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Breads. Ch. 22. Workbook P. 113. Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the presentation. Categories of Breads. Quick Breads. Yeast Breads. Prepare in a short amount of time Biscuits Muffins Popovers Cream puffs Pancakes Waffles Coffee cakes. Require more time to prepare

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Ch. 22

Workbook P. 113

Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the presentation

Categories of Breads

Quick Breads

Yeast Breads

  • Prepare in a short amount of time

    • Biscuits

    • Muffins

    • Popovers

    • Cream puffs

    • Pancakes

    • Waffles

    • Coffee cakes

  • Require more time to prepare

    • Breads

    • Rolls

    • English muffins

    • Raised doughnuts

    • crullers

Selecting and Storing Baked Products

  • Quick breads and yeast breads are baked products

  • Freshly Baked – ready to eat

    • sold in bakeries, in bakery sections of supermarkets, and on supermarket shelves

  • Brown-and-Serve – partially baked, need a final browning in the oven

    • sold in bakery sections of supermarkets

Selecting and Storing Baked Products

  • Refrigerated dough – ready to bake

    • found in refrigerated sections of supermarkets

  • Frozen dough – require thawing, proofing, and/or baking

    • Found in freezer section of supermarkets

Cost of Baked Products

  • Cost of baked products depends on the amount of convenience

    • Ready-to-serve costs more than frozen

  • Bread costs depend on size, extra ingredients, and brand

Storing Baked Products

  • Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped

  • Freezing bread in hot humid weather prevents mold growth

    • Remove slices from freezer as needed, thaw and eat

  • Refrigerate products with cream, custard, or other perishable fillings

  • Keep refrigerated doughs refrigerated or frozen doughs frozen until you plan to bake them

Quick Breads



  • Range in consistency

  • Pour batters – large amount of liquid and small amount of flour

    • Pancakes & popovers

  • Drop Batters – high proportion of flour and low proportion of liquid

    • Biscuits & muffins

  • Large amount of flour and small amount of liquid

  • Can be shaped by hand

    • Shortcake & rolled biscuits

Quick Bread Ingredients


  • Gives structure to baked products

  • White wheat most often used in baking

  • All-purpose flour used in most recipes

  • Self-rising flour – all purpose flour with added leavening agents and salt

Leavening Agents

  • Ingredients that produce gases in batters and doughs

  • Make baked products rise and become light and porous

  • Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) – an alkaline ingredient

    • Used in recipes that contain acidic ingredients

    • Acids balance the alkali preventing bitter taste

      • Buttermilk, molasses, brown sugar, vinegar, honey, apple sauce and other fruit, and citrus juices

Leavening Agents

  • Baking Powder – contain dry acid, baking soda, and starch or flour

    • Using too much will cause too much carbon dioxide and your baked goods will collapse and become small and compact

  • Steam – produced when liquid ingredients reach high temperatures during baking

  • Air – incorporated into baked goods by beating eggs, creaming fat and sugar, and beating batters

    • All baked products contain some air


  • Water, milk, fruit juices, eggs, and fats

  • Hydrate protein and starch in flour

    • Proteins must absorb water to form gluten

    • Starch must absorb water to gelatinize during baking

  • Moisten or dissolve ingredients

    • Baking powder, salt, and sugar

  • Leaven baked goods when converted to steam


  • Tenderize baked products

    • Fat coats the flour particles and causes the dough structure to separate into layers

  • Aids in leavening

    • When beaten air bubbles form and the fat traps the air bubbles and hold them


  • Incorporates air into baked products

  • Adds color and Flavor

  • Contributes to structure

    • During baking, the egg proteins coagulate

    • The coagulated proteins gives the batter or dough elasticity and structure


  • Adds sweetness to baked products

  • Tenderizes crusts

  • Aids in browning

  • In yeast breads, sugar serves as food for yeast

  • Brown sugar produces baked goods that are moister than products made with granulated sugar


  • Adds flavor to baked products

  • In yeast breads, it regulates the action of the yeast and inhibits the action of certain enzymes

    • If yeast breads contain no salt they will produce carbon dioxide too quickly and be difficult to handle and have a poor appearance.

