The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 28

The War That Made America A Short History of the French and Indian War PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 201 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The War That Made America A Short History of the French and Indian War. By Fred Anderson. Preface. “The first world war” Ended the French empire in North America The war undermined and destroyed the ability of Native peoples to resist the expansion of Anglo American settlement

Download Presentation

The War That Made America A Short History of the French and Indian War

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

The War That Made AmericaA Short History of the French and Indian War

By

Fred Anderson


Preface

Preface

“The first world war”

Ended the French empire in North America

The war undermined and destroyed the ability of Native peoples to resist the expansion of Anglo American settlement

The war’s impact on George Washington


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

The war’s violence and brutality encouraged whites, particularly those on the frontier to hate Indians with undiscriminating fury.

The widespread Indian hating that the French and Indian War engendered was reinforced by the War of Independence

Contributed to the formation of American cultural identity

Sanctioned the removal or annihilation of native peoples as necessary to the advance of civilization


The story of this book

The story of this book

  • French & Indian War a prelude to the American Revolution

  • Struggle for liberty against oppression

  • Rights against power

  • Independence against subjugation

  • Darker story

  • Imperial ambitions produce unpredictable, violent results

  • Victory breeds unanticipated disasters for the victor

  • The benign growth of a population of farmers leads to the wholesale destruction of native peoples


Prologue new york july 1776

PrologueNew York, July 1776

The Seven Years’ War

The British colonists called it “The late French War”

The French and Indian War 1754 - 1760


Three powers compete in war

Three powers compete in war

France, a Catholic empire based on trade and Indian alliances that stretched from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the Great Lakes, the Mississippi Valley, and the Gulf of Mexico

British colonies of eastern North America a Protestant empire based on farming settlement and transatlantic commerce, vigorous and growing but still confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains

The Iroquois Confederacy


The six nations iroquois confederacy

The Six NationsIroquois Confederacy

An independent actor in the imperial drama

Misconceptions

Assumptions about empires

Imagining that Indians were fated to vanish from America once the Europeans arrived

This erroneous and pernicious idea prevented Americans from seeing the crucial roles that Native peoples played in shaping the development of the continent

Iroquois League practicing imperialism

It was other native people over whom the Iroquois

Exercised dominion


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

Important to know that for European states and American colonists hinged on decision made by Indian people

Indian people assessed their potential to realize advantage and then acted with the same kind of calculation and skill of Europe’s diplomats

Depicts the passing of an era

Describes the beginning of a new age in which Indians find themselves shouldered aside, marginalized, and largely written out of the American story


American indians and the french and indian war

American Indians and the French and Indian War

The War was the product of a struggle for independence

The people striving to liberate themselves were Indians living near the site of modern Pittsburgh

The group whose control they were fighting to escape were other Indians


Part one the end of a long peace chapter i a delicate balance

Part One: The End of a Long PeaceChapter I – A Delicate Balance

  • European Nations needed Indians as

  • Trading Partners

  • Military allies

  • Sources of labor

  • Sources of land

  • Indian groups understood Europeans as

  • Trading partners

  • Allies

  • Providers of weapons

  • Other manufactured goods

  • Contact with Europeans altered life in unfathomable ways


Disease in americas

Disease in Americas

“New World and Old World” human populations had been isolated and no exchange of pathogens

Indians lacked the immune defenses of colonizers

Colonial settlements brought measles, chicken pox, small pox, diphtheria, influenza, etc.

The diseases spread along lines of trade among native groups


Virgin soil epidemics

Virgin Soil epidemics

Destroyed as much as 90% of the Native population of North America

Indigenous population east of the Mississippi numbering more than 2 million in 1600 shrank to less than a quarter million by 1750

The decline did not occur simultaneously everywhere on the continent

It occurred piecemeal


Mourning wars

Mourning Wars

One response was war

To maintain population levels

Undertake raiding expeditions against other groups

A response to bereavement

To take women and children from enemy groups as captives

Adopted into the raiders’ families as replacements for lost members

Or enslaved as substitutes for missing workers

Sustaining populations was the principal goal of mourning wars


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

European Weapons

Commodities

Beaver pelts and other animal skins

Taking booty

Captive taking

In a complex, unintended way epidemic disease promoted wars among Indian groups that greatly magnified their demographic losses

Commercial enterprise


The five nations of the iroquois

The Five Nations of the Iroquois

A religious and ceremonial league

Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca

Upstate New York

Close ties to Dutch traders of Fort Orange

Provided guns and ammunition

Late 17th century they had eliminated whole peoples from the Ohio River Valley and lower Great Lakes basin

Conducted expeditions from Wisconsin to northern New England - Ontario to South Carolina


Beaver wars

Beaver Wars

Success of the Iroquois

First Factor

external behavior and language of captives more easily altered than deep seated values

The adoption of large numbers of captives diluted the cultural coherence of the captors’ communities

