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Chasing Chilliwack: recent historical Canadian census aggregate statistics [version 2]. A workshop at ACCOLEDS 2008 Laine Ruus < [email protected] > 2008-12-02. Outline. Introduction What’s changed about census, and when did it change Following a geographic area over time.

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Chasing chilliwack recent historical canadian census aggregate statistics version 2

Chasing Chilliwack: recent historical Canadian census aggregate statistics[version 2]

A workshop at ACCOLEDS 2008

Laine Ruus <[email protected]>

2008-12-02


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • What’s changed about census, and when did it change

  • Following a geographic area over time


Chasing chilliwack recent historical canadian census aggregate statistics version 2

How Chilliwack grew

Sources:http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/misc/accoleds/2008/accoleds08_resources.htm#fn1


Introduction

Introduction

  • Study of change over time is increasingly interesting, as data time-lines get longer

  • Most pre-1961 census products are print-only

  • STC began to make extensive use of computer equipment with the 1951 census; computer-readable aggregate statistics beginning in 1961

  • CCRI has a project to produce microdata from 1911-1951 census, as well as some aggregate products


Introduction cont d

Introduction (cont’d)

Working with historical census aggregate data involves dealing with:

  • Changes to variable collection, coding, and definitions

  • Changes to units of observation

  • Changes to census geography

  • Changes to file organization

  • Changes to census products


Changes to variable collection coding and definitions

Changes to variable collection, coding, and definitions

  • Compare the definition of ethnic origin in 1981 (p.14 in):

    http://prod.library.utoronto.ca:8090/datalib/codebooks/c/cc81/dict81.pdf

  • With those in 2006:

    http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/reference/dictionary/pop030a.cfmand

    http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/reference/reportsandguides/ethnic-origin.cfm


How a variable is collected is one thing how it is coded is another

How a variable is collected is one thing, how it is coded is another…

  • 1981 ethnic origin :

    • EA-level: profile & BST (12)

    • CT-level: profile (5); BST (42)

    • CSD-level: profile (5); BST (12, 42)

  • 1991 ethnic origin :

    • EA-level: profile (35); BST (25)

    • CT-level: profile (35 ); BST (25)

    • CSD-level: profile (35); BST (25)

  • 2001 ethnic origin :

    • DA/CT/CSD level: profile (61); BST (na)

      [BST=basic summary tabulation]


Changes to unit of observation

Changes to unit of observation

  • Now 5 basic units of observation: individual, census family, economic family, household, dwelling

  • 1871 – individual

  • 1921 – ‘census family’ versus ‘private family’

  • 1931 – ‘private family’ became ‘household’

  • 1956 – ‘economic family’ introduced

  • Note:always use the appropriate denominator – short form population for short form variables, long form population for long form variables!


Census products by geographic area and medium

Census products by geographic area and medium

  • Enumeration areas: 1961-1996

    • Computer-readable only, never available in print

  • Dissemination areas: 2001-2006

    • Computer-readable only, never available in print

  • Census tract:

    • Print/microfiche: 1951-2006

    • Computer-readable: 1971-2006

  • Provincial census tracts

    • Print: 1981

    • Computer-readable: 1971-1981


Census products by geographic area and medium cont d

Census products by geographic area and medium (cont’d)

  • Census subdivision (municipalities) level

    • Print: 1851-2006

    • Computer-readable: 1971-2006

  • Census division (counties) level

    • Print: 1851-2006

    • Computer-readable: 1971-2006

  • CMA/CA

    • Print: 1936/1941-2006

    • Computer-readable: 1971-2006


Census products by geographic area and medium cont d1

Census products by geographic area and medium (cont’d)

  • Federal electoral district level

    • Print: 1851-2001

    • Computer-readable: 1971-2006

  • Forward sortation area level

    • Never in print

    • Computer-readable: 1986-2006

  • Province level

    • Print: 1840-2006

    • Computer-readable: 1971-2006


Brief guide to census geography what changes and why

Brief guide to census geography: what changes and why

  • Enumeration areas were the basic building block

    • Did not cross other STC boundaries

    • Therefore could be added up to all higher levels of geography

    • Physical area covered by one enumerator

    • Assigned numeric code: prov(2)+fed(3)+ea(3)

    • Not geographically stable (ie could and did change with each census/stack on top of each other, etc


Brief guide to census geography what changes and why cont d

Brief guide to census geography: what changes and why (cont’d)

  • Dissemination areas introduced in 2001

    • DAs replace EAs as smallest geographic area for which census data are released

    • DAs respect CTs, CSDs, and by extension, CD boundaries

    • Assigned numeric code: prov(2)+cd(2)+da(4)

    • Planned to be geographically stable

    • Comprised of Dissemination Blocks (DBs), the new basic building block

    • No standard data products except population and dwelling counts at DB level


Changes to census geography cont d

Changes to census geography (cont’d)

  • Census tracts

    • first defined in 1941 census, as ‘social areas’

    • renamed census tracts (1951)

    • major reorganization of census tract boundaries and names in 1971

    • assigned numeric code: cma(3)+ctcode(4) and numeric ‘name’ (cma(3)+ctname(7.2)

    • split when they grow too big (and STC has the budget to split them)

    • when they split, ‘root’ remains the same, ie 7.00 becomes 7.01 and 7.02


Changes to census geography cont d1

Changes to census geography (cont’d)

  • Area aggregates/Provincial census tracts

    • Created in 1971, as ‘area aggregates’

    • 1976 became provincial census tracts

    • covered all Canada outside census-tracted urban areas

    • only available in BCTs, in 1971

    • 1981 included in BCTs and print profile

    • assigned a numeric code: prov(2)+pctcode (4)

