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Breads. Ch. 22. Workbook P. 113. Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the presentation. Categories of Breads. Quick Breads. Yeast Breads. Prepare in a short amount of time Biscuits Muffins Popovers Cream puffs Pancakes Waffles Coffee cakes. Require more time to prepare

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Ch. 22

Workbook p 113

Workbook P. 113

Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the presentation

Categories of breads
Categories of Breads

Quick Breads

Yeast Breads

  • Prepare in a short amount of time

    • Biscuits

    • Muffins

    • Popovers

    • Cream puffs

    • Pancakes

    • Waffles

    • Coffee cakes

  • Require more time to prepare

    • Breads

    • Rolls

    • English muffins

    • Raised doughnuts

    • crullers

Selecting and storing baked products
Selecting and Storing Baked Products

  • Quick breads and yeast breads are baked products

  • Freshly Baked – ready to eat

    • sold in bakeries, in bakery sections of supermarkets, and on supermarket shelves

  • Brown-and-Serve – partially baked, need a final browning in the oven

    • sold in bakery sections of supermarkets

Selecting and storing baked products1
Selecting and Storing Baked Products

  • Refrigerated dough – ready to bake

    • found in refrigerated sections of supermarkets

  • Frozen dough – require thawing, proofing, and/or baking

    • Found in freezer section of supermarkets

Cost of baked products
Cost of Baked Products

  • Cost of baked products depends on the amount of convenience

    • Ready-to-serve costs more than frozen

  • Bread costs depend on size, extra ingredients, and brand

Storing baked products
Storing Baked Products

  • Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped

  • Freezing bread in hot humid weather prevents mold growth

    • Remove slices from freezer as needed, thaw and eat

  • Refrigerate products with cream, custard, or other perishable fillings

  • Keep refrigerated doughs refrigerated or frozen doughs frozen until you plan to bake them

Quick breads
Quick Breads



  • Range in consistency

  • Pour batters – large amount of liquid and small amount of flour

    • Pancakes & popovers

  • Drop Batters – high proportion of flour and low proportion of liquid

    • Biscuits & muffins

  • Large amount of flour and small amount of liquid

  • Can be shaped by hand

    • Shortcake & rolled biscuits


  • Gives structure to baked products

  • White wheat most often used in baking

  • All-purpose flour used in most recipes

  • Self-rising flour – all purpose flour with added leavening agents and salt

Leavening agents
Leavening Agents

  • Ingredients that produce gases in batters and doughs

  • Make baked products rise and become light and porous

  • Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) – an alkaline ingredient

    • Used in recipes that contain acidic ingredients

    • Acids balance the alkali preventing bitter taste

      • Buttermilk, molasses, brown sugar, vinegar, honey, apple sauce and other fruit, and citrus juices

Leavening agents1
Leavening Agents

  • Baking Powder – contain dry acid, baking soda, and starch or flour

    • Using too much will cause too much carbon dioxide and your baked goods will collapse and become small and compact

  • Steam – produced when liquid ingredients reach high temperatures during baking

  • Air – incorporated into baked goods by beating eggs, creaming fat and sugar, and beating batters

    • All baked products contain some air


  • Water, milk, fruit juices, eggs, and fats

  • Hydrate protein and starch in flour

    • Proteins must absorb water to form gluten

    • Starch must absorb water to gelatinize during baking

  • Moisten or dissolve ingredients

    • Baking powder, salt, and sugar

  • Leaven baked goods when converted to steam


  • Tenderize baked products

    • Fat coats the flour particles and causes the dough structure to separate into layers

  • Aids in leavening

    • When beaten air bubbles form and the fat traps the air bubbles and hold them


  • Incorporates air into baked products

  • Adds color and Flavor

  • Contributes to structure

    • During baking, the egg proteins coagulate

    • The coagulated proteins gives the batter or dough elasticity and structure


  • Adds sweetness to baked products

  • Tenderizes crusts

  • Aids in browning

  • In yeast breads, sugar serves as food for yeast

  • Brown sugar produces baked goods that are moister than products made with granulated sugar


  • Adds flavor to baked products

  • In yeast breads, it regulates the action of the yeast and inhibits the action of certain enzymes

    • If yeast breads contain no salt they will produce carbon dioxide too quickly and be difficult to handle and have a poor appearance.

