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Tetrad analysis






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Tetrad analysis. Fig 5.15. Nonparental = recombinant . Tetrad analysis. What if two crossovers?. Four recombinants Two recombinants No recombinants. Fig 5.15. Parental ≠ non-recombinant. Fig. 5.17. Centromere is not a mutation. But you can still use it for mapping. Fig. 5.21.
Tetrad analysis

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Slide1 l.jpgSlide 1

Tetrad analysis

Fig 5.15

Nonparental = recombinant

Slide2 l.jpgSlide 2

Tetrad analysis

What if two crossovers?

Four recombinants

Two recombinants

No recombinants

Fig 5.15

Slide3 l.jpgSlide 3

Parental ≠ non-recombinant

Fig. 5.17

Slide4 l.jpgSlide 4

Centromere is not a mutation

But you can still use it for mapping

Fig. 5.21

How do we know that radiation causes genetic defects l.jpgSlide 5

How do we know that radiation causes genetic defects?

Slide6 l.jpgSlide 6

Morgan

Bridges

Muller

Sturtevant

Muller s x ray experiment 1928 l.jpgSlide 7

Muller’s X-ray experiment (1928)

Muller s x ray experiment l.jpgSlide 8

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

Muller s x ray experiment9 l.jpgSlide 9

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

XY

Muller s x ray experiment10 l.jpgSlide 10

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY

gametes

Muller s x ray experiment11 l.jpgSlide 11

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

Muller s x ray experiment12 l.jpgSlide 12

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

(Bar-eyed females)

gametes

Muller s x ray experiment13 l.jpgSlide 13

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

(ignore males)

Muller s x ray experiment14 l.jpgSlide 14

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

Muller s x ray experiment15 l.jpgSlide 15

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB

Muller s x ray experiment16 l.jpgSlide 16

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB

•XY, XClBY

(ignore females)

Muller s x ray experiment17 l.jpgSlide 17

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB

•XY, XClBY

(lethal)

Muller s x ray experiment18 l.jpgSlide 18

Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB

•XY, XClBY

How many lethal mutations?

(lethal)

Muller s x ray experiment19 l.jpgSlide 19

Muller’s X-ray experiment

•XY, XClBY

How many lethal mutations?

(lethal)

Muller s x ray experiment20 l.jpgSlide 20

Muller’s X-ray experiment

•XY, XClBY

How many lethal mutations?

(lethal)

Nobel prize to Muller, 1946: “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

Important for radiation biology but also for basic genetics l.jpgSlide 21

Important for radiation biology, but also for basic genetics

George beadle edward tatum 1941 l.jpgSlide 22

George Beadle & Edward Tatum (1941)

Do mutations affect biochemistry or only death, wing shape, pea color, etc?

Bread mold l.jpgSlide 23

Bread mold

Fig. 5.14

Beadle tatum l.jpgSlide 24

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Beadle tatum25 l.jpgSlide 25

Beadle & Tatum

(why?)

Complete med

Minimal med

Beadle tatum26 l.jpgSlide 26

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Beadle tatum27 l.jpgSlide 27

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

Beadle tatum28 l.jpgSlide 28

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

Minimal + alanine

Beadle tatum29 l.jpgSlide 29

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

Minimal + serine

Beadle tatum30 l.jpgSlide 30

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

Minimal + B6

Beadle tatum31 l.jpgSlide 31

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

What’s wrong with the strain?

It can use everything but B6

It can make everything but B6

It can grow on everything but B6

Minimal + B6

Beadle tatum32 l.jpgSlide 32

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

(what is a vitamin?)

Minimal + B6

Beadle tatum33 l.jpgSlide 33

Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

pdx strain

Minimal + B6

Beadle tatum34 l.jpgSlide 34

Beadle & Tatum

Beadle tatum35 l.jpgSlide 35

Beadle & Tatum

Beadle tatum36 l.jpgSlide 36

Beadle & Tatum

Now…how many mutations cause pdx?

Beadle tatum37 l.jpgSlide 37

Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT

(Haploid)

(Haploid)

Beadle tatum38 l.jpgSlide 38

Beadle & Tatum

(if single-gene, what do we expect?)

pdx x WT

Beadle tatum39 l.jpgSlide 39

Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT

Beadle tatum40 l.jpgSlide 40

Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT

Beadle tatum41 l.jpgSlide 41

Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT

Beadle tatum42 l.jpgSlide 42

Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT

Beadle tatum43 l.jpgSlide 43

Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT

Beadle tatum44 l.jpgSlide 44

Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

Beadle tatum45 l.jpgSlide 45

Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

so…

mutation in a single gene

Beadle tatum46 l.jpgSlide 46

Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

so…

mutation in a single gene

so…

Step in B6 synthesis attributed to a single gene

“One-gene-one-enzyme”

Beadle tatum47 l.jpgSlide 47

Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

so…

mutation in a single gene

so…

Nobel prize to Beadle & Tatum, 1958: “for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Beadle tatum48 l.jpgSlide 48

Beadle & Tatum

Not quite one-gene-one-enzyme:

Fig. 9.1

“One-gene-one-polypeptide”


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