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OT Survey I. 2 Samuel. Location of Samuel in Canon. English. Hebrew. Joshua Judges Ruth Samuel Kings Chronicles Ezra/Neh/Est. [ Historical Books]. [Former Prophets]. Joshua Judges Samuel Kings. [Writings]. . . . Proverbs Ruth. Pentateuch (esp. Deuteronomy). Joshua. Judges.

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OT Survey I

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Ot survey i

OT Survey I

2 Samuel


Location of samuel in canon

Location of Samuel in Canon

English

Hebrew

  • Joshua

  • Judges

  • Ruth

  • Samuel

  • Kings

  • Chronicles

  • Ezra/Neh/Est

[Historical Books]

[Former Prophets]

  • Joshua

  • Judges

  • Samuel

  • Kings

[Writings]

  • . . . Proverbs

  • Ruth . . .


Location of samuel in canon1

Pentateuch (esp. Deuteronomy)

Joshua

Judges

Samuel

Location of Samuel in Canon


Location of samuel in canon2

Pentateuch (esp. Deuteronomy)

Joshua

Judges

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

Location of Samuel in Canon


Ot survey i

2 Samuel 1:1

lWaêv' tAmå ‘yrEx]a;¥ yhiªy>w:

Now it came about after the death of Saul…

(NAS)


Now it came about after the death of

Now it came about after the death of…

  • And it came about after the death of Abraham . . . (Gen 25:11) [Hebrew is the same]

  • Now it came about after the death of Moses the servant of the LORD . . . (Joshua 1:1)

  • Now it came about after the death of Joshua . . (Judges 1:1)

  • Now it came about after the death of Saul . . . (2 Samuel 1:1)

  • . . . after the death of the two sons of Aaron. (Lev 16:1)[Similar Hebrew]

  • [Later] . . . after the death of Ahab. (2 Kings 1:1)


Now it came about after the death of1

Now it came about after the death of…

  • And it came about after the death of Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac. (Genesis 25:11) [Abrahamic Covenant: Torch passed to Isaac]

  • Now it came about after the death of Moses the servant of the LORD that the LORD spoke to Joshua the son of Nun (Joshua 1:1) [Mosaic Covenant: Torch passed to Joshua]

  • Now it came about after the death of Joshua that the sons of Israel inquired of the LORD (Judges 1:1) [Joshua’s Covenant: Torch passed to the people (remember, “there was no king in those days”)]

  • Now it came about after the death of Saul . . . that David remained two days in Ziklag (2 Samuel 1:1) [Saul’s (Samuel’s?) Covenant: Torch passed to David]


Noahic to abrahamic covenant

Noahic to Abrahamic Covenant

  • Promise – Noahic Covenant (Gen 9)

  • Failure – Tower of Babel (Gen 11)

  • Renewal – Abrahamic Covenant (Gen 15 -> 17) [note the historical prologue in 15:7]

  • Theophany – Smoking Oven and Flaming Torch (Gen 15)

  • Concern – Disobedience will result in cutting off (Gen 17)

  • Waiting – Abraham grows old (Gen 16)

  • Impatience – Abraham takes Hagar (Gen 16)

  • Fulfillment Begins – Isaac born (Gen 21)

“Now it came about after the death of Abraham…” (Genesis 25:11)


Abrahamic to mosaic covenant

Abrahamic to Mosaic Covenant

  • Promise – Abrahamic Covenant

  • Failure – Israel in Egypt (Gen 37 - Exod 12)

  • Renewal – Mosaic Covenant (Exod 19-31 -> Lev) [note the historical prologue in 19:4]

  • Theophany – God thundering from Sinai (Exod 19)

  • Concern – Boundaries to obey (Exod)! God is holy (Lev)!

