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Shawn Turpen. Ring-O Assignment Third Grade. The Story of the Easter Bunny.

Shawn Turpen

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Ring-O Assignment

Third Grade

The Story of the Easter Bunny

An elderly couple's petite white rabbit observes, assists, then eventually takes over the task of weaving baskets, coloring eggs, concocting candy, and delivering the gifts to village children. When the man and woman become too old to continue their labors, the bunny moves the operation to the woods, where he works inside a hollow tree, assisted by other rabbit friends. Tegen's text teems with sensory details: the eggs were "...the color of daffodils and of soft new leaves and of robins' eggs and of violets." Lambert's watercolors make merry with spring's pastels, providing detailed images of the cozy cottage kitchen as well as the rabbit den. However, some children may be concerned when the rabbit preserves the tasks' secrecy by leaving the humans when they are too frail to carry on. Nevertheless, this visually splendid story with folktale rhythms makes a good choice for holiday sharing.

What You Need:

One “guess record” sheet for each player

Pencil for recording guesses

What to Do:

1. In this game, players will compete to try to guess a secret number which has been set by a leader. The leader should think up the number, being sure that there are no repeating digits (the numbers 232, 444, or 355, for example, would all be forbidden). The leader should jot down the number on a piece of paper for private reference during the game.

2. Players must try to guess the number. The leader will respond with clues:

- *If NO digits are correct, the leader says, “Bunny!”
- *If any one digit is correct, but it’s in the wrong place, the leader says “Rabbit!”
- *If one digit is correct AND in the right place, the leader says “Jelly!”
- *If two digits are correct AND in the right place, the leader says “Jelly Jelly!”
- *When players have guessed all three digits in the correct order the leader will say “Jelly Jelly Jellybean!”
3. Each time they guess, the players should write down their proposed number, along with the leader's response and any special logical deductions, so they can keep track of their reasoning. Here's an example of the results of one game at our house:

Activity 1….continued

What's going on? In order to find the answer, players must call upon a series of math reasoning skills that actually underlie success for years to come. They must know how to eliminate numbers, how to place numbers in their correct columns, and how to narrow their choices given new information. As you build math skills, this is a great game to play over and over; it's also lots of plain, old-fashioned fun.

- Math 3.1.4 Identify any number up to 1,000 in various combinations of hundreds, tens, and ones.
- LA
3.4.8 Revise writing for others to read, improving the focus and progression of ideas.

3.7.1 Comprehension: Retell, paraphrase, and explain what a speaker has said.

- GMI Verbal Linguistic

Title - Easter Egg Hunt

(Review of basic math facts)Subject - MathGrade Level - 3/4This lesson is intended to be a fun review of basic math facts. In grades 3 and 4 students are expected to retain basic math facts and sometimes do not have practice using them. With such an emphasis on testing students tend to sit at their desk and do pencil and paper computation. There is nothing wrong with that, but it can get boring! This is a way to make review a little more interesting.

MATERIALS:

- Plastic eggs (the number depends on how much time you want to spend and how many groups you are going to have.)
- Pencils, paper, and Easter baskets.
PROCEDURE:

1. To set up the activity put a math problem in each egg. It can be addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc..To make it easier on myself I have labeled all the eggs with a group number. Then I put the same problem in each group's egg. So I may have 10 problems but 30 eggs.Hide the eggs outside, in the classroom, or put them into stations.

2. Divide the students into groups of two or three.

3. Give each group a number.

4. Each group should have paper and pencil and everyone has to work out the problems.

5. Each group will hunt for the eggs with their numbers and solve the math problems. As they find the eggs they put them in their basket (which allows them to do the clean up). Each child solves the problem, by first writing the problem on his/her paper and then by writing the answer. This allows you to check the problems.

6. When they are finished they go to a designated area for checking. If they have any wrong they must re-work their problem. If it is all correct then they can complete another activity. If you go outside then you could have them jump rope, play catch, etc. until the other are done. They could read, play math games, or help another group.

