Unit 4 1401
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Unit-4 1401. AERODROME DATA, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND OBSTACLE RESTRICTION. Syllabus. Aerodrome data - Basic terminology – Aerodrome reference code – Aerodrome reference point – Aerodrome elevation – Aerodrome reference temperature

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Unit-4 1401

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Unit-41401

AERODROME DATA, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND OBSTACLE RESTRICTION


Syllabus

  • Aerodrome data - Basic terminology – Aerodrome reference code – Aerodrome reference point – Aerodrome elevation – Aerodrome reference temperature

  • Instrument runway, physical Characteristics; length of primary / secondary runway – Width of runways – Minimum distance between parallel runways etc. – obstacles restriction.


Key Topics

  • Design of an Aerodrome

  • Classification of Aerodromes in India

  • Types of Runway

  • Design of Length of Runway


O Hare Airport


Types of Aerodromes in India

  • International Aerodrome-13

  • Domestic aerodrome-68 domestic terminals

  • Military Aerodrome-Pathankot

  • Custom Aerodrome-Madurai


Chennai Aerodrome parameter

  • Location Trisoolam;MSL=16m

  • Bearing=12*59’N 80*E

  • Runway 1. 07/25; 3.658m Asphalt

  • Runway 2.12/30; 2.05m Asphalt/Concrete


Chennai Terminal


Aerodrome Data

Aerodrome Ref Point, Aerodrome Chart


Chennai Airport


Aerodrome Data

  • Contain Aerodrome Chart

  • Aerodrome location giving-name, lat and long, airport elevation physical location, distance & bearings-34 ft AMSL; 12*59’37” N, 01*08’37”E

  • Aerdrome Administration-name, number, fax of the operator -AAI

  • Movement Areas like Runways, Taxiways, Aprons

  • Visual Aids-marking and lighting system for airports,Visual Approach Slope Indicator and Navigational Aids

  • Ground Services like Fuel, communication from Ground to Pilot


Typical Example

  • Name of Aerodrome-Chennai or Delhi etc & National Airport or International as NAT/INT

  • Runway Number from 01 to 36 & No. of Runways as 1 or 2 and their designation and length as 07/25; 3.658mile

  • Elevation of Runway

  • Type of Traffic ( IFR/VFR)

  • Location of Wind Sox (illuminated and non illuminated)

  • Location of Aerodrome Ref point, Control Tower, Terminal Building, Fire Station, Nav.


AERODROME CHART

  • Layout of runways, taxiways and apron(s);

    b) type of the runway surfaces;

    c) designations and length of runways; RWY NR-18; 2286M

    d) designations of the taxiways

    e) location of illuminated and non- illuminated wind direction indicators;

  • Location of the aerodrome reference point

  • Location of terminal buildings

  • Location of control tower

  • Location of fire station

  • Location of navigation aids

  • Location of isolation bay

  • Location of helipads


Aerodrome-runway and Taxiaway


Runway Details

  • Designation:RWY NR-18

  • Bearing:184*20’ GEO and 184*15’

  • Runway Size:2286 x 45 m

  • Width :< 30m, usually 45m, based on the wingspace of aircraft

  • Separation between Parallel Runway <1300m

  • Slope of Runway < 5%

  • Permissible Cross Wind = 20 Knots

  • Runway Surface : Loss Free and Friction Free

  • Material:Partly Asphalt and partly concrete


ARP-Aerodrome Ref Point

  • ARP defined as geometrical centre of runway, and height decided by the AAI & Point-ARP-the magnetic variation given to the nearest degree from magnetic north of the runway - Indicated as ARPlat and ARPlong


Chennai ARP


ARP-Chennai

  • Elevation 34 ft AMSL

  • Latitude125937 N

  • Longitude010837E

  • Land Area1400 Acres


RUNWAY

TORA & TODA,Characterestics, types and secondary runway – Width of runways – Minimum distance between parallel runways etc. – obstacles restriction