Adoptees who previously been converted to Catholicism posed a particular threat to the ability of the Five Nations to carry on the warfare against the French and their native allies

Pro French groups becoming influential in Iroquois policy


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

Second Factor

Growing ability of the French and their allies to fight back

Beginning in the late 1650’s French officials, missionary priests and traders established themselves among the refugees who sought shelter from the Iroquois attacks

French took on metaphorical role of father

A mediator of disputes and a source of trade goods

French gave “gifts” to local leaders

French built up allies

“Middle Ground”


Covenant chain with new york in the 1670 s

Covenant Chain with New York in the 1670’s

Indian allies of New France grew strong enough to strike back against the Iroquois

Tried to replace the Dutch with the English

Forged an alliance – Covenant Chain with New York

English proved to be inadequate allies

17th century Five Nations suffered devastating losses

Five Nations peace with France


Grand settlement of 1701 a set of treaties

Grand Settlement of 1701A set of treaties

Concluded simultaneously with the French at Montreal and the English at Albany

At Montreal the League pledged to remain neutral in all future wars between the French and the English

The French agreed the Iroquois could hunt on lands north of the Great Lakes and trade at Fort Detroit

At Albany the League ceded to the English All Iroquois claims to the country north of the Great Lakes

Reaffirmed the Covenant Chair alliance with the English

Enabled the Iroquois to have a position of neutrality


Neutrality

Neutrality

Iroquois gained little but destruction and loss as England’s ally and France’s enemy

Iroquois discovered that their new position of neutrality gave them considerable leverage against both powers

During Queen Anne’s War Iroquois got information bout attacks on French and passed it along to the French

Got English diplomatic trade gifts – ammunition, arms, etc.


The long peace 1713 1744

The Long Peace 1713-1744

The cessation of hostilities served the League better

Adept at maintaining the delicate balance between the French and English

Admission of Tuscaroras to the League in 1726

Six Nations

Enabled the League to expand their raids to Southern Indian groups

Cherokees and Catawbas


Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

English colony, founded 1681 by Quaker William Penn

The Colony no force against native peoples

Traded freely with LenniLenape (Delawares)

Shawnees, Conestogas, Tutelos, Conoys, Naticokes

Indian allies served as defensive shield

Rapid growth of colony’s white farmers wanted more Indian lands


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

James Logan saw Indians as a potential threat

Saw the French as a threat

Logan looked to the Iroquois to provide protection for Pennsylvania

Alliance between Pennsylvania and Iroquois provided a means to discipline the Pennsylvania native people

The Covenant Chain alliance to Pennsylvania

Made the Six Nations custodians of the interests of Pennsylvania’s Indians

Eased the process of transferring lands from Indian ownership to the Penn family

Ended the French empire in North America


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

Allowed land to be acquired by dealing with the Iroquois

The Six Nations willing to sell land

The Pennsylvania tribes defined as the wards of the League

The Penns’ buy land in quantity and resell to white settlers

Walking Purchase 1737

A spectacular land fraud

Dispossessed the Delawares of three-quarters of a million acres of land

The League confirmed the purchase by treaty in 1742

Forced the Delawares who refused to move to the Susquehanna Valley


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

The diplomacy with the Iroquois League yielded by 1751:

Penns had become one of the richest families in England

The Iroquois League had achieved alevel of power and diplomatic influence it had not seen in nearly a century

The Indians of eastern Pennsylvania had largely been driven from their homes


Chapter 2 the half king s dilemma

Chapter 2The Half King’s Dilemma

Iroquois used a high handed approach on the Pennsylvania Indians

Assumed the Pennsylvania Indians would accept subordination without resistance or complaint

The Pennsylvania Indians moved west

Some Delawares moved to the Susquehanna Valley

Most Delawares and Shawnees moved to Ohio country


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

The Mingos, members of the Seneca Nation moved west

The Mingos, Delawares, Shawnees shared a strong impulse toward traditionalism

The Delawares and Shawnees in the Susquehanna were Christians

Iroquois not concerned with the departure of so many Pennsylvania Indians

Iroquois appointed a regent to superintend the Mingos and other Ohio Indians

Chief Tanghrisson

The League authorized Tanghrissonto speak on behalf of the Ohio Indians


The war that made america a short history of the french and indian war

Tanaghrisson solely responsible for conducting diplomacy on their behalf

All agreements made by Tanaghrisson had to be ratified by the Onodaga

Hence the nickname “the half King”

Half King’s influence on the Ohio Indians

European ally – English traders for goods

Ohio Company of Virginia

Virginians saw trade as a prelude to acquiring real estate for later sale

League offered to cede all remaining claims within the limits of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia

Recognize the Six Nations as a sovereign over several southern Indian peoples

Treaty Council at Logstown in 1752

English settlement offensive to Delawares, Shawnees, Mingos and others

Warfare styles

Proclamation of 1763


  • Login