  • Waiting – For Moses to return (Exod 32:1)

  • Impatience – Golden Calf (Exod 32)

  • Fulfillment Begins – Tabernacle Finished (Exod 34-40)

“…after the death of the two sons of Aaron…” (Leviticus 16:1)


Mosaic to deuteronomic covenant

Mosaic to Deuteronomic Covenant

  • Promise – Mosaic Covenant

  • Failure – All of Numbers; but esp. at Kadesh (Num 13)

  • Renewal – Deut. Covenant (Num 14 -> Deut 1-30) [note the historical prologue in Deut 1-4]

  • Theophany – God appears in tent (Num 14 -> Deut 31:15)

  • Concern – Israel won’t obey! (Num 14 -> Deut 31:16-32:52)

  • Waiting – 40 years in the wilderness (Num 13-19)

  • Impatience – Moses strikes the rock (Num 20)

  • Fulfillment Begins – East of the Jordan (Num 21-36)

“Now it came about after the death of Moses…” (Joshua 1:1)


Deuteronomic to joshua s covenant

Deuteronomic to Joshua’s Covenant

  • Promise – Deuteronomic Covenant

  • Failure – No Herem at Ai (Josh 7)

  • Renewal – Renewed Covenant (Josh 8 -> 24) [note the historical prologue in Josh 24:1-13]

  • Theophany – ???

  • Concern – Israel will not obey, has idols (Josh 24)

  • Waiting – As opponents assemble (Josh 9:1)

  • Impatience – Not inquiring of Yahweh (Josh 9)

  • Fulfillment Begins – Israel starts to take land (Josh 12)

“Now it came about after the death of Joshua…” (Judges 1:1)


Joshua s to samuel s covenant

Joshua’s to Samuel’s Covenant

  • Promise – Joshua’s Covenant (i.e., renewed by Joshua)

  • Failure – Judges through 1 Samuel 8, esp. 1 Samuel 8

  • Renewal – Samuel’s Covenant (1 Sam 10 -> 12) [note the historical prologue in 1 Sam 12:6-11]

  • Theophany – 1 Sam 12:16-19

  • Concern – Sin will lead to God’s opposition (1 Sam 12:15)

  • Waiting – Saul for Samuel (1 Sam 13:8)

  • Impatience – Acting before Samuel’s arrival (1 Sam 13:9-10)

  • Fulfillment Begins – David anointed as king (1 Sam 16)

“Now it came about after the death of Saul…” (2 Sam 1:1)


Samuel to david s covenant

Samuel to David’s Covenant

  • Promise – Samuel’s Covenant (i.e., renewed by Samuel)

  • Failure – Righteous king not reigning (1 Sam 18 - 2 Sam 4)

  • Renewal – David’s Covenant (2 Sam 7; 1 Kings ?) [note the historical prologue in 2 Sam 7:8-9]

  • Theophany – 1 Kings ?

  • Concern – Sin brings discipline (2 Sam 7:14; 1 Kings ?)

  • Waiting – David waiting for army’s return (2 Sam 11:1-3)

  • Impatience(?) – Taking of Bathsheba (2 Sam 11)

  • Fulfillment Begins – Solomon is born (2 Sam 12:24-25)


Structure of 2 samuel

Structure of 2 Samuel

  • 2 Samuel 1- 4 – David’s rise to power

  • 2 Samuel 5- 9 – David’s rule in power

  • 2 Samuel 10-12– David’s abuse of power

  • 2 Samuel 13-20 – David’s fall from power

  • 2 Samuel 21-24* – End of David’s reign

* Section actually ends in 1 Kings 2


The hope of hannah and david

The Hope of Hannah and David

  • My horn (1/2:1, 2/22:3)

  • No other rock (1/2:2, 2/22:32)

  • Armed with strength (1/2:4, 2/22:40)

  • The grave, death (1/2:6, 2/22:5-6)

  • Humbles, exalts, proud (1/2:7, 2/22:28)

  • Darkness (1/2:9, 2/22:29)

  • Thunder from heaven (1/2:10, 2/22:14)

  • Gives the king (1/2:10, 2/22:51)

  • Yahweh’s anointed (1/2:10, 2/22:51)