TORA & TODA

  • Take off Run-TORA =Length of runway declared available and distance traversed on ground run of an airplane taking off = 1.15 x Midpoint length of runway)

  • Take off Distance-TODA-length of the takeoff run available plus the length of Clear way; TODA=TORA + Clearway or 1.5 Tora


TAKE OFF DISTANCE-TODA


TAKE OFF RUN AVAILABLE-TORA


Runway Length

  • Depends on the type of aircraft and speed of landing( Airbus require 3.5Km)

  • 1800m for weights< 90,000Kg for smaller aircrafts

  • ,2400m For Widebodies aircrafts

  • 4000m for International flights


Runway Visual Range-RVR

  • Is an instrumentally derived value that representing the horizontal distance a pilot can see down the runway, determined by visibility sensors

  • RVR measured in increments of 100 feet up to 1,000 feet, increments of 200 feet from 1,000 feet to 3,000 feet, and increments of 500 feet above 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet.


RVR to Pilot


RVR


Types

  • Single Runway-Simplest Runway used when winds blow on the Runway and suitable when peak HR traffic is <50 operations; Both ends can be used when the winds are light for landing and departure.

  • Parallel Runway-when winds blow on the runway and peak hr.traffic >50 operations and landing and departure on two runways

  • Intersecting Runway-when wind blow in one direction is > the other, intersecting runway being used.

  • Open V & Closed V runway


Typical Runways


Single and Parallel Runways

Single Runway

Layout

Equal Dep & ARR

Terminal Building

Parallel Runway

L/TO

L/TO


Open V Runway & Intersecting Runway


VFR,IFR Runway( Precision and Non precision)

  • Visual Runway

  • Instrument Runway

    a.Precision Runway-marked at edge with white painting-guidance both for vertical and horizontal

    b.Non Precision Instrument ( no vertical guidance, only horizontal guidance)


Instrument Runway


Instrument runway-Features

  • Marking and lighting systems for runways;

  • b) approach lighting system;

  • c) visual approach slope indicator system;

  • d) aerodrome beacon;

  • e) marking and lighting systems for taxiways; and

  • f) any other marking and lighting systems.


Parallel Runway-9R-9L

N

0

270

90

180


Parallel Runway


Landing


Parallel Runways


Components of a Traffic Pattern Single Runway


Designated positions in Parallel runway

4


Designated positions in the runway

  • Position 1. Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing flight. Runway from Apron

  • Position 2. Departing aircraft held at position 2. Engine run-up be performed here.

  • Position 3. Take-off clearance issued

  • Position 4. Clearance to land is issued

  • Position 5. Clearance to taxi to apron

  • Position 6. Parking information issued


Actual Traffic Pattern in Parallel Runways


Parallel Runways <4300’

  • Parallel Runways <4300’, Aircraft still required to be 2.5 NM apart on the same localizer,

  • but close as 1.5 NM apart diagonally between the localizers


Parallel Runways <4300’


Minimum distance between parallel runways

  • Safe if the runway spacing is greater than 1270m Unsafe if the spacing is lower than 930 m.


Parallel Runway Approaches (4)

  • Close Parallel

  • Independent parallel approaches

  • Independent Close Parallel

  • Independent Close Parallel with Cross Wind Close parallel.


Parallel Runway Approaches (4)


Width of runways

  • Runway Width =45 Meters based on Airworthiness requirements for AB 380


Typical Runway


Specification of Taxiway

  • Width

  • Surface

  • Strength


Information to Pilot for Take off


Information

  • Runway Number

  • Wind Direction and Speed

  • QNH altimeter setting

  • the air temperature for the runway to be used, in the case of turbine-engine aircraft;

  • RVR Values of the Runway

  • Correct Time


Information to be provided for the Aircraft when on Approach

  • Runway Number

  • Surface Wind Direction and Speed

  • QNH altimeter setting


Obstacle Restriction

  • Runway designation:APCH-18 & TKOF-36

  • Obstacle type Trees and their bearing for different types of trees from 17m to 21 and their coordinates:

  • Mobile Tower and their bearing

  • Pole and its bearing


Runway Markings


Runway Factors

  • Airport elevation above MSL

  • Mean maximum temperature

  • Wind velocity

  • Aircraft operating weights

  • Takeoff and landing flap settings

  • Effective runway gradient

  • Runway surface conditions (dry, wet, contaminated, etc.)

