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U.S. History I. Chapter 9 “An Emerging World Power”. U.S. History I. Chapter 9 Section 1 “The Roots of Imperialism”. The Causes of Imperialism Imperialists Seek Economic Benefits Imperialism : the economic and political domination by a strong country over a weaker one

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U s history i

U.S. History I

Chapter 9

“An Emerging World Power”

U s history i1

U.S. History I

Chapter 9 Section 1

“The Roots of Imperialism”

  • The Causes of Imperialism

    • Imperialists Seek Economic Benefits

      • Imperialism: the economic and political domination by a strong country over a weaker one

      • Extractive Economies: Country who’s raw materials are taken by imperial country-most benefit is to “home” country

      • Protectorate: a country which is technically independent but is under the control of another

    • Imperialists Stress Military Strength

      • Alfred T. Mahan: Wrote: Influence of Sea Power Upon History

    • Imperialists Believe in National Superiority

      • Anglo-Saxonism: the argument that English speaking nations were superior to others

      • Josiah Strong: Minister who sent missions to “civilize” world

      • Social-Darwinism: Life is a competition and only “fittest” survive

      • Frederick Jackson Turner: Open west was “safety valve” for tension in U.S. Now that west was settled, Americans needed new valve

  • U.S. Power Grows in the Pacific

    • Perry Opens Japan

      • Matthew C. Perry (1853) ordered by President Pierce to force trade between the US and Japan

      • Succeeds when Japanese sees size of fleet as a threat

    • Seward Purchases Alaska (1867) from Russia for $7.2 Million

    • U.S. Influence Grows in Latin America

      • James G. Blaine

        • Pan-Americanism: US and Latin America working together

        • 1889 Pan-American conference

          • Customs union

          • Reduce tariffs

          • Latin countries refused to do these but agreed to create the Commercial Bureau of American Republics (later called the Organization of American States – OAS)

Commodore Perry

“Negotiating” With Japan

Maps: Latin America (Top)

Alaska, Japan, and Hawaii

The united states acquires hawaii
The United States Acquires Hawaii

  • Why Hawaii?

    • Sugarcane

    • Pineapple

    • Hawaii exempt from sugar tariffs

    • Tensions mount between planters and Hawaiians over new constitution

    • McKinley Tariff makes Hawaiian sugar more expensive than American sugar

    • Hawaii’s economy suffers

    • Queen Liliuokalani takes throne 1891

      • Tries to change constitution in 1892

    • Planters back movement to overthrow Queen

    • Aided by the Marines, Planters force Queen Liliuokalani to abdicate the throne (1883)

    • President Cleveland tries to restore Queen to throne

    • Senate refuses to ratify treaty

    • 1898 US annexes Hawaii (After Spanish-American War Began)

Sanford dole and queen lili map hawai i guam samoa
Sanford Dole and Queen “Lili”(Map) Hawai’i, Guam, Samoa

Section 2 the spanish american war
Section 2: The Spanish-American War

  • Causes of the War

    • The Cuban Rebellion Begins

      • 1895 Cuban rebels declare independence

        • José Martí, Cuban exile who tried to gain support while living in NYC (Bottom Left)

    • The “Yellow” Press Inflames Opinion

      • William Randolph Hearst, New York Journal (Left)

      • Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador

        • One of his letters published in New York Journal enrages the nation

        • Jingoism: Aggressive Nationalism

        • Joseph Pulitzer, The World

        • Competition to increase circulation of their newspapers

        • Yellow Journalism: exaggerated, sensationalist, often false stories made up to sell more papers

        • Led to many Americans supporting Cuba

The maine blows up

Maine explosion: 1898

266 dead,

Many blamed Spain

(USS Maine: Below, Hearst Article Blaming Spain: Top Right, and “Spanish Misrule” Cartoon)

The Maine Blows Up!

  • American Troops Battle the Spanish

    • The United States Takes the Philippines

      • George Dewey leads squadron into Manila Bay

      • Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino revolutionary leader starts a guerrilla war against Spain after being contacted by President McKinley

        • Thinks American troops are there to assist him

        • Leads to hostilities been Filipinos and Americans

    • American Forces Battle in Cuba

      • “Rough Riders” land in Cuba led by Leonard Wood and second in command Theodore Roosevelt

      • Kettle Hill, Rough Riders accompanied by all African American regiment of the 9th and 10th calvary (many of which were volunteers)

      • Spanish surrender and on August 12, 1898 Spain and the U.S. agree to a cease-fire

  • Effects of the War

    • Treaty of Paris

      • Cuba given freedom

      • U.S. takes control of Guam and Puerto Rico

      • U.S. trying to determine what to do with the Philippines

  • The Debate Over Annexation

    • Imperialists wanted to annex the Philippines

      • Teach the uncivilized people how to live properly (McKinley)