Structure of 1 samuel

Structure of 1 Samuel

  • 1 Samuel 1- 7 – The Ministry of Samuel

  • 1 Samuel 8 – Israel Rejects God

  • 1 Samuel 9-11– Saul becomes king

  • 1 Samuel 12 – God’s Promise of Grace

  • 1 Samuel 13-15 – Saul rejected as king

  • 1 Samuel 16 – David Chosen as king

  • 1 Samuel 17 – David defeats Philistines

  • 1 Samuel 18-27 – David flees from Saul

  • 1 Samuel 28-31 – Saul defeated by Philistines


Structure of 2 samuel1

Structure of 2 Samuel

  • 2 Samuel 1- 4 – David’s rise to power

  • 2 Samuel 5- 9 – David’s rule in power

  • 2 Samuel 10-12– David’s abuse of power

  • 2 Samuel 13-20 – David’s fall from power

  • 2 Samuel 21-24 – End of David’s reign

Key Chapters

  • 2 Samuel 7 – Davidic Covenant

  • 2 Samuel 12 – Consequences of David’s sin

  • 2 Samuel 22– David’s hope


Purpose statement of first samuel

Purpose Statementof First Samuel

  • God responds in grace to Israel’s wicked request for a king and demonstrates the righteousness He desires in a king by contrasting Saul and David.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 8 – Israel’s wicked request; ch. 12 – God’s grace; ch. 16 – David’s righteousness


Purpose statement of first samuel1

Purpose Statementof First Samuel

  • God responds in grace to Israel’s wicked request for a king and demonstrates the righteousness He desires in a king by contrasting Saul and David.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 8 – Israel’s wicked request; ch. 12 – God’s grace; ch. 16 – David’s righteousness


Purpose statement of first samuel2

Purpose Statementof First Samuel

  • God responds in grace to Israel’s wicked request for a king and demonstrates the righteousness He desires in a king by contrasting Saul and David.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 8 – Israel’s wicked request; ch. 12 – God’s grace; ch. 16 – David’s righteousness


Purpose statement of first samuel3

Purpose Statementof First Samuel

  • God responds in grace to Israel’s wicked request for a king and demonstrates the righteousness He desires in a king by contrasting Saul and David.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 8 – Israel’s wicked request; ch. 12 – God’s grace; ch. 16 – David’s righteousness


Purpose statement of second samuel

Purpose Statementof Second Samuel

  • God's covenant provides hope for Israel that in spite of David's failure, the blessings of a Davidic king will one day forever be a reality for Israel.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 7 – God’s covenant with David; ch. 12 – David’s failure and its predicted consequences; ch. 22 – David’s hope of a future, righteous ruler


Purpose statement of second samuel1

Purpose Statementof Second Samuel

  • God's covenant provides hope for Israel that in spite of David's failure, the blessings of a Davidic king will one day forever be a reality for Israel.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 7 – God’s covenant with David; ch. 12 – David’s failure and its predicted consequences; ch. 22 – David’s hope of a future, righteous ruler


Purpose statement of second samuel2

Purpose Statementof Second Samuel

  • God's covenant provides hope for Israel that in spite of David's failure, the blessings of a Davidic king will one day forever be a reality for Israel.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 7 – God’s covenant with David; ch. 12 – David’s failure and its predicted consequences; ch. 22 – David’s hope of a future, righteous ruler


Purpose statement of second samuel3

Purpose Statementof Second Samuel

  • God's covenantprovides hope for Israel that in spite of David's failure, the blessings of a Davidic king will one day forever be a reality for Israel.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 7 – God’s covenant with David; ch. 12 – David’s failure and its predicted consequences; ch. 22 – David’s hope of a future, righteous ruler


Purpose statement of second samuel4

Purpose Statementof Second Samuel

  • God's covenantprovides hope for Israel that in spite of David's failure, the blessings of a Davidic king will one day forever be a reality for Israel.

  • Purpose statement highlights three key chapters: Ch. 7 – God’s covenant with David; ch. 12 – David’s failure and its predicted consequences; ch. 22 – David’s hope of a future, righteous ruler


Major themes

Major Themes

  • Davidic Covenant – 7; 22:51; 23:1-7

  • Glory of Israel and her king

    • Prophesied by Hannah (divine reversal)

    • Present – (5:6-10, 17-25; 8:1-14; 10:1-19)

    • Future – See esp. 7:8-29

  • The Ark and the Temple in Jerusalem!