CLOSURE:

Work problems that seemed to be difficult for the class as a whole. Take this time to review facts

Math

3.1.5 Compare whole numbers up to 1,000 and arrange them in numerical order.

3.1.6 Round numbers less than 1,000 to the nearest ten and the nearest hundred.

LA

3.4.6 Evaluation and Revision: Review, evaluate, and revise writing for meaning and clarity.

3.4.8 Revise writing for others to read, improving the focus and progression of ideas.

3.7.2 Connect and relate experiences and ideas to those of a speaker.,

3.7.3 Answer questions completely and appropriately

3.7.15 Follow three- and four-step oral directions outside

3.4.3 Create single paragraphs with topic sentences and simple supporting facts and details.

GMI Bodily Kinesthetic- Naturalistic when taken outside

- The Cat In the Hat puts to rest any notion that money grows on trees in this super simple look at numismatics, the study of money and its history. Beginning with the ancient practice of bartering, the Cat explains various forms of money used in different cultures, from shells, feathers, leather, and jade to metal ingots to coins (including the smallest—the BB-like Indian fanam—and the largest—the 8-foot-wide, ship-sinking limestone ones from the Islands of Yap!), to the current king of currency, paper. Also included is a look at banking, from the use of temples as the first banks to the concept of gaining or paying interest, and a step-by-step guide to minting coins. A fascinating introduction is bound to change young reader’s appreciation for change!

One Cent, Two Cents, Old Cent, New Cent: All About Money (Cat in the Hat's Learning Library) by Bonnie WorthActivity1: Title - It's On Sale!

Primary Subject - Math

Grade Level - 3-4-5 For 2/3 people in a group.

Materials: piece of paper (for doing the math); a weekly advertisement from a grocery store or department store. (Have enough of these to use in your room with groups of 2/3 people)1. Students decide on roles (customer, clerk, store manager)2. Decide on one set amount- $50.00; $75.00; etc3. Students "shop" by selecting items that are in the advertisement. As the teacher you can decide on items that "need" to be purchased. For example if grocery shopping groups must "buy" one gallon of milk, at least 3 pounds of meat, at least four vegetables (canned or frozen), 1 snack item, etc. Or tell the students that they must spend within $5.00 of the set amount. If the set amount is $50.00, then they would have to spend at least $45.00.4. When customer is done shopping, the clerk must "check" the customer's math. For a group of 3 students the store manager settles any disputes by checking both the customer's and the clerk's math.5. Switch roles and start all over again.Extensions: This activity is a good one around Thanksgiving and Christmas when the "big catalogs" come out. Or look for vacation guides and plan a trip using the same idea. Students would have to plan meals, gas mileage, hotels stays, etc.

What You Need:

- Collection of several old greeting cards (or you can make your own)
- Dollar bills and coins (5 one dollar bills and several of each coins (half-dollars, quarters, dimes, nickels and pennies)
- Unlined paper to make your cards and markers to decorate you them (if you make them yourself)
- Several shoppers and one cashier
What You Do:

- Begin this activity with a warm up. Show your child a greeting card, toy or book and state the price. Have him arrange his bills and show what he would use to buy the card. Provide him with assistance if needed. Challenge him to come up with different dollar and coin combinations to reach the same amount.
- You will need to either collect (you can use cards that are already used) or make a collection of greeting cards and write prices ranging from one to five dollars on the backs of the items. If you decide to make your own greeting cards, have your child make cards for various occasions using the unlined paper. Be sure he writes the prices on the backs. When the cards are completed, display them on a table for a "shopper" to browse the selection.
- Choose one person to be the cashier for the card shop and at least one more person to be a shopper. Recruit Moms, Dads, siblings, grandparents, etc. to shop or take turns being the cashier in the card shop. Each person will select a greeting card and will give the cashier the appropriate number of bills and coins. The cashier should check that the amount is correct. You may want to have the shopper count the dollars and coins aloud for the cashier. (Everyone will most likely need to share the same money and use it more than once for multiple purchases.)
- Allow your third grader to take turns playing both the role of the cashier and the shopper.

- Math 3.1.5 Compare whole numbers up to 1,000 and arrange them in numerical order.
- LA 3.7.15 Follow three- and four-step oral directions
- GMI Interpersonal

Activity 2

Title - Food Inventory Math with Grocery Sales AdsPrimary Subject - Math Secondary Subject - Other (Life Skills)Grade Level - 2-4

Materials Needed:

- (1) clipboard for each student
- (2) #2 pencils
- (1-2) sheets of white paper
- (1 set) grocery store sales ads per student (Ex: Bi-Rite, Giant Food, Safeway, Kroger or any food store sales ads in your area.)
Directions:

- Instruct the students to plan a simple meal or snack.
- The student will focus on making up the menu on the first sheet of paper, including a list of ingredients that they will need to purchase to prepare the meal.
- When the students have completed their list, pass out the grocery sales ads to each student.
- Now the student will search through the sales ads and write down the prices of the ingredients that are on sale and how much each ingredient costs, using the dollar sign ($) or the cents sign (¢) in preparing the list.
- If there is an ingredient on their list that is not on sale, they will record the amount of the item when they go to the grocery store and print it next to the ingredient on their list when they return.

