Unit 4 1401
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Unit-4 1401. AERODROME DATA, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND OBSTACLE RESTRICTION. Syllabus. Aerodrome data - Basic terminology – Aerodrome reference code – Aerodrome reference point – Aerodrome elevation – Aerodrome reference temperature

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Unit-4 1401

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Unit 4 1401





  • Aerodrome data - Basic terminology – Aerodrome reference code – Aerodrome reference point – Aerodrome elevation – Aerodrome reference temperature

  • Instrument runway, physical Characteristics; length of primary / secondary runway – Width of runways – Minimum distance between parallel runways etc. – obstacles restriction.

Key topics

Key Topics

  • Design of an Aerodrome

  • Classification of Aerodromes in India

  • Types of Runway

  • Design of Length of Runway

O hare airport

O Hare Airport

Types of aerodromes in india

Types of Aerodromes in India

  • International Aerodrome-13

  • Domestic aerodrome-68 domestic terminals

  • Military Aerodrome-Pathankot

  • Custom Aerodrome-Madurai

Chennai aerodrome parameter

Chennai Aerodrome parameter

  • Location Trisoolam;MSL=16m

  • Bearing=12*59’N 80*E

  • Runway 1. 07/25; 3.658m Asphalt

  • Runway 2.12/30; 2.05m Asphalt/Concrete

Chennai terminal

Chennai Terminal

Aerodrome data

Aerodrome Data

Aerodrome Ref Point, Aerodrome Chart

Chennai airport

Chennai Airport

Aerodrome data1

Aerodrome Data

  • Contain Aerodrome Chart

  • Aerodrome location giving-name, lat and long, airport elevation physical location, distance & bearings-34 ft AMSL; 12*59’37” N, 01*08’37”E

  • Aerdrome Administration-name, number, fax of the operator -AAI

  • Movement Areas like Runways, Taxiways, Aprons

  • Visual Aids-marking and lighting system for airports,Visual Approach Slope Indicator and Navigational Aids

  • Ground Services like Fuel, communication from Ground to Pilot

Typical example

Typical Example

  • Name of Aerodrome-Chennai or Delhi etc & National Airport or International as NAT/INT

  • Runway Number from 01 to 36 & No. of Runways as 1 or 2 and their designation and length as 07/25; 3.658mile

  • Elevation of Runway

  • Type of Traffic ( IFR/VFR)

  • Location of Wind Sox (illuminated and non illuminated)

  • Location of Aerodrome Ref point, Control Tower, Terminal Building, Fire Station, Nav.

Aerodrome chart


  • Layout of runways, taxiways and apron(s);

    b) type of the runway surfaces;

    c) designations and length of runways; RWY NR-18; 2286M

    d) designations of the taxiways

    e) location of illuminated and non- illuminated wind direction indicators;

  • Location of the aerodrome reference point

  • Location of terminal buildings

  • Location of control tower

  • Location of fire station

  • Location of navigation aids

  • Location of isolation bay

  • Location of helipads

Aerodrome runway and taxiaway

Aerodrome-runway and Taxiaway

Runway details

Runway Details

  • Designation:RWY NR-18

  • Bearing:184*20’ GEO and 184*15’

  • Runway Size:2286 x 45 m

  • Width :< 30m, usually 45m, based on the wingspace of aircraft

  • Separation between Parallel Runway <1300m

  • Slope of Runway < 5%

  • Permissible Cross Wind = 20 Knots

  • Runway Surface : Loss Free and Friction Free

  • Material:Partly Asphalt and partly concrete

Arp aerodrome ref point

ARP-Aerodrome Ref Point

  • ARP defined as geometrical centre of runway, and height decided by the AAI & Point-ARP-the magnetic variation given to the nearest degree from magnetic north of the runway - Indicated as ARPlat and ARPlong

Chennai arp

Chennai ARP

Arp chennai


  • Elevation 34 ft AMSL

  • Latitude125937 N

  • Longitude010837E

  • Land Area1400 Acres



TORA & TODA,Characterestics, types and secondary runway – Width of runways – Minimum distance between parallel runways etc. – obstacles restriction

Tora toda


  • Take off Run-TORA =Length of runway declared available and distance traversed on ground run of an airplane taking off = 1.15 x Midpoint length of runway)

