Energy aware routing in mobile ad hoc networks
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Energy- Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks . CSE 6590. By : Abeer & Abdullah. Outline. Energy Challenge in MANETs Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR) Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR ) Performance Discussion . Wireless Networks: MANETs. Wireless Networks. Infrastructure-based.

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Energy- Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

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Energy aware routing in mobile ad hoc networks

Energy-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

CSE 6590

  • By : Abeer & Abdullah


Outline

Outline

  • Energy Challenge in MANETs

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR)

  • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR)

  • Performance

  • Discussion


Wireless networks manets

Wireless Networks: MANETs

Wireless Networks

Infrastructure-based

Infrastructureless

Cellular Networks

Mobile Nodes

Static Nodes

Wireless LANs

Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Mesh Networks

Sensor Networks


Manets challenges

MANETs: Challenges

  • Wireless channels: error-prone media

  • Low bandwidth channels

  • Security

  • Unpredictable mobility

  • Devices: low power, limited resources

  • Maintaining connectivity, states


Energy challenges in manets

Energy Challenges in MANETs

  • Portability and mobility

  • Each device act both as a host and a router

  • Energy efficiency is becoming the most critical issue for battery-operated devices

  • It is important to find ways to increase the life time of the network.


Techniques to reduce p ower c onsumptions

Techniques to Reduce Power Consumptions

  • Reduce CPU clock speed

  • Spinning down internal disk

  • Turn off screen light

  • Power down mode

  • Turn off the radio when not in use

    • Not in Ad hoc networks

    • Local Energy-Aware Routing (LEAR) can be used


Energy aware ad hoc routing algorithms

Energy-Aware Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms


Energy aware ad hoc routing algorithms1

Energy-Aware Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)

  • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)


What is gear

What is GEAR?

  • Global Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (GEAR)

  • Purpose : Optimize energy

  • Based on DSR

    • Simple and efficient

  • Requires global information

    • To find the optimal route


  • What is gear cont

    What is GEAR? (Cont.)

    • Use power metrics

      • Minimize Energy consumed/packet

      • Maximize Time to Network Partition

      • Minimize Variance in node power levels

      • Minimize Cost/Packet


    How gear works

    How GEAR works ?

    • Source

      • Broadcast RREQ as DSR

    • Intermediate nodes

      • Node’s battery level attached to RREQ

  • Destination

    • Receives all RREQs from all possible paths

    • Chooses the route which minimizes the power


  • Table gear algorithm

    Table : GEAR algorithm


    Advantages of gear

    Advantages of GEAR

    • Advantages:

      • Saves energy

      • Maximizes system lifetime

    • Does that mean GEAR has good performance?


    Why does gear perform badly

    Why does GEAR perform badly ?

    • Disadvantages:

      • Blocking

      • Can not utilize route cache

        • High traffic

    • Need for a new algorithm to overcome GEAR’s disadvantages


    Motivations for new energy aware routing protocol

    Motivations for New Energy-Aware Routing protocol

    • Reducing energy consumption

    • Increasing nodes and networks lifetime

    • Taking advantage of the original DSR

    • Overcoming GEAR’S disadvantages


    What is lear

    What is LEAR?

    • Local Energy-Aware Routing Algorithm (LEAR)

    • Purpose : Optimize energy

  • Based on DSR

  • Does not require global information


  • Lear basic form

    LEAR Basic Form

    • Nodes can forward or drop RREQ depending on its remaining battery power (Er)

    • Basic operation behavior :

      IfEr > Thr, Forward RREQ

      otherwise, Drop RREQ

      • Thr : Threshold value

      • Er : remaining battery power


    Why sequence numbers in lear

    Why Sequence Numbers in LEAR ?

    • Worst case: all RREQs are dropped

      • Source re-send same RREQ with larger sequence number

      • Intermediate nodes adjusts (lowers) its Thr to allow forwarding to continue.


