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Helping Immigrant Students in the United States Learn English in Mainstream Classrooms: The SIOP Approach. Melvin R. Andrade, Ed.D. Sophia Junior College Linguapax Asia 2005 Second International Symposium Embassy of Canada,Tokyo 11 June 2005. Aims of this Presentation.

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Helping Immigrant Students in the United States Learn English in Mainstream Classrooms: The SIOP Approach

Melvin R. Andrade, Ed.D.

Sophia Junior College

Linguapax Asia 2005

Second International Symposium

Embassy of Canada,Tokyo

11 June 2005

Aims of this Presentation

  • To introduce the SIOP Model of sheltered instruction as an effective way to develop content knowledge and language skills together in foreign language, second language, and heritage language education

  • To introduce Web-based resources about SIOP and related programs

What does “SIOP” stand for?

It stands for “Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol,” which refers to a set of guidelines for planning and measuring the implementation of a teaching approach know as “Sheltered Instruction.”

Sheltered Instruction is…?

  • . . . an approach for teaching content to English (and other) learners in ways that make the subject matter concepts comprehensible while promoting the students’language development. An important component of sheltered instruction is . . .

. . . “Scaffolding,” defined as . . .

  • “Teacher support for learning and student performance of tasks through instruction, modeling, questioning, feedback, graphic organizers, and more, across successive engagements”

  • These supports are gradually withdrawn as the learner develops more and more autonomy.

Why is sheltered instruction needed?

  • 90% of recent immigrants to the U.S. come from non-English speaking countries

  • Students with limited English proficient (LEP) comprise nearly 10% of the U.S. school population (K-12)

  • In some school districts, LEP students are the majority of students in class.

And . . .

  • LEP students lag significantly behind other students in academic achievement (lower grades and test scores)

  • LEP students have higher drop out rates

  • Many LEP students have hand little formal schooling and cannot read or write.

  • Many LEP students speak another language at home--not English

Who Uses the SIOP Model?

  • ESL teachers

  • Bilingual teachers

  • Elementary classroom teachers

  • Secondary subject-area teachers

  • Coaches and mentor teachers

  • Staff developers

  • School and district administrators

  • Teacher and education faculty

  • Pre-service teacher candidates

Why Use the SIOP Model?

  • “As the number of English language learners (ELLs) in their classes increase, teachers are looking for effective instructional practices.”

  • “Teachers and researchers worked collaboratively to create the SIOP Model to meet the challenges of this new reality.”

And . . .

  • “The SIOP Model has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure of effective instruction.”

  • “Research has shown that ELLs improved their academic skills when their teachers implement the SIOP Model.”

Now some background . . .

“The SIOP Model offers a research-based approach to sheltered lesson planning and implementation that has proven effective with English language learners throughout the United States. The model was developed in a 7-year national research project (1996-2003) sponsored by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE). ”

And . . .

Through literature review and with the collaboration of practicing teachers, researchers identified features of instruction present in high-quality sheltered lessons to generate the SIOP Model. The model was refined over multiple years of field testing and consists of eight components and 30 features that are explained in the book . . .

J. Echevarria, M. E. Vogt,, & D. J. Short. (2004)

Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model

Boston: Pearson

Center for Applied

Lesson preparation







Practice & application

Lesson delivery

Review & assessment

The eight components are . . .

Teachers trained in this model . . .

. . . learn to plan and deliver lessons that incorporate these techniques consistently. and, thus help English learners to develop their academic English skills while learning grade-level content.

Research & Development Projects Related to the SIOP Model. Online athttp:// www . cal . org / siop / index . html

  • The Effects of Sheltered Instruction on the Achievement of Limited English Proficient Students

  • The SIOP Model for Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: Professional Development Videos and Facilitator's Manual

Online research cont’d . . .

  • SIOP Model Research and Professional Development for Secondary English Language Learners

  • Optimizing Educational Outcomes for English Language Learners

Now before going into more detail, watch a short video, which…

will briefly review the background of SIOP and its eight components.

(Video: Helping English Learners Succeed: An overview of the SIOP Model. Center for Applied Linguistics. www. cal. org / crede / pubs

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)

Total points possible: 120 (subtract 4 points for each NA (“not applicable”) given

Directions: Circle the number that best reflects what you observe in a sheltered lesson. You may give a score from 0-4 (or NA on selected items). Cite under “Comments” specific examples of the behaviors observed.


4 Highly evident


2 Somewhat evident


0 Not evident


I. Preparation

1. Clearly defined content objectives for


2. Clear defined language objectives for


3. Content concepts appropriate for age and educational background

4. Supplementary materials used to a high

degree making the lesson clear and

meaningful (e.g. graphs, models, visuals).

I. Preparation

5. Adaptation of content to all levels of

student proficiency

6. Meaningful activities that integrate

lesson concepts (e.g. surveys, letter


II. Instruction

  • Building background

    7. Concepts explicitly linked to students’ background experiences

    8. Links explicitly made between past learning and new concepts

    9. Key vocabulary emphasized (e.g. written, repeated, highlighted)

II. Instruction

  • Comprehensible input

    10. Speech appropriate for students’

    proficiency level (e.g. slower rate and

    enunciation, and simple sentences for


    11. Explanation of academic tasks clear

II. Instruction

12. Uses a variety of techniques to make

content concepts clear (e.g. modeling,

visuals, hands-on activities,

demonstrations, gestures, body language)

II. Instruction

  • Strategies

    13. Provides ample opportunities for

    students to use strategies (cognitive,

    metacognitive, social / affective).

II. Instruction

14. Consistent use of scaffolding techniques

throughout lessons, assisting and

supporting student understanding such

as think-alouds.

II. Instruction

15. Teacher uses a variety of questions

types, including those that promote

higher-order thinking skills throughout

the lesson (e.g. literal, analytical,

interpretive questions).

II. Instruction

  • Interaction

    16. Frequent opportunities to interaction and

    discussion between teacher / student and

    among students, which encourage

    elaborated responses about lesson


II. Instruction

17. Grouping configurations support

language and content objectives of the


18. Consistently provides sufficient wait time

for student response

19. Ample opportunities for students to

clarify key concepts in their first language.

II. