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Energy- Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks . CSE 6590. By : Abeer & Abdullah. Outline. Energy Challenge in MANETs Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR) Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR ) Performance Discussion . Wireless Networks: MANETs. Wireless Networks. Infrastructure-based.

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Energy aware routing in mobile ad hoc networks

Energy-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

CSE 6590

  • By : Abeer & Abdullah


Outline
Outline

  • Energy Challenge in MANETs

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR)

  • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR)

  • Performance

  • Discussion


Wireless networks manets
Wireless Networks: MANETs

Wireless Networks

Infrastructure-based

Infrastructureless

Cellular Networks

Mobile Nodes

Static Nodes

Wireless LANs

Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Mesh Networks

Sensor Networks


Manets challenges
MANETs: Challenges

  • Wireless channels: error-prone media

  • Low bandwidth channels

  • Security

  • Unpredictable mobility

  • Devices: low power, limited resources

  • Maintaining connectivity, states


Energy challenges in manets
Energy Challenges in MANETs

  • Portability and mobility

  • Each device act both as a host and a router

  • Energy efficiency is becoming the most critical issue for battery-operated devices

  • It is important to find ways to increase the life time of the network.


Techniques to reduce p ower c onsumptions
Techniques to Reduce Power Consumptions

  • Reduce CPU clock speed

  • Spinning down internal disk

  • Turn off screen light

  • Power down mode

  • Turn off the radio when not in use

    • Not in Ad hoc networks

    • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR) can be used



Energy aware ad hoc routing algorithms1
Energy-Aware Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)

  • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)


What is gear
What is GEAR?

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)

  • Purpose : Optimize energy

  • Based on DSR

    • Simple and efficient

  • Requires global information

    • To find the optimal route


  • What is gear cont
    What is GEAR? (Cont.)

    • Use power metrics

      • Minimize Energy consumed/packet

      • Maximize Time to Network Partition

      • Minimize Variance in node power levels

      • Minimize Cost/Packet


    How gear works
    How GEAR works ?

    • Source

      • Broadcast RREQ as DSR

    • Intermediate nodes

      • Node’s battery level attached to RREQ

  • Destination

    • Receives all RREQs from all possible paths

    • Chooses the route which minimizes the power



  • Advantages of gear
    Advantages of GEAR

    • Advantages:

      • Saves energy

      • Maximizes system lifetime

    • Does that mean GEAR has good performance?


    Why does gear perform badly
    Why does GEAR perform badly ?

    • Disadvantages:

      • Blocking

      • Can not utilize route cache

        • High traffic

    • Need for a new algorithm to overcome GEAR’s disadvantages


    Motivations for new energy aware routing protocol
    Motivations for New Energy-Aware Routing protocol

    • Reducing energy consumption

    • Increasing nodes and networks lifetime

    • Taking advantage of the original DSR

    • Overcoming GEAR’S disadvantages


    What is lear
    What is LEAR?

    • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)

    • Purpose : Optimize energy

  • Based on DSR

  • Does not require global information


  • Lear basic form
    LEAR Basic Form

    • Nodes can forward or drop RREQ depending on its remaining battery power (Er)

    • Basic operation behavior :

      IfEr > Thr, Forward RREQ

      otherwise, Drop RREQ

      • Thr : Threshold value

      • Er : remaining battery power


    Why sequence numbers in lear
    Why Sequence Numbers in LEAR ?

    • Worst case: all RREQs are dropped

      • Source re-send same RREQ with larger sequence number

      • Intermediate nodes adjusts (lowers) its Thr to allow forwarding to continue.


    Lear basic form problems
    LEAR Basic Form Problems

    • Two problems in the basic form:

      • Repeated RREQ messages

      • Difficulty in utilize route cache


    Problems 1 repeated rreq messages
    Problems 1 : Repeated RREQ Messages

    Er < Thr

    B

    Er < Thr

    Er < Thr

    Er < Thr

    C1

    A

    S

    C2

    D

    1st RREQ

    1st RREQ dropped by A due to node’s low battery level

    2nd RREQ

    2nd RREQ dropped by B

    3rd RREQ

    3rd RREQ dropped by C1

    4th RREQ

    4th RREQ dropped by C2

    5th RREQ

    (a) Five route discovery procedures are required


    Problems 1 solution
    Problems 1: (Solution)

    B

    Er < Thr

    C1

    A

    S

    C2

    D

    1st RREQ

    1st RREQ dropped

    forwards DROP_ROUTE_REQ

    DROP_ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

    2nd RREQ

    (b) Two route discovery procedures are required


    Problems 2 difficulty in utilize route cache
    Problems 2 : Difficulty in Utilize Route Cache

    Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

    Er > Thr

    B

    ROUTE_CACHE

    C1

    ROUTE_REQ

    Er > Thr

    ROUTE_CACHE

    A

    S

    C2

    ROUTE_REQ

    ROUTE_CACHE

    D

    ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

    ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

    (a) Unicast message to inform to the destination


    Problems 2 solution
    Problems 2 : (Solution)

    Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

    B

    Er< Thr

    ROUTE_CACHE

    C1

    ROUTE_REQ

    DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

    A

    DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

    S

    ROUTE_REQ

    C2

    CANCEL_ROUTE_CACH E

    D

    CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE

    DROP_ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

    message is sent back

    (b) Invalidating route cache upon a node with low battery level


    Table lear algorithm
    Table : LEAR algorithm


    Table lear algorithm cont
    Table : LEAR algorithm (cont.)


    What could s olve lear problems

    What Could Solve LEAR Problems ?

    • Routing-control messages

    • DROP_ROUTE_REQ

    • ROUTE_CACHE

    • DROP_ROUTE_CACHE

    • CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE



    Performance
    Performance

    • GloMoSim 2.0 simulator

    • Parameters:

      • 40 mobile nodes

      • 1000 meters by 1000 meters range

      • 500 seconds of simulation time

      • Power consumption 0.05 Watts (sleep) to 1.50 Watts

      • 2 Assumptions:

        • Energy consumed during idling is ignored

        • Non-promiscuous mode


    Dsr vs lear reaming battery levels
    DSR vsLEAR Reaming Battery Levels


    Dsr vs lear distribution of energy consumptions
    DSR vsLEAR Distribution of energy consumptions


    Dsr vs lear energy consumption with faster nodes
    DSR vs LEAR Energy consumption with faster nodes


    Dsr vs lear ratio of accepted route reqs
    DSR vs LEAR Ratio of Accepted ROUTE_REQs


    Summary
    Summary

    • Problems: Larger transmission time:

      • Precedence to energy efficiency.

    • Less data receive ratio.

    • Balanced energy consumptions based on local info.

    • Simple

    • Can be easily integrated into existing ad hoc routing algorithms

    • LEAR improves the energy balance as much as 35% compared to the DSR algorithm.


    Future work
    Future Work

    • GEAR simulation to compare results with LEAR

    • Optimize LEAR by using Alternative Path Routing

    • Apply LEAR to broadcast type network



    References
    References

    • Woo, Kyungtae, et al. "Non-blocking, localized routing algorithm for balanced energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks." Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, 2001. Proceedings. Ninth International Symposium on. IEEE, 2001.

    • S. Singh, M. Woo, and C. S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'98), pp.181-190, Oct. 1998.

    • R. Kravets and P. Krishnan, “Power Management Techniques for Mobile Communication,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'98), Oct. 1998.

    • D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, edited by T. Imielinski and H. F. Korth, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

    • Class ppts


    Thank you for listening
    Thank you for listening!


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