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Electricity . Part 2: Electric Current. Electric current is the amount of charge moving past a point. Maxwell Demon counting the charges passing a given point. Definition of current. I = current Q = amount of charge that passes point. t = time for charge to pass by. Units of Current.

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Electricity

Electricity

Part 2: Electric Current


Electric current is the amount of charge moving past a point
Electric current is the amount of charge moving past a point

Maxwell Demon counting the charges passing a given point


Definition of current
Definition of current

  • I = current

  • Q = amount of charge that passes point.

  • t = time for charge to pass by.


Units of current
Units of Current

1 Ampere (Amp) = 1 Coulomb/second



Examples of currents
Examples of Currents

Solar wind interacting with the earths magnetic field


1) Coronal Mass Ejection

2) Aurora from space

3) Aurora from ground

CME animation

Aurora from space

Aurora effects



Tokamak fusion experiments jet discharge
Tokamak Fusion ExperimentsJET discharge


We usually think of currents in wires opening switch
We usually think of currents in wiresOpening switch


Simple circuit
Simple circuit

  • When a charged particle passes through the battery, it gains energy.

  • When the particle passes through the light bulb it gives up the energy as heat.


Ohm s law v ir
Ohm’s LawV=IR

  • V= Voltage of the Battery.

  • I=current in circuit.

  • R=Resistance in the bulb/resistor. (Depends on materials and geometry.)


Units of resistance
Units of Resistance

  • R=V/I (volts/amps)

  • By definition, 1Ohm = 1 volt/amp,

    or

    1=1V/A.




Example problem
Example problem

  • How many amps of current would flow in a light bulb that has a resistance of 60 if it is connected to a 12 V battery.


Power in a circuit
Power in a circuit

  • When Charge Q passes through the battery it gains an amount of energy

    E=(Q)V

    (This is the amount of work the battery does on the charge.)




Which type of light bulb has a larger resistance a 100w bulb or a 60w bulb
Which type of light bulb has a larger resistance, a 100W bulb or a 60W bulb?

  • The 100 W bulb

  • The 60 W bulb

  • They will have the same resistance

  • None of the above


Example calculation
Example Calculation bulb or a 60W bulb?

What is the resistance and how much current flows through a 100 W bulb?

Note: The wattage on a bulb is its power output and assumes that you will use it in the US where the voltage in 110 V.



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