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Energy- Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks . CSE 6590. By : Abeer & Abdullah. Outline. Energy Challenge in MANETs Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR) Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR ) Performance Discussion . Wireless Networks: MANETs. Wireless Networks. Infrastructure-based.

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Energy Challenge in MANETs
  • Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR)
  • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR)
  • Performance
  • Discussion
wireless networks manets
Wireless Networks: MANETs

Wireless Networks

Infrastructure-based

Infrastructureless

Cellular Networks

Mobile Nodes

Static Nodes

Wireless LANs

Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Mesh Networks

Sensor Networks

manets challenges
MANETs: Challenges
  • Wireless channels: error-prone media
  • Low bandwidth channels
  • Security
  • Unpredictable mobility
  • Devices: low power, limited resources
  • Maintaining connectivity, states
energy challenges in manets
Energy Challenges in MANETs
  • Portability and mobility
  • Each device act both as a host and a router
  • Energy efficiency is becoming the most critical issue for battery-operated devices
  • It is important to find ways to increase the life time of the network.
techniques to reduce p ower c onsumptions
Techniques to Reduce Power Consumptions
  • Reduce CPU clock speed
  • Spinning down internal disk
  • Turn off screen light
  • Power down mode
  • Turn off the radio when not in use
    • Not in Ad hoc networks
    • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR) can be used
energy aware ad hoc routing algorithms1
Energy-Aware Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms
  • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)
  • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)
what is gear
What is GEAR?
    • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)
    • Purpose : Optimize energy
  • Based on DSR
    • Simple and efficient
  • Requires global information
    • To find the optimal route
what is gear cont
What is GEAR? (Cont.)
  • Use power metrics
    • Minimize Energy consumed/packet
    • Maximize Time to Network Partition
    • Minimize Variance in node power levels
    • Minimize Cost/Packet
how gear works
How GEAR works ?
  • Source
    • Broadcast RREQ as DSR
  • Intermediate nodes
      • Node’s battery level attached to RREQ
  • Destination
    • Receives all RREQs from all possible paths
    • Chooses the route which minimizes the power
advantages of gear
Advantages of GEAR
  • Advantages:
    • Saves energy
    • Maximizes system lifetime
  • Does that mean GEAR has good performance?
why does gear perform badly
Why does GEAR perform badly ?
  • Disadvantages:
    • Blocking
    • Can not utilize route cache
      • High traffic
  • Need for a new algorithm to overcome GEAR’s disadvantages
motivations for new energy aware routing protocol
Motivations for New Energy-Aware Routing protocol
  • Reducing energy consumption
  • Increasing nodes and networks lifetime
  • Taking advantage of the original DSR
  • Overcoming GEAR’S disadvantages
what is lear
What is LEAR?
    • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)
    • Purpose : Optimize energy
  • Based on DSR
  • Does not require global information
lear basic form
LEAR Basic Form
  • Nodes can forward or drop RREQ depending on its remaining battery power (Er)
  • Basic operation behavior :

IfEr > Thr, Forward RREQ

otherwise, Drop RREQ

    • Thr : Threshold value
    • Er : remaining battery power
why sequence numbers in lear
Why Sequence Numbers in LEAR ?
  • Worst case: all RREQs are dropped
    • Source re-send same RREQ with larger sequence number
    • Intermediate nodes adjusts (lowers) its Thr to allow forwarding to continue.
lear basic form problems
LEAR Basic Form Problems
  • Two problems in the basic form:
    • Repeated RREQ messages
    • Difficulty in utilize route cache
problems 1 repeated rreq messages
Problems 1 : Repeated RREQ Messages

Er < Thr

B

Er < Thr

Er < Thr

Er < Thr

C1

A

S

C2

D

1st RREQ

1st RREQ dropped by A due to node’s low battery level

2nd RREQ

2nd RREQ dropped by B

3rd RREQ

3rd RREQ dropped by C1

4th RREQ

4th RREQ dropped by C2

5th RREQ

(a) Five route discovery procedures are required

problems 1 solution
Problems 1: (Solution)

B

Er < Thr

C1

A

S

C2

D

1st RREQ

1st RREQ dropped

forwards DROP_ROUTE_REQ

DROP_ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

2nd RREQ

(b) Two route discovery procedures are required

problems 2 difficulty in utilize route cache
Problems 2 : Difficulty in Utilize Route Cache

Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

Er > Thr

B

ROUTE_CACHE

C1

ROUTE_REQ

Er > Thr

ROUTE_CACHE

A

S

C2

ROUTE_REQ

ROUTE_CACHE

D

ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

(a) Unicast message to inform to the destination

problems 2 solution
Problems 2 : (Solution)

Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

B

Er< Thr

ROUTE_CACHE

C1

ROUTE_REQ

DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

A

DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

S

ROUTE_REQ

C2

CANCEL_ROUTE_CACH E

D

CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE

DROP_ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

message is sent back

(b) Invalidating route cache upon a node with low battery level

what could s olve lear problems

Solutions

What Could Solve LEAR Problems ?
  • Routing-control messages
  • DROP_ROUTE_REQ
  • ROUTE_CACHE
  • DROP_ROUTE_CACHE
  • CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE
performance
Performance
  • GloMoSim 2.0 simulator
  • Parameters:
    • 40 mobile nodes
    • 1000 meters by 1000 meters range
    • 500 seconds of simulation time
    • Power consumption 0.05 Watts (sleep) to 1.50 Watts
    • 2 Assumptions:
      • Energy consumed during idling is ignored
      • Non-promiscuous mode
summary
Summary
  • Problems: Larger transmission time:
    • Precedence to energy efficiency.
  • Less data receive ratio.
  • Balanced energy consumptions based on local info.
  • Simple
  • Can be easily integrated into existing ad hoc routing algorithms
  • LEAR improves the energy balance as much as 35% compared to the DSR algorithm.
future work
Future Work
  • GEAR simulation to compare results with LEAR
  • Optimize LEAR by using Alternative Path Routing
  • Apply LEAR to broadcast type network
references
References
  • Woo, Kyungtae, et al. "Non-blocking, localized routing algorithm for balanced energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks." Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, 2001. Proceedings. Ninth International Symposium on. IEEE, 2001.
  • S. Singh, M. Woo, and C. S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom\'98), pp.181-190, Oct. 1998.
  • R. Kravets and P. Krishnan, “Power Management Techniques for Mobile Communication,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom\'98), Oct. 1998.
  • D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, edited by T. Imielinski and H. F. Korth, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
  • Class ppts
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