  • Take off Distance-TODA-length of the takeoff run available plus the length of Clear way; TODA=TORA + Clearway or 1.5 Tora

Take off distance toda


Take off run available tora


Runway length

Runway Length

  • Depends on the type of aircraft and speed of landing( Airbus require 3.5Km)

  • 1800m for weights< 90,000Kg for smaller aircrafts

  • ,2400m For Widebodies aircrafts

  • 4000m for International flights

Runway visual range rvr

Runway Visual Range-RVR

  • Is an instrumentally derived value that representing the horizontal distance a pilot can see down the runway, determined by visibility sensors

  • RVR measured in increments of 100 feet up to 1,000 feet, increments of 200 feet from 1,000 feet to 3,000 feet, and increments of 500 feet above 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet.

Rvr to pilot

RVR to Pilot

Unit 4 1401




  • Single Runway-Simplest Runway used when winds blow on the Runway and suitable when peak HR traffic is <50 operations; Both ends can be used when the winds are light for landing and departure.

  • Parallel Runway-when winds blow on the runway and peak hr.traffic >50 operations and landing and departure on two runways

  • Intersecting Runway-when wind blow in one direction is > the other, intersecting runway being used.

  • Open V & Closed V runway

Typical runways

Typical Runways

Single and parallel runways

Single and Parallel Runways

Single Runway


Equal Dep & ARR

Terminal Building

Parallel Runway



Open v runway intersecting runway

Open V Runway & Intersecting Runway

Vfr ifr runway precision and non precision

VFR,IFR Runway( Precision and Non precision)

  • Visual Runway

  • Instrument Runway

    a.Precision Runway-marked at edge with white painting-guidance both for vertical and horizontal

    b.Non Precision Instrument ( no vertical guidance, only horizontal guidance)

Instrument runway

Instrument Runway

Instrument runway features

Instrument runway-Features

  • Marking and lighting systems for runways;

  • b) approach lighting system;

  • c) visual approach slope indicator system;

  • d) aerodrome beacon;

  • e) marking and lighting systems for taxiways; and

  • f) any other marking and lighting systems.

Parallel runway 9r 9l

Parallel Runway-9R-9L






Parallel runway

Parallel Runway



Parallel runways

Parallel Runways

Components of a traffic pattern single runway

Components of a Traffic Pattern Single Runway

Designated positions in parallel runway

Designated positions in Parallel runway


Designated positions in the runway

Designated positions in the runway

  • Position 1. Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing flight. Runway from Apron

  • Position 2. Departing aircraft held at position 2. Engine run-up be performed here.

  • Position 3. Take-off clearance issued

  • Position 4. Clearance to land is issued

  • Position 5. Clearance to taxi to apron

  • Position 6. Parking information issued

Actual traffic pattern in parallel runways

Actual Traffic Pattern in Parallel Runways

Parallel runways 4300

Parallel Runways <4300’

  • Parallel Runways <4300’, Aircraft still required to be 2.5 NM apart on the same localizer,

  • but close as 1.5 NM apart diagonally between the localizers

Parallel runways 43001

Parallel Runways <4300’

Minimum distance between parallel runways

Minimum distance between parallel runways

  • Safe if the runway spacing is greater than 1270m Unsafe if the spacing is lower than 930 m.

Parallel runway approaches 4

Parallel Runway Approaches (4)

  • Close Parallel

  • Independent parallel approaches

  • Independent Close Parallel

  • Independent Close Parallel with Cross Wind Close parallel.

Parallel runway approaches 41

Parallel Runway Approaches (4)

Width of runways

Width of runways

  • Runway Width =45 Meters based on Airworthiness requirements for AB 380

Typical runway

Typical Runway

Specification of taxiway

Specification of Taxiway

  • Width

  • Surface

  • Strength

Information to pilot for take off

Information to Pilot for Take off



  • Runway Number

  • Wind Direction and Speed

  • QNH altimeter setting

  • the air temperature for the runway to be used, in the case of turbine-engine aircraft;

  • RVR Values of the Runway

  • Correct Time

Information to be provided for the aircraft when on approach

Information to be provided for the Aircraft when on Approach

  • Runway Number

  • Surface Wind Direction and Speed

  • QNH altimeter setting

Obstacle restriction

Obstacle Restriction

  • Runway designation:APCH-18 & TKOF-36

  • Obstacle type Trees and their bearing for different types of trees from 17m to 21 and their coordinates:

  • Mobile Tower and their bearing

  • Pole and its bearing

Runway markings

Runway Markings

Runway factors

Runway Factors

  • Airport elevation above MSL

  • Mean maximum temperature

  • Wind velocity

  • Aircraft operating weights

  • Takeoff and landing flap settings

  • Effective runway gradient

  • Runway surface conditions (dry, wet, contaminated, etc.)

