Evaluating Methods of Change
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Evaluating Methods of Change. Nancy Kress Head, Bookstacks Department University of Chicago Library. The Challenge Users expect books to be on the shelf at all times. Bookstacks Mission: The Stacks Department serves library patrons through quick, accurate re-shelving of library materials.

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Evaluating Methods of Change

Nancy Kress

Head, Bookstacks Department

University of Chicago Library


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The ChallengeUsers expect books to be on the shelf at all times

Bookstacks Mission:

The Stacks Department serves library patrons through quick, accurate re-shelving of library materials.


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Methodologies for Change 2003 - present

  • Process mapping

    • 2003-2005

  • Continuous process improvement

    • 2004-present

  • Lean Manufacturing

    • present


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What wasn’t solved?

  • Peak book returns

    • 4 quarterly due dates

    • Normal weekly book returns avg. 8,000

    • Peak weekly returns avg. 35,000


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Best Practice Models

  • Other Libraries

  • Similar process organizations

    • U.S. Post Office

    • Library Bindery


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Heckman Plant Tour

  • View lean manufacturing process

  • Improve Bookstacks efficiencies at Regenstein


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What is “Lean Manufacturing?”

  • Lean manufacturing is aimed at elimination of waste

  • Organize processes to add value to the customer

  • Deliver goods “just-in-time”

  • Service organizations also using lean


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History of Lean

  • “The Machine That Changed the World”

  • Toyota auto manufacturing

  • “Value chain”


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Basic Lean Principles

  • Add nothing but value

    • Eliminate “muda” – waste

  • Do it right the first time

  • People doing the work add value

    • Team oriented

  • Deliver on demand

    • “Pull” instead of push


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Lean learned from Heckman

  • Key Principle #1: Pull…

    • …means work isn’t done until a downstream process requires it

    • Make only what the next process needs – when it needs it


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“Pull” becomes “Immediate Shelving”

  • The Process:

    • Only full shelves pulled to cart

    • One shelf = 30 minutes


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Lean learned from Heckman

  • Key Principle #2: Batching

    • Key to rapid delivery is small batch sizes


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“The Goal” by Eliyahu M. Goldratt & Jeff Cox

  • “This book is about progress. It’s about the creation and acceptance of improvements – change for the better.”


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More from “The Goal”…

  • What is the Bookstacks Department’s ONE goal?

    • Quick, accurate reshelving

    • All books on the shelf in correct order, ALL THE TIME



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Our Challenge for Lean

  • Peak Book Returns

  • 4 Quarterly Due Dates

    • Normal weekly returns: 6,000

    • Peak returns: 35,000


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Brainstorming Session

  • Book knowledge can only go so far…

    • Best way to learn is by DOING

  • Begin where the greatest need exists


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Creating “level pull”

  • “Level pull” is basically a replenishment model

    • Replenish Bookstacks shelves

  • Create a “level” daily schedule of work

    • Use inventory to buffer against large swings in work


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Keys to level pull

  • Create inventory

    • “supermarket”

  • Organize how inventory is stored

    • Consolidate similar types


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Optimize the Bottlenecks

  • Reduce batch sizes

    • Eliminate uneven amounts of work

  • Put the best people on the bottlenecks

    • They set the pace



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Future Outcomes?

  • GOAL: measurable results

  • VALUE: high use books are on shelf



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Future Goals

  • Bionic Bookstacks

    • Better

    • Stronger

    • Faster


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Exercise: Identifying Waste

  • What activities add no value to library users?


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Waste Categories

  • Overproducing

  • Inventory

  • Waiting

  • Extra Processing

  • Correction

  • Excess Motion

  • Transportation

  • Underutilized People


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References

Goldratt, E. M. & Cox, J. (1992). The goal: A process of ongoing improvement 2nd rev. ed.). Great Barrington, MA: North River Press.

Keyte, B., & Locher, D. (2004) The complete lean enterprise: Value stream mapping for administrative and office processes. New York: Productivity Press.

Madison, D. (2005). Process mapping, process improvement, and process management: A practical guide for enhancing work and information flow. Chico, Calif: Paton Press.

Nalicheri, N., Baily, C., & Cade, S. The lean, green service machine. http://www.strategy-business.com/

Poppendick, M. (2002). Principles of lean thinking. http://www.poppendieck.com/papers/LeanThinking.pdf

Rother, M., Shook, J., & Lean Enterprise Institute. (2003). Learning to see: Value stream mapping to create value and eliminate muda (Version 1.3 ed.). Brookline, MA: Lean Enterprise Institute.


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