    Lear basic form problems

    LEAR Basic Form Problems

    • Two problems in the basic form:

      • Repeated RREQ messages

      • Difficulty in utilize route cache


    Problems 1 repeated rreq messages

    Problems 1 : Repeated RREQ Messages

    Er < Thr

    B

    Er < Thr

    Er < Thr

    Er < Thr

    C1

    A

    S

    C2

    D

    1st RREQ

    1st RREQ dropped by A due to node’s low battery level

    2nd RREQ

    2nd RREQ dropped by B

    3rd RREQ

    3rd RREQ dropped by C1

    4th RREQ

    4th RREQ dropped by C2

    5th RREQ

    (a) Five route discovery procedures are required


    Problems 1 solution

    Problems 1: (Solution)

    B

    Er < Thr

    C1

    A

    S

    C2

    D

    1st RREQ

    1st RREQ dropped

    forwards DROP_ROUTE_REQ

    DROP_ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

    2nd RREQ

    (b) Two route discovery procedures are required


    Problems 2 difficulty in utilize route cache

    Problems 2 : Difficulty in Utilize Route Cache

    Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

    Er > Thr

    B

    ROUTE_CACHE

    C1

    ROUTE_REQ

    Er > Thr

    ROUTE_CACHE

    A

    S

    C2

    ROUTE_REQ

    ROUTE_CACHE

    D

    ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

    ROUTE_REQ message is broadcast

    (a) Unicast message to inform to the destination


    Problems 2 solution

    Problems 2 : (Solution)

    Node B knows a path to D in its route cache

    B

    Er< Thr

    ROUTE_CACHE

    C1

    ROUTE_REQ

    DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

    A

    DROP_RO UTE_CACHE

    S

    ROUTE_REQ

    C2

    CANCEL_ROUTE_CACH E

    D

    CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE

    DROP_ROUTE_CACHE message is unicast

    message is sent back

    (b) Invalidating route cache upon a node with low battery level


    Table lear algorithm

    Table : LEAR algorithm


    Table lear algorithm cont

    Table : LEAR algorithm (cont.)


    What could s olve lear problems

    • Solutions

    What Could Solve LEAR Problems ?

    • Routing-control messages

    • DROP_ROUTE_REQ

    • ROUTE_CACHE

    • DROP_ROUTE_CACHE

    • CANCEL_ROUTE_CACHE


    Comparison

    comparison


    Performance

    Performance

    • GloMoSim 2.0 simulator

    • Parameters:

      • 40 mobile nodes

      • 1000 meters by 1000 meters range

      • 500 seconds of simulation time

      • Power consumption 0.05 Watts (sleep) to 1.50 Watts

      • 2 Assumptions:

        • Energy consumed during idling is ignored

        • Non-promiscuous mode


    Dsr vs lear reaming battery levels

    DSR vsLEAR Reaming Battery Levels


    Dsr vs lear distribution of energy consumptions

    DSR vsLEAR Distribution of energy consumptions


    Dsr vs lear energy consumption with faster nodes

    DSR vs LEAR Energy consumption with faster nodes


    Dsr vs lear ratio of accepted route reqs

    DSR vs LEAR Ratio of Accepted ROUTE_REQs


    Summary

    Summary

    • Problems: Larger transmission time:

      • Precedence to energy efficiency.

    • Less data receive ratio.

    • Balanced energy consumptions based on local info.

    • Simple

    • Can be easily integrated into existing ad hoc routing algorithms

    • LEAR improves the energy balance as much as 35% compared to the DSR algorithm.


    Future work

    Future Work

    • GEAR simulation to compare results with LEAR

    • Optimize LEAR by using Alternative Path Routing

    • Apply LEAR to broadcast type network


    Discussion

    Discussion


    References

    References

    • Woo, Kyungtae, et al. "Non-blocking, localized routing algorithm for balanced energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks." Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, 2001. Proceedings. Ninth International Symposium on. IEEE, 2001.

    • S. Singh, M. Woo, and C. S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'98), pp.181-190, Oct. 1998.

    • R. Kravets and P. Krishnan, “Power Management Techniques for Mobile Communication,” International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'98), Oct. 1998.

    • D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, edited by T. Imielinski and H. F. Korth, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

    • Class ppts


    Thank you for listening

    Thank you for listening!


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