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TRAUMATIC INJURIES IN AGRICULTURE David L. Hard John R. Myers Susan G. Gerberich Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture NCASH Report (1989) Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture NCASH Report (1989) Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

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traumatic injuries in agriculture

TRAUMATIC INJURIESIN AGRICULTURE

David L. Hard

John R. Myers

Susan G. Gerberich

traumatic injuries in agriculture3
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • NCASH Report (1989)
    • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming
traumatic injuries in agriculture4
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • NCASH Report (1989)
    • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming
    • Traumatic death and injury due in large part to farm machinery—primarily tractors
traumatic injuries in agriculture5
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • NCASH Report (1989)
    • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming
    • Traumatic death and injury due in large part to farm machinery—primarily tractors
    • Inadequate farm building design and livestock handling
traumatic injuries in agriculture6
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • NCASH Report (1989)
    • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming
    • Traumatic death and injury due in large part to farm machinery—primarily tractors
    • Inadequate farm building design and livestock handling
    • Affect youth (<16) and elderly (65 and older)
traumatic injuries in agriculture7
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)
      • 1930’s to present
traumatic injuries in agriculture8
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)
      • 1930’s to present
      • Farm Safety Quarterly
      • Accident Facts
      • Injury Facts
traumatic injuries in agriculture9
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)
    • NIOSH--National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF)--1980
traumatic injuries in agriculture10
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)
    • NIOSH--National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF)--1980
      • Census of work related deaths
      • 16 years of age or older
      • External cause of death
traumatic injuries in agriculture11
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)
    • NIOSH--NTOF
    • BLS--Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI)--1992
traumatic injuries in agriculture12
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)
    • NIOSH--NTOF
    • BLS--Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI)--1992
      • Multiple records used to determine work-relatedness
      • Details often better than from death certificates
      • No age limit for inclusion
traumatic injuries in agriculture13
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s
      • National survey of agriculture production injuries
      • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year
traumatic injuries in agriculture14
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s
      • National survey of agriculture production injuries
      • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year
      • Standardized instrument—utilized volunteers
traumatic injuries in agriculture15
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s
      • National survey of agriculture production injuries
      • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year
      • Standardized instrument—utilized volunteers
      • 1982—31 states
      • 1985—35 states
traumatic injuries in agriculture16
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s
      • National survey of agriculture production injuries
      • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year
      • Standardized instrument—utilized volunteers
      • 1982—31 states
      • 1985—35 states
      • Not sustainable
traumatic injuries in agriculture17
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NSC--1970’s-1980’s
    • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)--1987
traumatic injuries in agriculture18
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NSC--1970’s-1980’s
    • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)--1987
      • Both fatal and non-fatal
      • Telephone interview-based survey of farm operators
      • 1 year recall
traumatic injuries in agriculture19
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NSC--1970’s-1980’s
    • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)--1987
      • Both fatal and non-fatal
      • Telephone interview-based survey of farm operators
      • 1 year recall
      • Used USDA/NASS list frame of farms
      • Comparison made with medical records at Mayo
      • Results were found to be realistic and effective
traumatic injuries in agriculture20
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NSC--1970’s-1980’s
    • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)
    • Regional Rural Injury Study (RRIS-I)--1990
      • Both fatal and nonfatal
      • 5 states (MN, NE, ND, SD, WI)
traumatic injuries in agriculture21
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NSC--1970’s-1980’s
    • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)
    • Regional Rural Injury Study (RRIS-I)--1990
      • Both fatal and nonfatal
      • 5 states (MN, NE, ND, SD, WI)
      • Sampling frame USDA/NASS
      • Recall period reduced to 6 months
traumatic injuries in agriculture22
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NSC--1970’s-1980’s
    • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)
    • Regional Rural Injury Study-I (RRIS-I)
    • Regional Rural Injury Study-II (RRIS-II)--1998
      • Similar methodology
      • 4,000 farm households; 17,000 persons; 8,600 <20
traumatic injuries in agriculture23
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NIOSH Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF)--1993-1995
      • National survey of non-fatal production ag injuries
      • Random sample of farms
      • Sampling frame USDA/NASS
      • Recall period of 1 year
traumatic injuries in agriculture24
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NIOSH Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF)--1993-1995
      • National survey of non-fatal production ag injuries
      • Random sample of farms
      • Sampling frame USDA/NASS
      • Recall period of 1 year
      • TISF conducted over 3 years; allowed national estimates and regional/state estimates
      • Total of 36,270 farms participated
traumatic injuries in agriculture25
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NIOSH Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative--1997
      • Develop ag. injury surveillance systems for youth living, working or visiting farms in U.S.
traumatic injuries in agriculture26
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury
    • NIOSH Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative--1997
      • Develop ag. injury surveillance systems for youth living, working or visiting farms in U.S.
      • 3 separate surveys conducted:

