • sense of evangelical Protestant duty

    • faith in the benefits of _______

    • commitment to improve all aspects of American life

The rise of the professions
The Rise of the Professions

  • Professions bulwarks of Progressivism

    • Law

    • Medicine

    • Business

    • Education

    • Social work

  • Professionalism strengthened through entrance exams, national associations

The social justice movement
The Social-Justice Movement

  • Reformers forsake _______reform to address larger structural problems

  • Apply scientific methods to social reform

  • Social work became a profession

The purity crusade
The Purity Crusade

  • Crusade against _______

  • 1911--membership in Women's Christian Temperance Union hits 250,000

  • 1916--19 states prohibit alcohol

  • 1920--___Amendment prohibits alcohol

Woman suffrage woman s rights
Woman Suffrage, Woman's Rights

  • Women fill Progressive ranks

    • National Conference of Social Work

    • General Federation of Women's Clubs

  • 1890--National American Woman Suffrage Association formed

  • 1920--_______ Amendment passed

  • Suffrage seen as empowering women to benefit the disadvantaged

A ferment of ideas challenging the status quo
A Ferment of Ideas:Challenging the Status Quo

  • Progressives, pragmatists, measure value of ideas by actions they inspire

  • Reject _______ _______

  • John Dewey--education should stress personal growth, free inquiry, creativity

A ferment of ideas challenging the status quo 2
A Ferment of Ideas:Challenging the Status Quo (2)

  • 1901--_______ party formed

  • Unites intellectuals, factory workers, tenant farmers, miners, lumberjacks

  • Promises Progressive reform rather than overthrow of capitalism

  • 1912--Socialist presidential candidate _______ _______polls over 900,000 votes

Reform in the cities and states
Reform in the Cities and States

  • Progressives wanted government to follow the public will

  • Reform government

    • reorganize for efficiency, effectiveness

    • new agencies address particular social ills

    • posts staffed with experts

    • _______ power extended at all levels

Interest groups and the decline of popular politics
Interest Groups and the Decline of Popular Politics

  • Decline in voter participation

    • 77% from 1876-1900

    • 65% from 1900-1916

    • 52% in the 1920s

    • remains near 52% through 20th century

    • _______ _______get favorable legislation through _______

Reform in the cities
Reform in the Cities

  • Urban reform leagues form professional, nonpolitical civil service

  • _______commissioners replace elected officials in many cities

  • City ______ idea spreads

Action in the states
Action in the States

  • State regulatory commissions created to investigate economic life

  • Initiative, referendum, and recall created

  • 1917--17th Amendment provides for direct election of U.S. senators

Action in the states reform governors
Action in the States:Reform Governors

  • Robert ______ of Wisconsin

    • ______ taps experts in higher education for help in sweeping reforms

  • Other Progressive governors

    • Joseph Folk of Missouri

    • Hiram Johnson of California

    • Charles Evans Hughes of New York

    • Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey

The republican roosevelt
The Republican Roosevelt

  • Often defies convention

  • Brings an exuberance to the presidency

  • Surrounds himself with able associates

Busting the trusts
Busting the Trusts

  • 1902--wave of trust-busting led by suit against Northern Securities Company

  • 1904--Northern Securities dissolved

  • Roosevelt reputed a "trust-buster"

  • Comparatively _____antitrust cases under Roosevelt

In the coalfields
________ in the Coalfields

  • 1902--United Mine Workers strike in Pennsylvania threatens U.S. economy

  • U.M.W., companies to White House

  • Roosevelt wins company concessions by threatening military seizure of mines

  • Roosevelt acts as broker of interests

Roosevelt progressivism at its height
Roosevelt Progressivism at Its Height

  • 1904—A four-way election

    • Republican—Theodore Roosevelt

    • Democrat—Alton B. Parker

    • Socialist—Eugene V. Debs

    • Prohibition—Silas C. Swallow

  • Roosevelt wins 57% of popular vote, 336 electoral votes

Regulating the railroads
Regulating the Railroads

  • 1903--Elkins Act prohibits railroad rebates, strengthens Interstate Commerce Commission

