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Tetrad analysis. Fig 5.15. Nonparental = recombinant . Tetrad analysis. What if two crossovers?. Four recombinants Two recombinants No recombinants. Fig 5.15. Parental ≠ non-recombinant. Fig. 5.17. Centromere is not a mutation. But you can still use it for mapping. Fig. 5.21.

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Slide1 l.jpg

Tetrad analysis

Fig 5.15

Nonparental = recombinant


Slide2 l.jpg

Tetrad analysis

What if two crossovers?

Four recombinants

Two recombinants

No recombinants

Fig 5.15



Slide4 l.jpg

Centromere is not a mutation

But you can still use it for mapping

Fig. 5.21



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Morgan

Bridges

Muller

Sturtevant





Muller s x ray experiment10 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY

gametes


Muller s x ray experiment11 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes


Muller s x ray experiment12 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

(Bar-eyed females)

gametes


Muller s x ray experiment13 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

(ignore males)


Muller s x ray experiment14 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB


Muller s x ray experiment15 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB


Muller s x ray experiment16 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB

•XY, XClBY

(ignore females)


Muller s x ray experiment17 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB

•XY, XClBY

(lethal)


Muller s x ray experiment18 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

Created XClB

•XY x XClBX

gametes

•XX, •XXClB

XY x •XXClB

•XY, XClBY

How many lethal mutations?

(lethal)


Muller s x ray experiment19 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

•XY, XClBY

How many lethal mutations?

(lethal)


Muller s x ray experiment20 l.jpg
Muller’s X-ray experiment

•XY, XClBY

How many lethal mutations?

(lethal)

Nobel prize to Muller, 1946: “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”



George beadle edward tatum 1941 l.jpg
George Beadle & Edward Tatum (1941)

Do mutations affect biochemistry or only death, wing shape, pea color, etc?


Bread mold l.jpg
Bread mold

Fig. 5.14


Beadle tatum l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med


Beadle tatum25 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

(why?)

Complete med

Minimal med


Beadle tatum26 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med


Beadle tatum27 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med


Beadle tatum28 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

Minimal + alanine


Beadle tatum29 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

Minimal + serine


Beadle tatum30 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

Minimal + B6


Beadle tatum31 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

What’s wrong with the strain?

It can use everything but B6

It can make everything but B6

It can grow on everything but B6

Minimal + B6


Beadle tatum32 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

(what is a vitamin?)

Minimal + B6


Beadle tatum33 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Complete med

Minimal med

Complete med

Minimal med

pdx strain

Minimal + B6




Beadle tatum36 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Now…how many mutations cause pdx?


Beadle tatum37 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT

(Haploid)

(Haploid)


Beadle tatum38 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

(if single-gene, what do we expect?)

pdx x WT


Beadle tatum39 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT


Beadle tatum40 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT


Beadle tatum41 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT


Beadle tatum42 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT


Beadle tatum43 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

pdx x WT


Beadle tatum44 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1


Beadle tatum45 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

so…

mutation in a single gene


Beadle tatum46 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

so…

mutation in a single gene

so…

Step in B6 synthesis attributed to a single gene

“One-gene-one-enzyme”


Beadle tatum47 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Failure to make B6 segregates 1:1

so…

mutation in a single gene

so…

Nobel prize to Beadle & Tatum, 1958: “for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”


Beadle tatum48 l.jpg
Beadle & Tatum

Not quite one-gene-one-enzyme:

Fig. 9.1

“One-gene-one-polypeptide”


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