Tetrad analysis

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Tetrad analysis

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1. Tetrad analysis Fig 5.15 Nonparental = recombinant

2. Tetrad analysis What if two crossovers? Four recombinants Two recombinants No recombinants Fig 5.15

3. Parental ? non-recombinant Fig. 5.17

4. Centromere is not a mutation Fig. 5.21 But you can still use it for mapping

5. How do we know that radiation causes genetic defects?

6. Bridges Muller Morgan Sturtevant

7. Muller?s X-ray experiment (1928)

8. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB

9. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB XY

10. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY gametes

11. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX gametes

12. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX (Bar-eyed females) gametes

13. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX ?XX, ?XXClB (ignore males) gametes

14. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX ?XX, ?XXClB gametes

15. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX ?XX, ?XXClB XY x ?XXClB gametes

16. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX ?XX, ?XXClB XY x ?XXClB ?XY, XClBY (ignore females) gametes

17. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX ?XX, ?XXClB XY x ?XXClB ?XY, XClBY (lethal) gametes

18. Muller?s X-ray experiment Created XClB ?XY x XClBX ?XX, ?XXClB XY x ?XXClB ?XY, XClBY (lethal) gametes How many lethal mutations?

19. Muller?s X-ray experiment ?XY, XClBY (lethal) How many lethal mutations?

20. Muller?s X-ray experiment Nobel prize to Muller, 1946: ?for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation? ?XY, XClBY (lethal) How many lethal mutations?

21. Important for radiation biology, but also for basic genetics

22. George Beadle & Edward Tatum (1941) Do mutations affect biochemistry or only death, wing shape, pea color, etc?

23. Bread mold Fig. 5.14

24. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med

25. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med (why?)

26. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med

27. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med Minimal med

28. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med Minimal med Minimal + alanine

29. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med Minimal med Minimal + serine

30. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med Minimal med Minimal + B6

31. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med Minimal med Minimal + B6 What?s wrong with the strain? It can use everything but B6 It can make everything but B6 It can grow on everything but B6

32. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med Minimal med Minimal + B6 (what is a vitamin?)

33. Beadle & Tatum Complete med Minimal med Complete med Minimal med Minimal + B6 pdx strain

34. Beadle & Tatum

35. Beadle & Tatum

36. Beadle & Tatum Now?how many mutations cause pdx?

37. Beadle & Tatum pdx x WT (Haploid) (Haploid)

38. Beadle & Tatum pdx x WT (if single-gene, what do we expect?)

39. Beadle & Tatum pdx x WT

40. Beadle & Tatum pdx x WT

41. Beadle & Tatum pdx x WT

42. Beadle & Tatum pdx x WT

43. Beadle & Tatum pdx x WT

44. Beadle & Tatum Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

45. Beadle & Tatum Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1 mutation in a single gene so?

46. Beadle & Tatum Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1 mutation in a single gene Step in B6 synthesis attributed to a single gene ?One-gene-one-enzyme? so? so?

47. Beadle & Tatum Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1 mutation in a single gene Nobel prize to Beadle & Tatum, 1958: ?for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events? so? so?

48. Beadle & Tatum Not quite one-gene-one-enzyme: ?One-gene-one-polypeptide? Fig. 9.1


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