      • Free the oppressed

    • Anti-Imperialists

      • Andrew Carnegie

        • Imperialism costs would outweigh the economic gains

      • Jane Addams

        • Annexation would be against American principles

      • Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain-Left)

        • Annexation would be against American principles

      • Samuel Gompers

        • Worried about competition for jobs and drive down wages

U s history i2

U.S. History I

Chapter 9 Section 3

“The U.S. and East Asia”

3.1, 9.3, 9.4

  • Filipinos Rebel Against American Rule

    • Emilio Aguinaldo calls for troops to attack Americans: Insurrection: rebellion

    • Guerilla Warfare: non-traditional small arms combat: Aguinaldo captured 1901

    • *5,000 Americans and 200,000 Filipinos die

    • General Arthur MacArthur (Douglas MacArthur’s father)

      • Sets up re-concentration camps to separate guerilla warriors from civilians

      • Thousands die from starvation and disease

Reforms lead to promise of self rule eventually
Reforms lead to promise of “Self-rule”…eventually

  • William Howard Taft, 1st US civilian governor

    • tried to reform education, transportation and healthcare

    • Building railroads, bridges, telephone lines to strengthen the economy

    • Public schools

  • 1946 Philippines gain independence from the U.S.

The u s pursues interests in china
The U.S. Pursues Interests in China

  • Theodore Roosevelt’s Rise to Power

    • President McKinley asked Teddy to run as his Vice President in 1900

  • The Election of 1900

    • McKinley vs. William Jennings Bryan

    • “Four More Years of the Full Dinner Pail”

    • 9/6/1901 Leon Czogosz, shoots McKinley

    • Teddy (age 42) takes office

  • Roosevelt Becomes President

    • Believed the US had a duty to shape the less civilized corners of the world

    • Wanted the US to be a world power

  • The Open Door Policy: John Hay

    • “Sphere of Influence”: a section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers

    • Open Door Policy: a policy that allows each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations’ spheres of influence

  • The Boxer Rebellion

    • Chinese movement to rid themselves of foreign control

    • Group members attacked foreign embassies in Beijing

    • U.S. retains access to Chinese exports due to Secretary of State John Hay’s urging of foreign powers to accept compensation for damages rather than attack China and break it into colonies

  • Tensions Rise Between America and Japan

    Negotiating peace between Japan and Russia, aided by outcome of Boxer Rebellion Russo-Japanese War

    Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize 1906

    Japan and US relations wither

    Anti-Asian Protests in U.S. (Gentleman’s Agreement)

    Great White Fleet voyage

    Increased tensions rather than elevating them

    • U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba

      • Foraker Act

        • Puerto Rico becomes an unincorporated territory

          • Puerto Ricans not US citizens

          • Puerto Ricans did not have constitutional rights

          • Congress could pass any laws they wanted in regards to Puerto Rico

        • Slowly gain “self governance”

        • 1917 Puerto Ricans become US citizens

        • 1947 hold elections for governor

      • Debate on statehood, commonwealth, or independence still a heated topic today

    • U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba

      • McKinley makes promises

        • Eventual independence for Cuba

        • Own constitution

          • McKinley puts stipulations

      • Platt Amendment

        • Stipulations

          • Cuba cannot make treaties with other countries which would weaken its independence

          • Cuba must allow the US to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba

          • Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to stop possible foreign collectors from landing on the island

          • US had the right to intervene to protect Cuba’s independence and to keep order

        • Cubans rejected it at first, later change their minds

        • Repealed in 1934

    Roosevelt pursues big stick diplomacy

    A Growing Presence in the Caribbean

    “Speak softly and carry a big stick” Policy

    The Panama Canal

    Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

    Revolt in Panama

    Rid of Columbian influence

    Panama becomes independent

    Signs treaty with US to build canal

    Roosevelt Pursues “Big Stick” Diplomacy

    • The Roosevelt Corollary: To Monroe Doctrine

      • The U.S. should and would intervene in Latin American affairs when needed to maintain economic and political stability--------------------------------------

        • 1st applied in the Dominican Republic

        • Latin American countries resent involvement

      • Dollar Diplomacy: William Howard Taft

        • Taft’s policy, which follows T. Roosevelt’s

        • Substituted dollars for bullets

        • Nicaragua got both bullets and money

      • Moral diplomacy: Woodrow Wilson

        • U.S. Should promote human rights and opportunity

        • “…never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest”

        • Francisco “Poncho” Villa: Pursued by U.S. troops for an attack on Americans that left 18 dead (SEE Page 274)