  • Presence of obstructions within the vicinity of the approach and departure path, and

Runway markings1

Runway Markings

Instrument runway markings

Instrument Runway markings

Unit 4 1401

Runway Markings

1.Threshold Marking: 30 m x 1.8m

white stripes

4.LandingAiming Point Marking

30 x 4 m W stripe

Centre line




X 0.9 m


3. Touch down

Zone marking

Figure not to scale


Runway markings2

Runway Markings

  • Threshold: marked by a line of green lights-Four stripes on either side of the centerline at the end of the runway

  • Magnetic Runway Heading-29- number, to the nearest one-tenth of Magnetic North

  • Touch Down Zone Markers:Meant to help define the touchdown zone, they show distance information in 500 foot increments

  • Landing aiming point a visual cue, it is generally 1,000 feet from the threshold

  • Distance to go Markers:number denotes the distance remaining, in thousands of feet.

  • Runway Designator Sign:the departure end of runway 9 is to your left and the departure end of runway 27 is to your right.

Typical runway1

Typical Runway

Meaning of signals in the event of communication failure

Meaning of Signals in the event of Communication Failure

  • FlashingGreen-Permission to move to Taxi area

  • Steady Red-Stop

  • Flashing Red-Move off the Landing Area to taxi area

  • Flashing White-Vacate manoeuvring area in accordance with local instructions

Minimum safe sector altitude msa

Minimum Safe/Sector Altitude-MSA

  • MSA published for emergency use on IAP charts.

  • For conventional navigation systems, the MSA is normally based on the primary omnidirectional facility

  • NAVAID used to determine the MSA altitudes.

  • For RNAV approaches, MSA is based on the runway waypoint (RWY WP) for straight-in approaches, or the airport waypoint (APT WP) for circling approaches.

  • For GPS approaches, the MSA center will be the missed approach waypoint (MAWP).

  • MSAsexpressed in feet above mean sea level and normally have a 25 NM radius;

Order of priority for arriving and departing aircraft


  • Landing ( Final stage of Approach) has Priority against Take off

  • An aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land have priority over an aircraft intending to depart from the same or an intersecting runway

Airport design

Airport Design

Airport design areas

Airport Design Areas

  • Evaluation of landing surface, instrument runway and aids.

  • Runway Safety Area program

  • Airport Lighting

  • Terminal Facilities

  • Beacons

  • Papi/Vasi

  • Windcone

Design factors

Design factors

  • Airport Traffic is a volatile traffic-Assumption

  • Airport Master Plan & master plan study for airport layout, feasibility plan

  • Specific Devlopment Plan for immediate Future

  • Construction Plan for Runway, Taxiway, Gates and modification of existing terminal

  • Details of the project plan for architectural and engineering designs

  • Assessment of the plan in every phase

  • Determining the cost and financial planning

Factors for improving an existing airport

Factors for Improving an Existing Airport

  • Airport building should have architectural qualitty and Operational Success.

  • should have to designed on the bassis of Structural and Passenger loads/year

  • As a Rule of Thumb, Twice the size of a building should be considered based on annual traffic load including luggage.

  • AirpConcept of Passenger Building as a Terminal as passengers use airports as a transfer hub.

  • Connecting the passenger facilities to the Apron and Aircraft either by a Underground train or Overhead train like in London (Gatwick) or in Atlanta (Heartfield)

  • Renovating the terminal in the shape of X as in Hongkong

  • Introducing Gate Arrival Concept for commuter traffic

  • Means to minimise luggage transfer and passenger using airport as a transit

  • Minimise the distance to passenger for transit movement

  • Multistorey Car Park

Unit 4 1401

Various Airports in World

Doha airport architectural design

Doha Airport-Architectural design

Islamabad airport gate concept

Islamabad Airport( Gate concept)

Passenger flexibility

Passenger Flexibility

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