    • disappeared in 1986 census products


Changes to census geography cont d2

Changes to census geography (cont’d)

  • Census subdivisions (municipalities)

    • Defined Municipality Acts of by provincial/territorial governments, + unincorporated areas

    • Named areas, but assigned numeric code: prov(2)+cd(2)+csd(3)

    • See:

      • Standard geographical classifications (1974-2008)

      • Interim list of changes to municipal boundaries, status, and names

        http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/codebooks/cstdli/92f0009xpb.htm


Changes to census geography cont d3

Changes to census geography (cont’d)

  • Indian reserves

    • Indian reserves defined by IAND

    • 1961 Indian reserves lumped together in each county

    • 1971 Indian reserves lumped together in each census subdivision (municipality)

    • 1981 Indian reserves became discrete census subdivisions


Changes to census geography cont d4

Changes to census geography (cont’d)

  • Census divisions/counties, etc.

    • defined by provincial legislation (in some provinces only), or by Statistics Canada

    • Name and assigned numeric code: prov(2)+cd(2)

  • Census metropolitan areas/census agglomerations

    • Defined by urban core plus ‘labour watershed’ (STC defined)

    • Aggregations of complete CSDs

    • Name and assigned numeric code: cma(3)


Changes to census geography cont d5

Changes to census geography (cont’d)

  • Federal electoral districts

    • Defined by federal Electoral Boundary Readjustment Acts, about every 10 years.

    • Name and numeric code: prov(2)+fed(3)

  • Forward sortation areas (FSAs) + Local delivery units (LDU)

    • Defined by Canada Post

    • Do not respect/are not respected by any Statistics Canada geographic areas

    • 3-6 digit alpha-numeric codes


Adding up census geography

Adding up census geography

  • The following table shows which levels of census geography can be added up to which larger levels of census geography

  • Why you should avoid doing so whenever possible:

    • Area suppression

    • Random rounding causes distortion


Chasing chilliwack recent historical canadian census aggregate statistics version 2

Adding up levels of census geography:

hu=health unit


Four ways to chase census geography over time

Four ways to chase census geography over time

  • Named areas, through Official lists and Geography tape/attribute file/Geosuite

  • Coded areas, through EA/DA and CT correspondence files

  • Paper maps where available

  • Overlaying vector/boundary files, where available


Identifying areas

Identifying areas

  • Larger geographic areas have names, and have been assigned numeric codes

    • Both codes and names can change

    • Eg ‘23’=‘’Vancouver’ in 1971; ’933’ = ‘’Vancouver’ post-1971

    • Eg ‘Hull’ became ‘Gatineau’ in 2006

  • CTs and EAs/DAs have only codes

    • Ctuid=cma(3)+ctname(7)

    • Dauid=prov(2)+cd(2)+da(4)

    • Eauid=prov(2)+fed(3)+ea(3)


Exercise 1

Exercise 1:

  • Is/was Chilliwack, BC a CMA or a CA?

  • What was Chilliwack’s CMA/CA code in 1971? In 2006? When did it change?

  • Did Chilliwack have census tracts in 1971? In 2006?

  • Hint: see table athttp://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/other/referenc.htm#sgc


Chasing named places thru time

Chasing named places thru time:

  • Finding codes of ‘named’ areas over time:

    • Standard geographical classification (STC 12-554+) 1974-2008

    • Geography attribute file/Geography tape file (1971-1996, 2006)

    • Geosuite/Georef (1996-2006)

    • Interim list of changes to municipal boundaries, status, and names 1965- .

    • Place name master file/Locality name file


Chasing chilliwack recent historical canadian census aggregate statistics version 2

Interim list of changes...


Chasing chilliwack recent historical canadian census aggregate statistics version 2

Place name master file


Exercise 2

Exercise 2:

What CSDs comprised Chilliwack CA in 1971?

  • Hint: use Geography tape/attribute files at:

    http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/major/sda.htm#agg


Chasing chilliwack recent historical canadian census aggregate statistics version 2

You can accomplish much the same with the Geography

tape files in SPSS, with the following syntax:


Chasing coded places thru time

Chasing coded places thru time:

  • Enumeration/dissemination area correspondence files

    • available 1971/76 to present

  • Census tract correspondence files

    • Available for 1991-1996, 1996-2001, 2001-2006

    • Prior years in print in census tract profile volumes

    • UT/DLS has created files of 1966-1971 to 1987-1991

      <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/major/georef.htm>

  • These resources indicate only whether or not there has been a change, not how much


Exercise 3

Exercise 3:

  • What enumeration areas comprised Chilliwack CA?


Exercise 4

Exercise 4:

  • Calculate the %British ethnic origin in Chilliwack CA in 1981, in 2006?


The manual chase

The manual chase

  • Need print maps of the areas at each census

  • A list of print map resources at UT is at:

    http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/major/prmapag.htm

  • Alternatively, use the Official lists (1961-1981), and Geosuite (1996- )

  • Note: Official lists are difficult to track down from some censuses, as these were not official publications with DBS/STC catalogue numbers


Overlay vector files

Overlay vector files

  • Need vector files for each census. A list of files available at UT, see:

    http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/major/spmapagg.htm

  • Requires appropriate GIS software


Exercise 5

Exercise 5:

Using the CHASS analyzer interface at:

http://dc2.chass.utoronto.ca/census/1981/

save all 2006 Chilliwack census tracts,

for the following variables:

British ethnic origin,

the appropriate population total,

in .dbf format.


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