- Now plan a trip to the grocery store with your class. If you can not take a field trip with the class, then assign the trip as homework. Again, the purpose of the trip is to locate the price of the items on the ingredients list that were not in the sale ads.
- When all of this is completed, then the student must add up their own list of what it will cost them to prepare each of their meals. Sometimes the ads will give a 25 cent, 50 cent or $1.00 off coupon or even "buy one get one free." The student will add up the total and then place the coupon amount under the total and subtract the amount of each coupon. Ex: If they have a "buy one get one free" offer and a loaf of bread costs $1.39, then the student would write on the paper: coupon buy-one-get-one-free and then subtract the amount of the free item which would be $1.39.
- When each student has completed what it would cost to prepare each of their meals, sit in a circle in the classroom and let each of the students name ingredients and tell what they saved and what coupons were involved.
- The next time you have a math lesson, sit in a circle with the class and decide which one meal to prepare.Either go on another field trip to the grocery store or assign each student an item to bring in to contribute to the meal plan.
- Prepare the meal as a class and discuss if they think that the meal was economical or a good value for the money. Was it worth it?
- Have the students place their grocery sale ads and the two papers showing their work into an envelope or a file folder and save it in case you do this again. Then they can do a comparison and see which meal was more cost effective.

Suggestions:

- This is good lesson for teaching the value of coupons, as well as the sale values of each item that is on sale.
- The clipboard is good to have, so that the student has something to lean against when they are writing down prices.
- For a variation, you could also have the students collect coupons and use small white envelopes to organize them in. Print on the front of the envelopes: Household Cleaners, Shampoo, Vegetables, Breads, Meat, Frozen Foods, etc. They could use the coupons to make math problems up or even math word problems.
- A student could also use the coupons to make up a "Eating Healthy" poster for health class or a "How to Use Coupons" poster for math class.

- Math 3.1.5 Compare whole numbers up to 1,000 and arrange them in numerical order.
- LA 3.7.15 Follow three- and four-step oral directions
- GMI Interpersonal

Title - Time is Money

Primary Subject - Math Grade Level - Third Grade

OVERVIEW:Students will learn what total cost means in this lesson. The students will help set up the classroom like a store. Students will buy items in the store, which will help them with addition and counting money.

TIME REQUIRED: 45 minutes

OBJECTIVES:Students will:1. Add items together to find total cost.2. Line numbers up according to the decimal points.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES:1. graph paper2. pencils3. notebook4. markers5. pencil sharpener6. erasers7. folders8. calculator9. chalk10. chalkboard11. handout12. worksheet

PROCEDURE:Introduction:Tell the students that we are going shopping today. Each student will buy two items, and take them to the cash register at the front of the room. This project will teach them to add and count money. Since we are going to be working with money, it is important to rememberto use a dollar sign. It is also important touse a decimal point to separate dollars andcents to get the right total.

Main Activity Give each student a handout with the prices foreach item. Give them differentitems to buy. We bought a calculator ($20.00)and folders ($.99). When we add these two numbers together, it is like adding two wholenumbers without the decimal point, 2000 + 99 =2099 or $20.00 + $.99 = $20.99. Ask the students if they have any questions. Workanother problem together as a class, notebook($2.00) + pencil sharpener ($4.95)=$6.95. Write some problems on the chalkboard for thestudents to answer on notebook paper.Problem 1. graph paper + pencils = $.75 + $.50= ?Problem 2. markers + erasers = $1.00 + $.25 = ?Problem 3. pencils + pencil sharpener = $.50 +$4.95 = ?Problem 4. calculator + notebook = $20.00 +$2.00 = ?Problem 5. folders + markers = $.99 + $1.00 = ?Have a student come up to the board and write the answer to one of the problems, replacing thequestion mark with the right answer. Make surethe student uses a dollar sign and a decimalpoint in their answer. Repeat the process untilall the problems are answered.