Adjusting ingredients
Adjusting Ingredients

  • Baking powder, fat, eggs, sugar, and salt each perform certain functions in baked goods

  • Some recipes call for more of these ingredients than necessary

  • Cutting down on unneeded ingredients will result in breads that are lower in calories, fat, and sodium

Workbook p 114

Workbook P. 114

Please take a moment to complete workbook p. 114. The chart on p. 390 will help you.

Workbook p 115

Workbook p. 115

Please use workbook p. 115 to take notes during the presentation

Food science principles
Food Science Principles

  • Gluten – a protein that gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs and structure to baked products

    • It holds leavening gases which make quick breads rise

  • Gluten is created from gliadin and glutenin

    • When you combine wheat flour with a liquid and stir or knead it, the gliadin and glutenin combine to form gluten


  • When you first start to chew bubble gum, it is soft and easy to chew

  • As you chew the gum, it becomes more elastic, and you can blow bubbles

  • As you continue to chew for a long time, it becomes so elastic it makes your jaw hurt


  • Gluten behaves in a similar way

    • If you mix or handle a batter or dough too much, the gluten will over develop and the bread will be compact and tough

    • To keep quick bread light and tender, mix only a short period of time

Types of flour
Types of Flour

  • Different types of white wheat flour contain different amounts of gliadin and glutenin

    • The strength of the gluten produced by each flour differs

  • In baking, you must use they type of flour listed or the texture will come out wrong

    • Ex. Yeast breads have a strong gluten structure, cakes have a delicate gluten structure and quick breads fall in between

Food science at work
Food Science at Work

  • Chemical reactions in quick breads produce leavening gases

  • Baking soda is an alkali, when combined with an acid, it releases carbon dioxide

    • Acids help neutralize the batter, which would otherwise have a bitter taste and off color

  • Baking Powders are often double-acting

    • They release some carbon dioxide when they are moistened, then release most of their carbon dioxide when they are heated

Preparing biscuits
Preparing Biscuits

  • Biscuit Method

    • Involves sifting dry ingredients together in a mixing bowl

    • Use a pastry blender or knives to cut fat into the dry ingredients

    • Continue cutting until the particles are the size of coarse cornmeal

    • Add liquid all at once, and stir until dough forms a ball

Preparing biscuits1
Preparing Biscuits

  • Dry ingredients

    • Flour, baking powder, and salt

      • May use self-rising flour, which is a combo of all three

  • Liquid ingredients

    • Milk to buttermilk

  • Drop Biscuits – drop from a spoon onto a greased cookie sheet

    • Contain higher proportion of liquid

  • Rolled biscuits – knead the dough, roll into a circle and cut dough with a biscuit cutter and bake on an ungreased baking sheet.

Characteristics of rolled biscuits
Characteristics of Rolled Biscuits

  • Have an even shape with a smooth, level top and straight sides

  • Crust is an even brown

  • When broken open the crumb is white

  • Moist and fluffy, peels into layers

  • Under mixed – low volume and rounded top (rough)

  • Over mixed – low volume and rounded top (smooth)

Preparing muffins
Preparing Muffins

  • Muffin Method

    • Measure dry ingredients into a mixing bowl

    • Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients

    • In a separate bowl, combine beaten eggs with milk and oil or melted fat

    • Pour all the liquids into the well of dry ingredients

    • Stir the batter until just moistened

Preparing muffins1
Preparing Muffins

  • Dry ingredients

    • Flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar

      • Fruits, nuts, cheese, and other ingredients may be added

  • Liquid ingredients

    • Milk or water, eggs, and fat

  • After combining ingredients, drop muffin batter into a greased muffin pan and bake

Characteristics of muffins
Characteristics of Muffins

  • Thin, evenly brown crust

  • Top is symmetrical, but looks rough

  • When broken apart, texture is uniform

  • Crumb is tender and light

  • Under mixed – low volume, coarse crumb, and flat top

  • Over mixed – peaked top, pale slick crust, and when broken apart, narrow tunnels are visible