  • Presence of obstructions within the vicinity of the approach and departure path, and


Runway Markings


Instrument Runway markings


Runway Markings

1.Threshold Marking: 30 m x 1.8m

white stripes

4.LandingAiming Point Marking

30 x 4 m W stripe

Centre line

Marking

29L

50-75m

X 0.9 m

150m

3. Touch down

Zone marking

Figure not to scale

300m


Runway Markings

  • Threshold: marked by a line of green lights-Four stripes on either side of the centerline at the end of the runway

  • Magnetic Runway Heading-29- number, to the nearest one-tenth of Magnetic North

  • Touch Down Zone Markers:Meant to help define the touchdown zone, they show distance information in 500 foot increments

  • Landing aiming point a visual cue, it is generally 1,000 feet from the threshold

  • Distance to go Markers:number denotes the distance remaining, in thousands of feet.

  • Runway Designator Sign:the departure end of runway 9 is to your left and the departure end of runway 27 is to your right.


Typical Runway


Meaning of Signals in the event of Communication Failure

  • FlashingGreen-Permission to move to Taxi area

  • Steady Red-Stop

  • Flashing Red-Move off the Landing Area to taxi area

  • Flashing White-Vacate manoeuvring area in accordance with local instructions


Minimum Safe/Sector Altitude-MSA

  • MSA published for emergency use on IAP charts.

  • For conventional navigation systems, the MSA is normally based on the primary omnidirectional facility

  • NAVAID used to determine the MSA altitudes.

  • For RNAV approaches, MSA is based on the runway waypoint (RWY WP) for straight-in approaches, or the airport waypoint (APT WP) for circling approaches.

  • For GPS approaches, the MSA center will be the missed approach waypoint (MAWP).

  • MSAsexpressed in feet above mean sea level and normally have a 25 NM radius;


ORDER OF PRIORITY FORARRIVING AND DEPARTINGAIRCRAFT

  • Landing ( Final stage of Approach) has Priority against Take off

  • An aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land have priority over an aircraft intending to depart from the same or an intersecting runway


Airport Design


Airport Design Areas

  • Evaluation of landing surface, instrument runway and aids.

  • Runway Safety Area program

  • Airport Lighting

  • Terminal Facilities

  • Beacons

  • Papi/Vasi

  • Windcone


Design factors

  • Airport Traffic is a volatile traffic-Assumption

  • Airport Master Plan & master plan study for airport layout, feasibility plan

  • Specific Devlopment Plan for immediate Future

  • Construction Plan for Runway, Taxiway, Gates and modification of existing terminal

  • Details of the project plan for architectural and engineering designs

  • Assessment of the plan in every phase

  • Determining the cost and financial planning


Factors for Improving an Existing Airport

  • Airport building should have architectural qualitty and Operational Success.

  • should have to designed on the bassis of Structural and Passenger loads/year

  • As a Rule of Thumb, Twice the size of a building should be considered based on annual traffic load including luggage.

  • AirpConcept of Passenger Building as a Terminal as passengers use airports as a transfer hub.

  • Connecting the passenger facilities to the Apron and Aircraft either by a Underground train or Overhead train like in London (Gatwick) or in Atlanta (Heartfield)

  • Renovating the terminal in the shape of X as in Hongkong

  • Introducing Gate Arrival Concept for commuter traffic

  • Means to minimise luggage transfer and passenger using airport as a transit

  • Minimise the distance to passenger for transit movement

  • Multistorey Car Park


Various Airports in World


Doha Airport-Architectural design


Islamabad Airport( Gate concept)


Passenger Flexibility


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