Energy aware routing in mobile ad hoc networks
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Energy- Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks . CSE 6590. By : Abeer & Abdullah. Outline. Energy Challenge in MANETs Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR) Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR ) Performance Discussion . Wireless Networks: MANETs. Wireless Networks. Infrastructure-based.

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Energy- Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

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Energy-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

CSE 6590

  • By : Abeer & Abdullah


Outline

  • Energy Challenge in MANETs

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR)

  • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR)

  • Performance

  • Discussion


Wireless Networks: MANETs

Wireless Networks

Infrastructure-based

Infrastructureless

Cellular Networks

Mobile Nodes

Static Nodes

Wireless LANs

Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Mesh Networks

Sensor Networks


MANETs: Challenges

  • Wireless channels: error-prone media

  • Low bandwidth channels

  • Security

  • Unpredictable mobility

  • Devices: low power, limited resources

  • Maintaining connectivity, states


Energy Challenges in MANETs

  • Portability and mobility

  • Each device act both as a host and a router

  • Energy efficiency is becoming the most critical issue for battery-operated devices

  • It is important to find ways to increase the life time of the network.


Techniques to Reduce Power Consumptions

  • Reduce CPU clock speed

  • Spinning down internal disk

  • Turn off screen light

  • Power down mode

  • Turn off the radio when not in use

    • Not in Ad hoc networks

    • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR) can be used


Energy-Aware Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms


Energy-Aware Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)

  • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)


What is GEAR?

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)

  • Purpose : Optimize energy

  • Based on DSR

    • Simple and efficient

  • Requires global information

    • To find the optimal route


  • What is GEAR? (Cont.)

    • Use power metrics

      • Minimize Energy consumed/packet

      • Maximize Time to Network Partition

      • Minimize Variance in node power levels

      • Minimize Cost/Packet


    How GEAR works ?

    • Source

      • Broadcast RREQ as DSR

    • Intermediate nodes

      • Node’s battery level attached to RREQ

  • Destination

    • Receives all RREQs from all possible paths

    • Chooses the route which minimizes the power


  • Table : GEAR algorithm


    Advantages of GEAR

    • Advantages:

      • Saves energy

      • Maximizes system lifetime

    • Does that mean GEAR has good performance?


    Why does GEAR perform badly ?

    • Disadvantages:

      • Blocking

      • Can not utilize route cache

        • High traffic

    • Need for a new algorithm to overcome GEAR’s disadvantages


    Motivations for New Energy-Aware Routing protocol

    • Reducing energy consumption

    • Increasing nodes and networks lifetime

    • Taking advantage of the original DSR

    • Overcoming GEAR’S disadvantages


    What is LEAR?

    • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)

    • Purpose : Optimize energy

  • Based on DSR

  • Does not require global information


  • LEAR Basic Form

    • Nodes can forward or drop RREQ depending on its remaining battery power (Er)

    • Basic operation behavior :

      IfEr > Thr, Forward RREQ

      otherwise, Drop RREQ

      • Thr : Threshold value

      • Er : remaining battery power


    Why Sequence Numbers in LEAR ?

    • Worst case: all RREQs are dropped

      • Source re-send same RREQ with larger sequence number

      • Intermediate nodes adjusts (lowers) its Thr to allow forwarding to continue.


    LEAR Basic Form Problems

    • Two problems in the basic form:

      • Repeated RREQ messages

      • Difficulty in utilize route cache


    Problems 1 : Repeated RREQ Messages

    Er < Thr

    B

    Er < Thr

    Er < Thr

    Er < Thr

    C1

    A

    S

    C2

    D

    1st RREQ

    1st RREQ dropped by A due to node’s low battery level

    2nd RREQ

    2nd RREQ dropped by B

    3rd RREQ

    3rd RREQ dropped by C1

    4th RREQ

    4th RREQ dropped by C2

    5th RREQ

    (a) Five route discovery procedures are required


    Problems 1: (Solution)

    B

    Er < Thr

    C1

    A

    S

    C2

    D

    1st RREQ

    1st RREQ dropped

    forwards DROP_ROUTE_REQ

    DROP_ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

    2nd RREQ

    (b) Two route discovery procedures are required


    Problems 2 : Difficulty in Utilize Route Cache

    Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

    Er > Thr

    B

    ROUTE_CACHE

    C1

    ROUTE_REQ

    Er > Thr

    ROUTE_CACHE

    A

    S

    C2

    ROUTE_REQ

    ROUTE_CACHE

    D

    ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

    ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

    (a) Unicast message to inform to the destination


    Problems 2 : (Solution)

    Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

    B

    Er< Thr

    ROUTE_CACHE

    C1

    ROUTE_REQ

    DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

    A

    DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

    S

    ROUTE_REQ

    C2

    CANCEL_ROUTE_CACH E

    D

    CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE

    DROP_ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

    message is sent back

    (b) Invalidating route cache upon a node with low battery level


    Table : LEAR algorithm


    Table : LEAR algorithm (cont.)


    • Solutions

    What Could Solve LEAR Problems ?

    • Routing-control messages

    • DROP_ROUTE_REQ

    • ROUTE_CACHE

    • DROP_ROUTE_CACHE

    • CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE


    comparison


    Performance

    • GloMoSim 2.0 simulator

    • Parameters:

      • 40 mobile nodes

      • 1000 meters by 1000 meters range

      • 500 seconds of simulation time

      • Power consumption 0.05 Watts (sleep) to 1.50 Watts

      • 2 Assumptions:

        • Energy consumed during idling is ignored

        • Non-promiscuous mode


    DSR vsLEAR Reaming Battery Levels


    DSR vsLEAR Distribution of energy consumptions


    DSR vs LEAR Energy consumption with faster nodes


    DSR vs LEAR Ratio of Accepted ROUTE_REQs


    Summary

    • Problems: Larger transmission time:

      • Precedence to energy efficiency.

    • Less data receive ratio.

    • Balanced energy consumptions based on local info.

    • Simple

    • Can be easily integrated into existing ad hoc routing algorithms

    • LEAR improves the energy balance as much as 35% compared to the DSR algorithm.


    Future Work

    • GEAR simulation to compare results with LEAR

    • Optimize LEAR by using Alternative Path Routing

    • Apply LEAR to broadcast type network


    Discussion


    References

    • Woo, Kyungtae, et al. "Non-blocking, localized routing algorithm for balanced energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks." Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, 2001. Proceedings. Ninth International Symposium on. IEEE, 2001.

    • S. Singh, M. Woo, and C. S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'98), pp.181-190, Oct. 1998.

    • R. Kravets and P. Krishnan, “Power Management Techniques for Mobile Communication,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'98), Oct. 1998.

    • D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, edited by T. Imielinski and H. F. Korth, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

    • Class ppts


    Thank you for listening!


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