Closure/ConclusionPass out worksheets with problems for thestudents to complete as homework. Allow them towork in teams on the worksheet during theremaining class period. Answer any questions.Remind them that this activity was about addingand counting money to find total cost.

EVALUATION:These students were given worksheets to complete for homework. After the worksheets were completed, the students brought them back to be checked for a grade. After checking the worksheets, I administered a quiz to see what the students had learned.Follow up Lessons/Activities Go over the problems that were assigned on the worksheet as homework. Grade the quiz, and go over those problems also. Answer any questions. Work problems on the board the student's have questions about. Make sure they know what they missed and why.

- Math
3.1.4 Identify any number up to 1,000 in various combinations of hundreds, tens, and ones.

3.1.5 Compare whole numbers up to 1,000 and arrange them in numerical order.

- LA 3.7.15 Follow three- and four-step oral directions
- GMI Logical Mathematical

- The story of a drop of water. The reader is taken back thousands of years to see where the Earth's water came from, and how life began in the oceans and later moved onto land. The author describes the water cycle, discusses environmental issues, and provides a collection of facts on water.

Activity 1 TITLE: The Water Cycle

GRADE LEVEL: Appropriate for grades 2-4

OVERVIEW: The water cycle explains the sun heating the

earth's surface water so that it evaporates. This vapor

gathers in clouds which rise to the cold air. When those

clouds become too heavy to float, they release their

moisture as precipitation. The precipitation collects in

lakes or oceans after siphoning through soil or running down

rivers. It then evaporates and repeats the cycle once

again.

OBJECTIVE(s): Students will be able to:

1. Explain how the water cycle recycles the earth's

water supply.

2. Make use of the knowledge of landforms learned in

social studies.

3. Form a hypothesis on how/why the water cycle works.

4. Use language arts skills of writing and drawing to

explain how the cycle works.

RESOURCES/MATERIALS:

- Assemble these materials:
- soil
- water
- small margarine bowl
- large, clear plastic container. or an old aquarium
- plastic wrap
- plastic trees, animals, boat, etc. are optional
- tape or large elastic band
- bag of ice (optional)
- heat lamp (optional)

ACTIVITIES AND PROCEDURES:

1. Arrange the soil in the container to make mountains,

plateaus, hills, etc., and a lake basin. Place the

margarine bowl in the lake basin. Fill the bowl with

water. The plastic toys may be added to appeal to the

children's imaginations. Cover the container tightly

with plastic wrap and secure it by means of tape or the band.

2. Discuss what is expected to happen in the container.

3. Depending on the amount of sun, the project may take 1-

3 days. In order to speed the process, a bag of ice

may be placed on one end of the covered container,

while a heat lamp is focused on the other.

4. Watch for condensation on the plastic "sky" of the

container. When enough moisture collects, it will fall

onto the landforms as precipitation.

5. Compare the hypothesis to actual results by discussion.

6. Encourage the students to draw the water cycle using

arrows to show the flow.

7. Ask the students to write a paragraph explaining their

picture. A word bank might be used if needed.

Possible words for the bank are: condenses (cools),

vapor, clouds, evaporate, precipitation (rain/snow),

heavy, soil, oceans, lakes. Try to elicit these words

from the students.

- Science
3.1.2 Participate in different types of guided scientific investigations, such as observing objects and events and collecting specimens for analysis.

3.1.3 Keep and report records of investigations and observations using tools, such as journals, charts, graphs, and computers.

3.1.4 Discuss the results of investigations and consider the explanations of others.

3.3.5 Give examples of how change, such as weather patterns, is a continual process occurring on Earth.

- LA 3.5.5 Write for different purposes and to a specific audience or person.
- GMI Naturalistic

- The Giant octopus's tentacles can grow to 150 feet, but in this graceful work the deep-sea creature seems tender and vulnerable. Wallace (previously paired with Bostock for Think of an Eel) uses two types of narrative. Facts are set in wavy lines of text, running concurrently with a story about a mother octopus's gestation, parturition and death. The story brims with poetic turns of phrase: a Wolf eel "darts from the shadows. His teeth strike like daggers. He rips off a tentacle. Then sinks like a nightmare deep into his den." The mother octopus defends herself through escape (shooting backward "by sucking in seawater and pumping it out"), camouflage (turning "very pale or very dark within seconds") and hiding ("Octopuses don't have any bones, and they can squeeze through the tiniest of holes"). Safe in her den, she lays eggs that "hang from the roof like grapes on a string." Bostock's thoughtfully composed watercolors are tactile, accurate and extremely attractive: rubbery tentacles undulate or creep on powerful suction cups; bubble-like babies swim up from their rock-bound nursery, out of which the mother's listless eye peers? Their nursery will become her crypt. This seamless weave of text and illustration offers a welcome counterpoint to popular depictions (e.g., Verne's and others) of the octopus as deep-sea villain.

