엔진부품을 위한 카본계 내마모
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엔진부품을 위한 카본계 내마모 윤활코팅. 2006. 5. 30. KIST- 현대자동차 협력 포럼 KIST 미래기술연구본부 이 광 렬. Contents. Brief Introduction to Diamond-like Carbon Coatings Applications of DLC to Automobile Parts DLC Research at KIST. Hard disk. Heart valve. What is DLC ?. Amorphous Solid Carbon Film

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엔진부품을 위한 카본계 내마모 윤활코팅

2006. 5. 30.

KIST-현대자동차 협력 포럼

KIST 미래기술연구본부

이 광 렬


Contents
Contents

  • Brief Introduction to Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

  • Applications of DLC to Automobile Parts

  • DLC Research at KIST


What is dlc

Hard disk

Heart valve

What is DLC ?

  • Amorphous Solid Carbon Film

  • Mixture of sp1, sp2 and sp3 Hybridized Bonds

  • High Content of Hydrogen (20-60%)

  • Synonyms

    • Diamond-like Carbon

    • (Hydrogenated) amorphous carbon (a-C:H)

    • i-Carbon

    • Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon





경질코팅층의 내마모 윤활특성

마모도

마찰계수.

DLC

WC

TiN

CrN

TiCN

2.0

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

(상대비교치)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Against steel ball, 50% RH, RT

(Source : Nanotech Co. Ltd)


Applications of dlc

CD/DVD Mold

Form Die

VCR Head Drum

Spacer Tool

Hard Disk & Slider

Wrist Pin

Digital VCR Tape

Razor Blade

Applications of DLC


Applications of dlc1

CarbofilmTM by Sorin Biomedica, Inc.

Applications of DLC


Deposition methods

1000

Dense

Hydro-

Carbon

Dense

Carbon

100

Impact Energy (eV)

Polymer

Like

Carbon

10

Amorphous

Carbon

(sp2)

1

Plasma

Polymers

Carbon

Source

Hydrocarbon

Source

Deposition Methods

Ion Source

Energy

Cold Substrate




Development of diesel engines
Development of Diesel Engines

  • Diesel engines are designed with continuously increasing power densities since the introduction of HP-fuel injection systems (1993).

  • Power and torque of diesel engines increased at a much higher rate than gasoline engines.

  • Meetenvironmental laws and cost reduction requirements.

Momentum development for typical 2 liter Petrol and Diesel engines over 35 years.

(Source : Dr. Strondl @ Hauzer)


Driving force economy and environment
Driving Force : Economy and Environment

  • Reduction of Energy Consumption

    • Reduction of friction

  • Reduction of Emission

    • Higher pressure fuel injection

    • Predictable wear of piston ring

  • Cost Reduction

    • Reduction of parts numbere.g. sliding bearing instead of needle bearing coated piston pin coated tappet

  • Wear Protection

    • Higher load per surface area


Friction loss in engine

camshaft

tappets

valves

piston

piston rings

crankshaft

Friction Loss in Engine

(Source : Dr. Strondl @ Hauzer, 2005)


Available coatings at present
Available Coatings at Present

(Source : ICMCTF 2005 / 2006)


Coating technology for automobile engines
Coating Technology for Automobile Engines

(Source : Dr. Strondl @ Hauzer, 2005)


Penetration fraction of pvd 2006
Penetration Fraction of PVD (2006)

  • Diesel Pump 100% since 1994

  • Crankshaft Bearing 100% since 1987

  • Piston Ring 10% since 1993

  • Valve train (Tappet) 2% since 2001

  • Piston Pin 1% since 2002

  • Gear < 1% since 2000


Demands in automobile applications

Optimized to the application

for minimum wear and power consumption

Composition

Multilayer structure

Microstructure

Demands in Automobile Applications

  • Low wear of Coated Part

    • Suppress abrasive wear

    • Suppress adhesive wear

    • Suppress fatigue wear

  • Low Wear on Counterpart

  • Low Coefficient of Friction


Nanocomposite multilayer
Nanocomposite / Multilayer

5nm

5nm

W-DLC by Hybrid Ion Plating (KIST)

CrC/W-DLC Multilayer (Hauzer)