    • 2 Samuel 6 – Brought to Jerusalem by David

    • 2 Samuel 7 – David’s desire to build

    • 2 Samuel 15:24-29 – Remains in Jerusalem

    • 2 Samuel 24 – The threshing floor of Araunah


Major characters

Major Characters

  • David

    • Righteous (1:11-27; 4:9-12; 6:5, 12-19; 7:2; 8:15; 9; 24:24)

    • Victorious (5:6-10, 17-25; 8:1-14; 10:1-19)

    • Disobedient (11)

    • Repentant (12:13)

    • Singer/Dancer (1:17-27; 6:14-16; 22:1-51)

    • Zealous/Passionate (1:19ff, 3:33ff, 6:8-9, 14-16, 21; 12:5-6; 19:1-4)

  • David’s Sons

    • Absalom (“My father is peace”) (3:3, 13-19; 20:6)

    • Solomon (Jedidiah = “Loved by Yahweh”) (5:14; 7:12-16; 12:24-25)


Major characters continued

Major Characters (continued)

  • Nathan

    • Samuel rebuked Saul

    • Nathan rebukes David

    • Prophets will continue this role for years to come

  • Note who is missing

    • Philistines, Ammonites get a little ink

    • Where is Egypt, Assyria, Babylon?

    • God has given rest!


Major places

Major Places

  • Tyre (e.g., 2 Samuel 5:11)

    • Important commercial city

    • Will be important in Kings, prophets

  • Damascus (e.g., 2 Samuel 8:5)

    • Residents called “Arameans”

    • Also called Syrians

    • Will be important in Kings, prophets


Major places continued

Major Places (continued)

  • Jerusalem!

    • Original king: Melchizedek (Gen 14:18; Heb 7:1-2)

    • “Historically, David’s conquering of Salem gave him the throne of Melchizedek” (Pettegrew) – Psa 110:4

    • Adoni-zedek defeated by Joshua (Josh 10)

    • Inhabitants not driven out (Josh 15:63; 18:28)

    • Defeated but not taken (Judg 1:7-8, 21; 19:10)

    • Location of Goliath’s head? (1 Sam 17:54)

    • Captured by David (2 Sam 5)

    • Location of the Ark, Temple (2 Sam 5, 24)

    • Capital of Israel (2 Sam 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14 . . .)

    • Protected by God (2 Sam 24:15)


Temple mount and city of david aerial from southwest

Gethsemane

Temple Mount and City of David aerial from southwest

Kidron Valley

Gihon Spring

City of David

Pool of Siloam

Central Valley

Hinnom Valley


Hezekiah s tunnel

Hezekiah’s Tunnel

  • 2 Chronicles 32:30 It was Hezekiah who stopped the upper outlet of the waters of Gihon and directed them to the west side of the city of David

  • John 9:6-7 When He had said this, He spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and applied the clay to his eyes, and said to him, "Go, wash in the pool of Siloam" (which is translated, Sent). And so he went away and washed, and came back seeing.


Time period

Time Period

  • Solomon ruled from 970 BC onwards (to be discussed later)

  • David ruled for 40 years (2 Sam 5:5). Therefore, his reign was from 1010 BC until 970 BC.


Interpretative issues

Interpretative Issues

  • 2 Samuel 24:1 Now again the anger of the LORD burned against Israel, and it incited David against them to say, "Go, number Israel and Judah."

  • 1 Chronicles 21:1 Then Satan stood up against Israel and moved David to number Israel.


Interpretative issues continued

Interpretative Issues (continued)

  • “This is no contradiction for the Lord had simply allowed Satan to prompt David to an improper course of action in order that Israel might be punished and that David might be instructed. This is similar to the Lord’s permitting Satan to trouble Job (Job 1:12; 2:6) and His allowing an evil spirit to torment Saul (1 Samuel 16:14). In any case, the Lord


Interpretative issues continued1

Interpretative Issues (continued)

  • Himself did not incite David to do evil, for ‘God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He tempt anyone’ (James 1:13).”

    Eugene H. Merrill

    Bible Knowledge Commentary

    Page 481

  • Cf. 1 Kings 22


Next week

Next Week

Kings


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