Title - Watching My Mealworm GrowPrimary Subject - Science Grade Level - 1-3 Topic/Unit: Life Cycles

Content:

- Students will learn about the life cycle of mealworms while taking care of their needs and observing their metamorphosis.
Students will learn:

- The different life cycles of a mealworm: egg, larva, pupa, adult
- The different parts of an insect: head, abdomen, thorax, 6 legs, antennae
- Essentials for living: food, shelter and water
- How to care for a living organism
- Scientific theory: making observations, hypothesis, results and conclusions.

Learning Resources and Materials:

- Small clean baby food jar for each student's mealworm environment
- Carrots
- Mealworms
- Paper towel
- Oatmeal
- Mealworm Journal
Development of Lesson:

Introduction:

- First prepare the students by teaching the basics needed for this project, explain the different stages in the life cycle of insects, the body parts of an insect and relate it to a human's body, the essentials needed to live, and how to care for a living organism (could relate to a house pet: dog, cat, hamster, etc.).
- To focus the students interest, let them know they will become parents during this project and take care of their very own baby mealworm. They will watch them grow up and care for them by observing their environment.
- This lesson can easily be connected to their past experiences for those that have had a family pet, or younger sibling, etc.

Methods/Procedures:

- The best strategy for the project would be to let each individual care and observe their own mealworm. However if funds are minimal, this could be done as an entire class together watching a single mealworm's life.
- Every week the student will watch and observe their mealworm and keep a journal of their findings. Once a week the student will record the following observations of their mealworm: color, length, texture, noise, movement, number of body segments, number of legs, and presence of antennae. They will also draw a picture of what they see.
- The students will learn through this project from linking prior knowledge of insects (introduced to the students before the project began), and also they will be able to talk amongst themselves and compare notes with each other. The required list of observations the students are to record will guide them to specific learning.
- After a month of observations, the mealworm should be an adult. At this time a discussion will take place to determine all of the student's findings. As the teacher, ask questions to dig out knowledge from your students. Link questions to see that your students have learned the different life stages of their mealworms.

Assessment/Evaluation:

- To evaluate the students, collect their journals at the end of the week. Determine according to your rubric whether they are on the right track and grasping the correct ideas.
- Interpret their drawings and read into their observations.
- Provide feedback to the students to ensure they continue on the right track. It is important to give your students feedback to ensure they are learning.
Closure:

- To help the students reflect on what they have learned, ask a series of questions based on their recorded observations. Go over the project as a class as to what was expected and then go over the information taught before the project began. Review the key concepts, such as the different stages of the life cycle, the different body parts of an insect and the essentials needed to live. With this knowledge, now go back and determine which parts of the body were developed in the different stages of the mealworm. What were the mealworms' essentials? What did they need to live (carrot, oatmeal, etc)?
- For future curriculums, depending on how the students grasp this project, you could include more key terms and concepts, or fewer.

- Science
3.2.3 Keep a notebook that describes observations and is understandable weeks or months later.

- LA
3.4.6 Evaluation and Revision:Review, evaluate, and revise writing for meaning and clarity.

3.4.3 Create single paragraphs with topic sentences and simple supporting facts and details.

- GMI Verbal-Linguistic

- In the Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science Stage 2 series, this is an informative concept book that explains what happens to leaves in autumn as they change colors and then separate from the tree. Krupinski's bright gouache-and-colored pencil illustrations show a boy and a girl playing in a country landscape that changes with weather and light. There are also detailed pictures of leaves in different sizes, shapes, and colors. Maestro includes simple instructions for making a leaf rubbing and for pressing leaves, as well as suggestions for places to visit where the fall foliage is special.

ACTIVITY 1 Title: Sculpt the Seasons!