-1999 farm operator survey (USDA/NASS)

-1999 NAWS (USDOL)

-Case series follow-back (CPSC/NEISS)

traumatic injuries in agriculture27
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • Current Status of Agricultural Injuries
    • Both national and regional data used
    • Limited to production agriculture
traumatic injuries in agriculture28
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • Current Status of Agricultural Injuries
    • CFOI (1992-1998)
traumatic injuries in agriculture32
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

Production Agriculture Occupational Deaths and Average

Annual Fatality Rate, per 100,000 Workers, 1992-1998, CFOI

traumatic injuries in agriculture35
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

Production Agriculture Deaths and Average Annual Fatality Rates per 100,000 Workers by Age Group, 1992-1998, CFOI

traumatic injuries in agriculture41
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • TISF--Persons incurring injuries on farms
    • Farm operator or family member (61%)
    • Hired labor (29%)
    • Partners or their family members (6%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture42
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • TISF--Persons incurring injuries on farms
    • Farm operator or family member (61%)
    • Hired labor (29%)
    • Partners or their family members (6%)
  • Majority of injuries temporary (95%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture43
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • TISF--Persons incurring injuries on farms
    • Farm operator or family member (61%)
    • Hired labor (29%)
    • Partners or their family members (6%)
  • Majority of injuries temporary (95%)
  • Most sought medical attention (80%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture44
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • TISF--Most injuries in months
    • August, July, June, and November
traumatic injuries in agriculture45
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • TISF--Most injuries in months
    • August, July, June, and November
  • Type of work activity at time of injury
    • Livestock handling (29%)
    • Farm maintenance (17%)
    • Field work (16%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture46
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • TISF--Leading sources of injury
    • Machinery & Livestock (19% each)
    • Working surfaces and non-powered hand tools (8% each)
traumatic injuries in agriculture47
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • TISF--Leading sources of injury
    • Machinery & Livestock (19% each)
    • Working surfaces and non-powered hand tools (8% each)
  • Most common type of injury events
    • Struck by or against an object (15%)
    • Fall from elevation (13%)
    • Contact with sharp object (11%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture48
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • Most common body part injured
    • Leg, knee or hip (17%)
    • Back (15%)
    • Finger (12%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture49
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • Most common body part injured
    • Leg, knee or hip (17%)
    • Back (15%)
    • Finger (12%)
  • TISF--Leading nature of injuries were
    • Sprain or strain (26%)
    • Fractures (18%)
    • Cuts (17%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture50
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I
    • 3,939 households; 13,144 persons
traumatic injuries in agriculture51
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I
    • 3,939 households; 13,144 persons
    • 1 in 5 farms had farm-related injury;1 in 17 persons
    • 764 farm-related injuries
    • Non-farming injuries reported 1 in 6 farms; one in 17 persons
traumatic injuries in agriculture52
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Gender issues
    • Males had a rate of farming related injury 3.5 times greater than females (8.7 vs. 2.5/100 persons)
traumatic injuries in agriculture53
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Gender issues
    • Males had a rate of farming related injury 3.5 times greater than females (8.7 vs. 2.5/100 persons)
    • Males 30-39 had the highest rate (15.8/100 persons)
traumatic injuries in agriculture54