Adjusting Ingredients

  • Baking powder, fat, eggs, sugar, and salt each perform certain functions in baked goods

  • Some recipes call for more of these ingredients than necessary

  • Cutting down on unneeded ingredients will result in breads that are lower in calories, fat, and sodium

Workbook P. 114

Please take a moment to complete workbook p. 114. The chart on p. 390 will help you.

Workbook p. 115

Please use workbook p. 115 to take notes during the presentation

Food Science Principles

  • Gluten – a protein that gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs and structure to baked products

    • It holds leavening gases which make quick breads rise

  • Gluten is created from gliadin and glutenin

    • When you combine wheat flour with a liquid and stir or knead it, the gliadin and glutenin combine to form gluten


  • When you first start to chew bubble gum, it is soft and easy to chew

  • As you chew the gum, it becomes more elastic, and you can blow bubbles

  • As you continue to chew for a long time, it becomes so elastic it makes your jaw hurt


  • Gluten behaves in a similar way

    • If you mix or handle a batter or dough too much, the gluten will over develop and the bread will be compact and tough

    • To keep quick bread light and tender, mix only a short period of time

Types of Flour

  • Different types of white wheat flour contain different amounts of gliadin and glutenin

    • The strength of the gluten produced by each flour differs

  • In baking, you must use they type of flour listed or the texture will come out wrong

    • Ex. Yeast breads have a strong gluten structure, cakes have a delicate gluten structure and quick breads fall in between

Food Science at Work

  • Chemical reactions in quick breads produce leavening gases

  • Baking soda is an alkali, when combined with an acid, it releases carbon dioxide

    • Acids help neutralize the batter, which would otherwise have a bitter taste and off color

  • Baking Powders are often double-acting

    • They release some carbon dioxide when they are moistened, then release most of their carbon dioxide when they are heated

Preparing Biscuits

  • Biscuit Method

    • Involves sifting dry ingredients together in a mixing bowl

    • Use a pastry blender or knives to cut fat into the dry ingredients

    • Continue cutting until the particles are the size of coarse cornmeal

    • Add liquid all at once, and stir until dough forms a ball

Preparing Biscuits

  • Dry ingredients

    • Flour, baking powder, and salt

      • May use self-rising flour, which is a combo of all three

  • Liquid ingredients

    • Milk to buttermilk

  • Drop Biscuits – drop from a spoon onto a greased cookie sheet

    • Contain higher proportion of liquid

  • Rolled biscuits – knead the dough, roll into a circle and cut dough with a biscuit cutter and bake on an ungreased baking sheet.

Characteristics of Rolled Biscuits

  • Have an even shape with a smooth, level top and straight sides

  • Crust is an even brown

  • When broken open the crumb is white

  • Moist and fluffy, peels into layers

  • Under mixed – low volume and rounded top (rough)

  • Over mixed – low volume and rounded top (smooth)

Preparing Muffins

  • Muffin Method

    • Measure dry ingredients into a mixing bowl

    • Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients

    • In a separate bowl, combine beaten eggs with milk and oil or melted fat

    • Pour all the liquids into the well of dry ingredients

    • Stir the batter until just moistened

Preparing Muffins

  • Dry ingredients

    • Flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar

      • Fruits, nuts, cheese, and other ingredients may be added

  • Liquid ingredients

    • Milk or water, eggs, and fat

  • After combining ingredients, drop muffin batter into a greased muffin pan and bake

Characteristics of Muffins

  • Thin, evenly brown crust

  • Top is symmetrical, but looks rough

  • When broken apart, texture is uniform

  • Crumb is tender and light

  • Under mixed – low volume, coarse crumb, and flat top

  • Over mixed – peaked top, pale slick crust, and when broken apart, narrow tunnels are visible