Topics: Fall, Third Grade, Arts and Crafts

- Celebrate the changing seasons with your child as he creates a seasonal sculpture that explores the possibilities of three dimensional artwork. Combine nature, the environment, and artistic process into one fantastic lesson. Encourage your child to make observations, and then translate them into his own unique masterpiece.
- This activity will aid in the development of aesthetic awareness, help to build an art vocabulary, and foster nature based scientific inquiry.
What You Need:

- Thin gauge bendable wire (available at most arts and craft stores as well as some hardware stores)
- Modeling clay in browns or tan colors
- Tissue paper in fall colors such as red, brown, orange, and yellow
- Glue
- Optional: Wooden block base
- Paper
- Pencil (and/or colored pencils)

What to Do:

1. Accompany your child outdoors (bring paper and pencils along). Ask your child to observe the fall trees. Have him draw what he sees. Try using colored pencils for a more realistic effect.

2. Bring the sketch inside as a point of reference for your child's tree sculpture! Give your child a small length of wire (the actual size will depend upon how large your child wants his tree to be). For a smaller tree, start with a seven-inch piece for the trunk and several smaller pieces for the branches. Make sure to instruct your child on wire handling safety, as the wire edges are sharp.

3. Ask your child to bend the smaller pieces of wire (branches) around the larger wire (trunk). This will create an armature for the sculpture. For reference, compare this to a body’s skeleton - this will be the structure that supports the clay that your child will mold around the outside.

4. Add clay to the trunk and branches. Have your child tear of small pieces of modeling clay and mold them carefully around the wire to create a tree sculpture. Try using several different shades of brown and tan combined together for a unique appearance.

5. Optional: Use a small wooden block as a base for the sculpture. Have your child mold an extra base of clay down onto the block, forming tree roots. A good amount of clay will be needed to hold the structure. Encourage your child to experiment with the amount needed to make the sculpture structurally sound.

6. Add fall leaves by having your child tear pieces of tissue paper to make leaves. Glue the leaves onto the branches. For an extra special touch, If you are using a base, have your child glue excess tissue paper leaves onto the block surrounding the tree to create piles of fallen leaves.

When he/she is done, they will have an festive sculptural work of art that celebrates the fall season and can be displayed in your home with pride! Extend this art activity into all four seasons. Make a tree for the winter, spring, and summer to compare with his colorful fall creation.

Science

3.6.5 Observe that and describe how some changes are very slow and some are very fast and that some of these changes may be hard to see and/or record.

LA 3.7.15 Follow three- and four-step oral directions

GMI Naturalistic

- Ms. Frizzle's class is growing a beautiful garden. But, Phoebe's plot is empty. Her flowers are back at her old school! So, the class climbs aboard the Magic School Bus. And, of course, the kids don't only go back to Phoebe's school, but they go inside one of Phoebe's flowers! Follow the kids' adventure and learn how living things grow.

Title:Bag the Beans

PurposeTo develop thinking skills. To learn to see numerical relationships and how to solve complex problems by manipulating objects and solving equations.

ContextStudents' beliefs and understanding of mathematical inquiry remain relatively unclear throughout their academic lives. Some of the misconceptions that students carry are: there is only one correct way to solve any math problem; mathematics problems have only one correct answer; mathematics is done by individuals in isolation; mathematical problems can be solved quickly or not at all; and mathematical problems and their solutions do not have to make sense. (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, p. 334.) Because of this, students limit their mathematical behavior. It is important, therefore, that students be exposed to a wide array of concrete representations to help develop a foundation for the higher abstract ideas associated with mathematical inquiry. In this lesson, students will work with manipulatives (beans) to create and solve problems, some of which have more than one correct answer.

Planning AheadMaterials:

- Black, lima, and red beans
- Sandwich bags
- Bag the Beans student sheet
- Bag the Beans teacher sheet

MotivationTo begin the bean exploration, have students work in pairs to sort several beans into different piles according to a rule they make up. Ask each group the following questions:

- How many piles of beans did you make?
- How would you describe each of the piles you have made?
- What was your rule?
- Have students group the beans according to a different rule and ask the same questions. They can repeat this several times, creating as many different rules as possible to sort the beans. There are many different ways to sort beans and other items. By challenging students to sort the same items using different categories, the students develop thinking skills by looking at the same problem in different ways. Such thinking skills are necessary for students to understand and analyze mathematical situations using algebraic symbols and solving equations, as they’re required to do in the following activity. If your students need more practice with sorting before continuing with this lesson, they could do the Flood! game on the Between the Lions (PBS Kids) website. In this activity, books float by in groups of five, but each shelf only holds three books. To fill the shelves, students need to choose three books whose titles share a common theme.

