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Chlorine Disinfection of Drinking Water. California Unified Program 8 th Annual Training Conference February 8, 2006 Presented by: Paul G. Beswick Metropolitan Water District of Southern California Environmental Support Services (213) 217-5533 [email protected]

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Chlorine disinfection of drinking water
Chlorine Disinfection ofDrinking Water

California Unified Program 8th Annual Training Conference

February 8, 2006

Presented by: Paul G. Beswick

Metropolitan Water District of Southern California

Environmental Support Services

(213) 217-5533 [email protected]


Typical Water Treatment Plant

FLASH MIX

COAGULATION / FLOCCULATION

SEDIMENTATION

Mixes chemicals with raw water containing fine particles that will not readily settle or filter out of the water.

Cl2

Gathers together fine light particles to form larger particles (floc) to aid the sedimentation and filtration processes.

Settles out larger suspended particles.

Cl2

PRE-CHLORINATION

Kills disease causing organisms and helps control taste-and-odor causing substances.

CHLORAMINES

Kills disease causing organisms. Provides disinfectant residual for the distribution system.

CORROSION CONTROL

Cl2

NH3

Cl2

NaOH

Adjusts the pH of the treated water to inhibit corrosion of pipelines.

FILTRATION

Filters out remaining suspended particles

CLEARWELL

TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Provides contact time for disinfection. Stores water for high demand.

DAF 9-20-00


The chlorine disinfection process
The Chlorine Disinfection Process

  • Public Health benefits of chlorination

  • Process flow

  • Process components


Chlorination public health benefit
Chlorination Public Health Benefit

  • A critical role protecting US drinking water supply from waterborne infectious diseases for over 90 years

  • Cholera, typhoid, dysentery, hepatitis A virtually eliminated

  • In over 98% of disinfection systems

  • Germicidal potency, residual disinfection properties, efficiency, economy





Chlorine rail car unloading
Chlorine Rail Car Unloading

90 Ton rail cars


Chlorine trailer unloading
Chlorine Trailer Unloading

17/19 Ton Trailers


Stationary chlorine tank
Stationary Chlorine Tank

25 ton stationary tank


Chlorine cylinder storage
Chlorine Cylinder Storage

1 ton cylinders






Chlorine system safety what we are doing
Chlorine System Safety - What we are doing

  • 24 hour monitoring and access control

  • Detailed operating procedures

  • Highly trained staff

  • Leak sensors and alarms

  • Automatic supply shut-off valves

  • Chlorine containment and neutralization

  • On-site emergency response capability + strong relationship with fire dept responders


Control Room

  • Operator on duty 24 hours a day.

  • Chlorine alarms are received in the Control Room.

  • Chlorine facilities are visually inspected twice a shift.


Chlorine Trailer Manway

  • Remote emergency shut-off capability

  • Highly sensitive chlorine gas detector


Multiple Emergency Shut-off Locations

  • Controlled from several strategic locations

  • Shut-off is immediate


Monel Flex Hose Connection

  • Durable/flexible connection

  • Inspected/replaced regularly


Chlorine Gas Monitoring

  • Continuous monitoring, alarms locally and in Control Room

  • Sensors strategically placed throughout plant

  • Calibrated regularly


Chlorine leak alarms

  • Audio/Visual chlorine gas leak alarms - immediate notification to all plant personnel.


Vacuum Operation

  • Chlorine piped to points of use throughout plant under vacuum

  • Safest method of transmission




Caustic neutralization system
Caustic Neutralization System

Two 3.5-Ton Chlorine Scrubbers









Rural bexar county texas june 28 2004 3 dead 50 hospitalized
Rural Bexar County, Texas June 28, 20043 dead, 50 hospitalized


Graniteville south carolina january 6 2005 9 killed 554 hospitalized 5 400 evacuated
Graniteville, South CarolinaJanuary 6, 20059 killed, 554 hospitalized, ~5,400 evacuated


Graniteville south carolina january 6 2005 9 killed 554 hospitalized 5 400 evacuated1
Graniteville, South CarolinaJanuary 6, 20059 killed, 554 hospitalized, ~5,400 evacuated


Graniteville south carolina january 6 2005 9 killed 554 hospitalized 5 400 evacuated2
Graniteville, South CarolinaJanuary 6, 20059 killed, 554 hospitalized, ~5,400 evacuated


Graniteville south carolina january 6 2005 9 killed 554 hospitalized 5 400 evacuated3
Graniteville, South CarolinaJanuary 6, 20059 killed, 554 hospitalized, ~5,400 evacuated


Where is the real chlorine release threat1
Where Is The Real Chlorine Release Threat?!

  • Two train wrecks in 6 months

    • resulted in significant chlorine releases

    • 12 dead

    • over 600 taken to hospital

    • over 5,000 evacuated.


Chlorine rail transportation issues
Chlorine Rail Transportation Issues

  • Rail freight cost cutting, lack of re-investment, explosive growth, stretched resources

  • Security

    • In transit

    • Storage while in transit

  • Identifying hazmat derailment

  • Warning local first responders

  • Mobilizing specialist response team


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