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Performance Appraisals. Evaluating how well employees are working. Performance Appraisals. What are Performance Appraisals (a.k.a. Evaluations)? What is the purpose of Performance Evaluations? Validation of Selection Training Requirements Employee Improvement

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performance appraisals

Performance Appraisals

Evaluating how well employees are working

performance appraisals3
Performance Appraisals
  • What are Performance Appraisals (a.k.a. Evaluations)?
  • What is the purpose of Performance Evaluations?
    • Validation of Selection
    • Training Requirements
    • Employee Improvement
    • Pay, Promotion, and other decisions
performance criteria
Performance Criteria
  • Need to have a standard by which to compare “good” behavior
  • Recall Predictors and Criteria
    • Predictors: what we are looking for when we hire
    • Criteria: the “evidence” of a good employee
      • Theoretical (ideal) vs. actual criteria
  • QG: What happens if performance evaluations are not fair or accurate?
issues with criteria
Issues with Criteria
  • Criterion Relevance
    • Is the actual criteria close to the theoretical criteria
  • Criterion Contamination
    • Biases and unrealiability
  • Criterion Deficiency
    • Problems with content validity
  • Criterion Usefulness
  • QG: Examples of these in your job
types of appraisals
Types of Appraisals
  • Objective
    • Behaviors
      • Absences, lateness, accidents
    • Production
      • Quantity and Quality of Output
      • Electronic Monitoring
  • May have problems of criterion deficiency
types of appraisals7
Types of Appraisals
  • Subjective
    • Rankings of employees and ratings of performance
  • May have problems with criterion contamination and criterion relevance
  • QG: What are objective and subjective criteria in your jobs?
where do appraisals come from
Where do appraisals come from?
  • Self-appraisals
  • Peer appraisals
  • Supervisor appraisals
  • 360 degree feedback
    • From all around the employee
    • Inter-rater reliability/more fair
    • Leadership focused
specific appraisals comparative
Specific appraisals: Comparative
  • Ranking
    • Supervisors rank employees
    • Problems
  • Forced Distribution
    • GE’s Top and Bottom 10%
specific appraisals individual
Specific appraisals: Individual
  • Graphic Rating Scales
    • Rating of dimensions from job analyses
    • Very subjective
  • QG: Example of Teacher Rating Scale
    • Strengths and weaknesses as a performance evaluation tool
    • Turn in!
specific appraisals individual11
Specific appraisals: Individual
  • Behaviorally Anchored Rating scales (BARS)
    • Uses actual listing of behaviors of poor and good performance
    • Think back to our job analysis and critical incidents technique
  • Behavioral observation scores (BOS)
    • How often they perform this behavior
sources of error in appraisals
Sources of Error in Appraisals
  • Severity, Average or Leniency Rating Error
  • Halo Effect
    • Both positive and negative
  • Recency Effect
sources of error in appraisals13
Sources of Error in Appraisals
  • Causal Attribution Errors
    • Extreme ratings for perceived effort over perceived ability
    • Actor-observer bias
      • Comes from the fundamental attribution error
      • Actor “blames” environment for failures and credits self for successes. Observer does the opposite
sources of error in appraisals14
Sources of Error in Appraisals
  • Personal Biases
    • Discrimination
    • Pregnancy
      • You’d be surprised
    • Friendship
    • Organizational training programs
      • Legal issues
      • Reverse discrimination
purpose of feedback
Purpose of Feedback
  • Performance appraisals help employee learn about strengths and weaknesses
  • Employees want to know what they’re being evaluated on
  • Performance appraisals should motivate employees to improve
  • QG: What happens when employees don’t get feedback or get poor feedback?
improving the appraisal process
Improving the appraisal process
  • Improve performance appraisal techniques
  • Train the appraisers
    • Should know biases
  • Multiple evaluations
    • Inter-rater reliability!
  • Appraise the appraisers
  • Performance appraisals should be regular and often
  • Review and revise performance appraisals
how to give feedback
How to give feedback
  • Sandwich!!
  • Employees participate in process
  • Appraiser positive, constructive, supportive
  • Focus on specific job problems
  • Employee and supervisor jointly reach goals
  • Employee can challenge evaluation
  • Salary and Rank discussions linked