Traumatic brain injuries in equestrian athletes. Lola B. Chambless, MD Department of Neurosurgery Vanderbilt University. Overview. Definitions Incidence data Mechanisms of Injury Symptoms Diagnostic tools Outcome Prevention. Definitions. TBI = traumatic brain injury
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Traumatic brain injuries in equestrian athletes
Lola B. Chambless, MD
Department of Neurosurgery
Valadka AB (2004). "Injury to the cranium". in Moore EJ, Feliciano DV, Mattox KL. Trauma. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. pp. 385–406.
Balance problems or dizziness
Sensitivity to light or noise
Concentration or memory problems
Change in sleep pattern (appears later)
Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1995
Note: in the overwhelming majority of cases both CT and MRI imaging modalities will be normal. This does NOT rule out a very serious brain injury, since CT and MRI are tests of structure and not brain function
Cantu RC. Second-Impact Syndrome. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 17 (1) 38-44, 1998.
groups out to
at least 8 days
*Lower score indicates poorer performance
Collins MW, Lovell MR, Maroon et al. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 34:5;2002
What is the maximum number of “safe” concussions?
(but probably zero)
Rule changes and technique
1997 NAYRC CCI**