Preparing popovers
Preparing Popovers

  • Use the muffin method when preparing popovers

  • Place in a hot oven for the first part of baking

    • Allows steam to expand walls of the popover

  • Lower oven temperature to prevent over browning

  • DO NOT open door to check popovers

    • This will cause popovers to collapse

Characteristics of popovers
Characteristics of Popovers

  • Good volume

  • Shell is golden brown and crisp

  • Interior contains slightly moist strands of dough

  • Under baked – collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy

  • Over baked – over browned exterior, dry interior

Preparing cream puffs
Preparing Cream Puffs

  • Cream Puff Method

    • Bring water and fat to a boil

    • Add flour and stir vigorously over low heat until the mixture forms a ball

    • Remove mixture from heat, stir in eggs until mixture is smooth

  • This mixture is called puff paste

Preparing cream puffs1
Preparing Cream Puffs

  • Drop puff paste onto an ungreased baking sheet

  • Bake in a hot oven to rise, then lower temperature to prevent overbrowning

  • DO NOT open door to check cream puffs

    • This will cause the steam to condense and the cream puffs will collapse

Characteristics of cream puffs
Characteristics of Cream Puffs

  • Good volume

  • Brown, tender crust

  • Interior should be hollow

  • Under baked - collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy

  • Evaporation of too much liquid will cause cream puffs to ooze fat

Storing quick breads
Storing Quick Breads

  • Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped

Workbook p 116

Workbook p. 116

Please use workbook p. 116 to take notes during the presentation


  • All purpose flour can be used for most yeast breads

  • Bread flour contains larger amounts of gliadin and glutenin making it ideal for bread machines

    • This is ideal because the action of the bread machine requires stronger gluten.

  • Whole wheat, rye, corn, soy, and oat flours have lower protein content than all purpose

    • This creates loaves that are denser or more compact

    • These flours are generally used in combination with all purpose flour to create lighter loaves


  • Plain water, potato water, milk, buttermilk, fruit juices, applesauce, and cottage cheese

  • Milk produces a softer crust and helps breads stay fresh longer than water

  • Temperature of liquids affect yeast cells.

    • Liquids too cold can stop yeast activity

    • Liquids too hot can kill yeast

    • 105°F - 115°F


  • Regulates the action of the yeast

  • Without salt, dough is sticky and hard to handle

    • When baked loaf will look moth-eaten

    • Omitting salt can cause the top of the loaf to collapse


  • A microscopic single-celled fungus that causes baked products to rise

  • Available in three forms

    • Compressed – made from fresh, moist cells that are pressed into cakes

    • Active Dry – made from an active yeast strain that has been dried and made into granules

    • Fast-rising – highly active yeast strains that have been dried and made into smaller granules that cause them to act more quickly.


  • Active dry & fast acting are both available in foil packets and glass jars

    • Should be stored in a cool dry place – refrigerate after opening

    • Buy in small quantities and use promptly – may be frozen

  • Using too much yeast will cause dough to rise too quickly

  • Excess yeast gives bread undesirable flavor, texture, and appearance


  • Types – granulated, brown sugar, honey, molasses

  • Influence browning, flavor, and texture

  • Provide extra food for the yeast

    • Too much sugar will cause dough to rise more slowly

  • Bread machines have special cycles for sweet breads


  • Increases the tenderness of yeast breads

  • Fat is optional in some traditional recipes (made by hand) but is required in bread machine recipes

  • Most use solid fat (lard, butter, margarine, shortening) but some call for oil


  • Add flavor and richness to breads

  • Add color and improve structure

  • Adding an egg to recipes that call for whole grain flour will improve structure and volume.

  • Eggs are considered a liquid ingredient in yeast breads

    • If you add an egg to the recipe decrease the liquids by ¼ cup

Other ingredients
Other Ingredients

  • Added to yeast breads for flavor and variety.

  • Suggestions:

    • Raisins

    • Nuts

    • Cheese

    • Herbs

    • Spices