  • Widespread popular demand for further railroad regulation after Roosevelt’s reelection

  • 1906--Hepburn Act further strengthens Interstate Commerce Commission

    • membership from five to seven

    • may fix reasonable maximum rates

    • jurisdiction broadened to include oil pipeline, express, sleeping car companies

Cleaning up food and drugs
Cleaning Up Food and Drugs

  • Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906)prompts federal investigation of meatpacking industry

  • 1906--Meat Inspection Act

    • sets rules for sanitary meatpacking

    • requires government inspection of meat products

  • Samuel Hopkins Adams exposes dangers of patent medicines

  • 1906--Pure Food and Drug Act

    • requires manufacturers to list certain ingredients

    • bans manufacture and sale of adulterated drugs

Conserving the land
Conserving the Land

  • First comprehensive national conservation policy

    • policy defines “conservation” as wise use of natural resources

  • ______ acreage under federal protection

Conserving the land 2
Conserving the Land (2)

  • Roosevelt’s challenge

    • attacks “malefactors of great wealth”

    • criticizes ______ of federal courts

    • agitates for ______ legislation

  • Popular response

    • business leaders blame for financial panic

    • overwhelming majority support

The ordeal of william howard taft
The Ordeal of William Howard Taft

  • Taft able administrator, poor president

  • Conservative Republicans resurge

  • Taft loses support of Progressives

Taft alienates the progressives
Taft Alienates the Progressives

  • 1910--Taft successfully pushes Mann-Elkins Act to strengthen ICC

    • empowers ICC to fix railroad rates

    • Progressive Republicans attack Taft’s plan of a Commerce Court to hear ICC appeals

    • progressives obstruct Taft’s negotiations

  • 1910--Taft attacks Progressive Republicans, Democrats gain Congress

Taft alienates the progressives 2
Taft Alienates the Progressives (2)

  • Legislation protecting laborers

  • Sixteenth Amendment creates income tax

  • Taft a greater trustbuster than Roosevelt

  • Taft, Roosevelt attack one another publicly

  • 1912--Taft renominated by Republicans, little chance for victory

Differing philosophies in the election of 1912
Differing Philosophies in the Election of 1912

  • Roosevelt--Progressive ("Bull Moose")

    • “___________”

    • federal regulation of economy

    • wasteful competition replaced by efficiency

  • Woodrow Wilson--Democrat

    • "___________" for individual

    • restrain big business, government

  • Democrats win White House, Congress

Woodrow wilson s new freedom
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom

  • Woodrow Wilson former president of Princeton, governor of New Jersey

  • Progressive, intellectual, inspiring orator, racist

  • One of America's most effective and dangerous presidents

The new freedom in action
The New Freedom in Action

  • 1913--Underwood Tariff cuts duties

  • 1913--_________ reforms banks, establishes stable currency

  • 1914--Clayton Antitrust Act outlaws unfair trade practices, protects _______

  • 1914--Federal Trade Commission

New freedom in action retreating from reform
New Freedom in Action: Retreating from Reform

  • November, 1914--Wilson announces the "New Freedom" has been achieved

  • It was “a time of healing because a time of just dealing”

  • Statement stuns many progressives

Wilson moves toward the new nationalism
Wilson Moves Toward the New Nationalism

  • Reasons for the move

    • distracted by the outbreak of war in Europe

    • needs conservative _______ support

    • Republicans seem to gain by attacking his programs

  • 1916--Presidential election

Wilson moves toward the new nationalism 2
Wilson Moves Toward the New Nationalism (2)

  • Wilson renews reform in reelection bid

    • Federal Farm Loan Act

    • intervenes in strikes on behalf of workers

    • attempts to ban child labor

    • increases income taxes on the rich

    • supports women’s suffrage

  • Program wins Wilson a close election

The fruits of the progressivism
The Fruits of the Progressivism

  • Reform of government at all levels

  • Intelligent planning of reform

  • World War I ends Progressive optimism