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Gender issues
    • Males had a rate of farming related injury 3.5 times greater than females (8.7 vs. 2.5/100 persons)
    • Males 30-39 had the highest rate (15.8/100 persons)
    • Females 25-29 had highest rate (5.4/100 persons)
traumatic injuries in agriculture55
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Gender issues
    • Denominator-- hours worked
    • Male high rates were 5-9 and 10-14 years (11.0 & 8.0/100,000 hours worked)
traumatic injuries in agriculture56
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Gender issues
    • Denominator-- hours worked
    • Male high rates were 5-9 and 10-14 years (11.0 & 8.0/100,000 hours worked)
    • Female high rates were 10-14 and 25-29 years (7.0 & 8.0/100,000 hours worked)
traumatic injuries in agriculture57
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Gender issues
    • Denominator-- hours worked
    • Male high rates were 5-9 and 10-14 years (11.0 & 8.0/100,000 hours worked)
    • Female high rates were 10-14 and 25-29 years (7.0 & 8.0/100,000 hours worked)
    • Overall rates equivalent between males and females (5.0/100,000 hours worked)
traumatic injuries in agriculture58
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Source of injury
    • Livestock (30%)
    • Machinery--other than tractors (20%)
    • Tractors (9%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture59
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-I Injury treatment/disposition farm-related injuries
    • 6% hospitalized
    • 80% treated by health care professional
    • 37% restricted for 1 week; 19% month or more
    • 25% resulted in permanent disability
traumatic injuries in agriculture60
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-II
  • 4,037 households
  • 16,759 persons (8600 children-51%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture61
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-II
  • 4,037 households
  • 16,759 persons (8600 children-51%)
  • Youth: 207 farm operation injuries
    • Animals (36%)
traumatic injuries in agriculture62
Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture
  • RRIS-II
  • Youth case/control found increased odds for
    • Horses (2.7 OR, 95% CI=1.88-3.96)
    • Beef cattle (2.2 OR; 95% CI=1.62-3.08)
    • Operating tractors (2.2 OR; 95% CI=1.60-3.02)
    • Riding on tractors (2.2 OR; 95% CI=1.61-3.04)
    • Machinery (2.1 OR; 95% CI=1.50-3.00)
    • Swine (2.0 OR; 95% CI=1.27-1.42)
    • Dairy cattle (1.8 OR; 95% CI=1.20-2.64)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Traumatic injuries still leading cause of death and injury for production agriculture
conclusions64
Conclusions
  • Traumatic injuries still leading cause of death and injury for production agriculture
  • Main concerns identified in 1989 NCASH continue:
    • Tractors leading cause of farm death; mostly overturns
conclusions65
Conclusions
  • Traumatic injuries still leading cause of death and injury for production agriculture
  • Main concerns identified in 1989 NCASH continue:
    • Tractors leading cause of farm death; mostly overturns
    • Older farmers at highest risk for death
conclusions66
Conclusions
  • Traumatic injuries still leading cause of death and injury for production agriculture
  • Main concerns identified in 1989 NCASH continue:
    • Tractors leading cause of farm death; mostly overturns
    • Older farmers at highest risk for death
    • Traumatic injuries still concern for youth
conclusions67
Conclusions
  • Fatality rates fairly constant in 1990’s
conclusions68
Conclusions
  • Fatality rates fairly constant in 1990’s
  • Do not have a national non-fatal injury surveillance system in place
conclusions69
Conclusions
  • Fatality rates fairly constant in 1990’s
  • Do not have a national non-fatal injury surveillance system in place
  • Surveillance is key element for assessing magnitude of the problem, details, and effectiveness of interventions
conclusions70
Conclusions
  • Fatality rates fairly constant in 1990’s
  • Do not have a national non-fatal injury surveillance system in place
  • Surveillance is key element for assessing magnitude of the problem, details, and effectiveness of interventions
  • Effective interventions imperative to alleviate this public health problem
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