Fuel injection system
Fuel Injection System

Part: Diesel fuel injector and plunger

Coating: a-C:H, W-C:H with metallic buffer

Coating thickness >1 μm

Benefit Wear resistance, preventing seizure

2000~3000bar

Figure from Robert Bosch GmbH


Unit injection system 1 9tdi
Unit Injection System (1.9TDI)

  • Technical Data

  • Engine power: 96 KW (130 PS)

  • Injection pressure: 2050 bar

  • Pressure power: 14.000 N

  • Advantages

  • Increased efficiency (lower friction)

  • Increased engine torque

  • Reduce energy consumption

  • Reduction of the CO2-emission

Source: Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg


Valve train
Valve Train

(Source : Dr. Strondl @ Hauzer)


Piston ring
Piston Ring

- Sliding contact

- Abrasive wear (also liner to be protected)

- Temperature load

Coating 200 µm hard Cr (galvanic)

30-40 µm CrN (PVD Arc)

~10 µm DLC (PACVD) / Me-DLC (PVD)

(Source : KIST & DHI 1996)


Dlc application by nissan
DLC Application by Nissan

日産自動車,水素フリーDLCコーティングによる摩擦低減技術を開発

日經 BP 2006/03/15 21:15

Compatibility with special lubricant

of different additives (m = 0.07)

연말 실용화 목표


Gears
Gears

Full oil film lubrication

 DLC has not shown a beneficial influence.

Boundary lubrication(stopping/starting, severe load, temporary loss of lubricant)

 DLC coatings can significantly reduce wear.

Maximum load carrying capacity of gears can be increased by 10-40%.

Coated spur gear



Coating technology for automobile engines1
Coating Technology for Automobile Engines

(Source : Dr. Strondl @ Hauzer, 2005)


Dlc research @ kist
DLC Research @ KIST

  • Synthesis and Application of DLC Films

    • Control of structure and properties of DLC films

    • Modification of DLC films by third element addition

    • Nanoscale structure manipulation for novel functions

    • Tribo-chemical Aspect of DLC Films

    • Mechanical Properties of Thin DLC Films

    • Application technologies

      • Adhesion improvement

      • Coating layer optimization

      • Production process development

http://diamond.kist.re.kr/DLC


Applications of dlc2

CD/DVD Mold

Form Die

VCR Head Drum

Spacer Tool

Hard Disk & Slider

Wrist Pin

Digital VCR Tape

Razor Blade

Applications of DLC


Technology transfer to industry
Technology Transfer to Industry

J&L Tech Co. Ltd

Daewoo Electronics Co.


Application to top ring
Application to Top Ring

Required Properties of Top Ring

  • Anti-scuffing

  • Wear Resistance

  • Low Friction Coefficient

  • Chemical Stability

  • Self Lubrication

  • Low Cost

Schematics of Diesel Engine


Deposition method
Deposition Method

  • 250KHz PACVD using CH4 at 200 mTorr

  • Cylinder Coating Technology (analogy to VCR Head Drums)

  • Buffer Layer Design for Optimum Adhesion

~10mm Thick Films


Reciprocal tribometer plint 77

sliding direction

piston ring

cylinder liner

(boron cast iron)

Reciprocal Tribometer (Plint 77)


Anti scuffing property of piston rings
Anti-scuffing Property of Piston Rings

Test condition :

load :200N, marginal lub. condition

250

200

150

Time to failure(hour)

100

50

0

Cr

WS2-1

WA2-2

GN

PVD

DLC



Result of dynamo test 900h
Result of Dynamo Test (900h)

Hard Cr Coated Ring

DLC coated Ring

Before Test

Before Test

After Test

After test


Hard Cr Coated

Piston Ring

DLC/Cr Coated

Piston Ring

6.5mm

100mm

Before Test

Before Test

5.3mm

After Test

After Test


Issues in carbon base coatings

Adhesion

In most cases, film adhesion is more important than the mechanical properties.

Environmental Effects

Compatibility with new lubricants

Adhesion degradation in aqueous environment

Tribochemical Reaction for Fundamentals

In-situ observation of the contact surfaces

Third element effect

Multilayer effect

Market Penetration

Based on the advanced technology

Issues in Carbon Base Coatings


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