Preparing Popovers

  • Use the muffin method when preparing popovers

  • Place in a hot oven for the first part of baking

    • Allows steam to expand walls of the popover

  • Lower oven temperature to prevent over browning

  • DO NOT open door to check popovers

    • This will cause popovers to collapse

Characteristics of Popovers

  • Good volume

  • Shell is golden brown and crisp

  • Interior contains slightly moist strands of dough

  • Under baked – collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy

  • Over baked – over browned exterior, dry interior

Preparing Cream Puffs

  • Cream Puff Method

    • Bring water and fat to a boil

    • Add flour and stir vigorously over low heat until the mixture forms a ball

    • Remove mixture from heat, stir in eggs until mixture is smooth

  • This mixture is called puff paste

Preparing Cream Puffs

  • Drop puff paste onto an ungreased baking sheet

  • Bake in a hot oven to rise, then lower temperature to prevent overbrowning

  • DO NOT open door to check cream puffs

    • This will cause the steam to condense and the cream puffs will collapse

Characteristics of Cream Puffs

  • Good volume

  • Brown, tender crust

  • Interior should be hollow

  • Under baked - collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy

  • Evaporation of too much liquid will cause cream puffs to ooze fat

Storing Quick Breads

  • Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped

Yeast Breads

Workbook p. 116

Please use workbook p. 116 to take notes during the presentation


  • All purpose flour can be used for most yeast breads

  • Bread flour contains larger amounts of gliadin and glutenin making it ideal for bread machines

    • This is ideal because the action of the bread machine requires stronger gluten.

  • Whole wheat, rye, corn, soy, and oat flours have lower protein content than all purpose

    • This creates loaves that are denser or more compact

    • These flours are generally used in combination with all purpose flour to create lighter loaves


  • Plain water, potato water, milk, buttermilk, fruit juices, applesauce, and cottage cheese

  • Milk produces a softer crust and helps breads stay fresh longer than water

  • Temperature of liquids affect yeast cells.

    • Liquids too cold can stop yeast activity

    • Liquids too hot can kill yeast

    • 105°F - 115°F


  • Regulates the action of the yeast

  • Without salt, dough is sticky and hard to handle

    • When baked loaf will look moth-eaten

    • Omitting salt can cause the top of the loaf to collapse


  • A microscopic single-celled fungus that causes baked products to rise

  • Available in three forms

    • Compressed – made from fresh, moist cells that are pressed into cakes

    • Active Dry – made from an active yeast strain that has been dried and made into granules

    • Fast-rising – highly active yeast strains that have been dried and made into smaller granules that cause them to act more quickly.


  • Active dry & fast acting are both available in foil packets and glass jars

    • Should be stored in a cool dry place – refrigerate after opening

    • Buy in small quantities and use promptly – may be frozen

  • Using too much yeast will cause dough to rise too quickly

  • Excess yeast gives bread undesirable flavor, texture, and appearance


  • Types – granulated, brown sugar, honey, molasses

  • Influence browning, flavor, and texture

  • Provide extra food for the yeast

    • Too much sugar will cause dough to rise more slowly

  • Bread machines have special cycles for sweet breads


  • Increases the tenderness of yeast breads

  • Fat is optional in some traditional recipes (made by hand) but is required in bread machine recipes

  • Most use solid fat (lard, butter, margarine, shortening) but some call for oil


  • Add flavor and richness to breads

  • Add color and improve structure

  • Adding an egg to recipes that call for whole grain flour will improve structure and volume.

  • Eggs are considered a liquid ingredient in yeast breads

    • If you add an egg to the recipe decrease the liquids by ¼ cup

Other Ingredients

  • Added to yeast breads for flavor and variety.

  • Suggestions:

    • Raisins

    • Nuts

    • Cheese

    • Herbs

    • Spices

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