DevelopmentDistribute the Bag the Beans student sheet and have students work in pairs to pack eight bean bags following the rules outlined on the student sheet. Have them record the number of beans for each bag on the student sheet. While students are working on this activity, ask questions such as the following:

- Can you set up a ratio or an equation to help you determine the answer?
- Why do some problems have one correct answer while other problems may have more than one correct answer?
- This activity demonstrates that when students solve problems using manipulatives, the solution almost reveals itself. In addition, students develop confidence in their answers even when they differ from those of their neighbors. AssessmentAssess student understanding by checking their answers on the Bag the Beans student sheet. (See the Bag the Beans teacher sheet for answers.) In addition, have each student make up at least one new rule for filling the bags, and have them give their rules to others to solve. In order to address the benchmark idea, “Results should always be judged by whether they make sense and are useful,” it will be important for students to reflect on and evaluate their rules. Extensions You could use beans as counters in the classroom. For example, you could plan your next class party by solving problems with beans, such as how many bottles of juice will be needed if you use one bottle for every four people.

- Math
3.6.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, telling relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.

- LA
3.7.15 Follow three- and four-step oral directions.

3.7.8 Clarify and enhance oral presentations through the use of appropriate props, including objects, pictures, and charts.

- GMI Visual-Spatial

- In his instantly recognizable style, Simon addresses the anatomy and function of bones and muscles. Describing bones as being like "the framework of a building," he emphasizes that they are living parts of the body, protecting organs and manufacturing blood cells and platelets. Explanations of joints, fractures, and arthritis are also included. In Muscles, the three kinds of muscle and their functions are discussed. In addition, the effect of exercise and diagnosing injuries are covered. In both books, the full-paged illustrations are great and include full-color photographs, MRI scans, X rays, and excellent drawings.

Students will explain how a model is different from the real thing

but can be used to learn something about the real thing.

For the teacher: transparency of Black Line Master (BLM) Lung Power

For each group of students: 2-liter soda bottle, large balloon, latex glove,

masking tape, 2 rubber bands

A. Pre-Activity Preparation

1. Cut the bottoms off all of the 2-liter bottles.

2. Check for any students who are allergic to latex.

B. Pre-Activity Discussion

1. Ask students: “What is a model?” Have students brainstorm

examples of models, such as toy trains or play kitchens.

2. Have students compare models to the real things they represent.

3. Explain that although they are not identical, models can help us

learn about real things.

C. Student Activity

1. Explain that a model of the respiratory system can be used

to understand how we breathe.

2. Divide the class into small groups and give each group

the materials needed to build the models.

3. Demonstrate as you instruct students to put the fingers of the

latex glove through the mouth of the bottle and put the mouth

of the glove over the mouth of the bottle. Use a rubber band to

secure the mouth of the glove over the mouth of the bottle,

and put tape over the rubber band to make an air-tight seal.

4. Explain that the glove represents the mouth, nose, trachea, and

lungs. Tell students that the oxygen they breathe in goes from the

mouth and nose down through the trachea and into the lungs. The

trachea, or windpipe, is the tube that connects the mouth and

nose to the lungs. Carbon dioxide is also released from the body

through the same passageways.

5. Have students cut a 20 cm x 20 cm square from the balloon and

attach it loosely to the bottom of the bottle using a rubber band.

6. Instruct students to secure the piece of balloon by taping it to the

bottle along its edges (an airtight connection is necessary for the

model to work).

7. Explain to students that the balloon represents the diaphragm,

which is a big, sheet-like muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity

and just above the stomach.

8. Explain to students that the diaphragm helps people get air in

and out of their lungs by moving up and down. Ask students to

place their hands just above their stomachs. Ask: “Can you feel

your diaphragm at work?”

9. Have students gently apply pressure to the balloon diaphragm on

their model lung. Ask students: “How does the glove react when

the diaphragm moves up and down?” [The glove expands and

contracts, taking in air and releasing it just as the lungs do.]

D. Let’s Have a Look

1. Show students the transparency of the BLM Lung Power. Point

out the mouth, nose, trachea, and lungs and compare them to

the model.

2. Explain that two other very important parts of the respiratory

system are not seen in the model. They are the bronchial tubes

and the alveoli. Ask students: “Is your model just like the

respiratory system? How are they different? Did the similarities

help you learn about the respiratory system?”

3. Ask student volunteers to use their models to explain how

the respiratory system works.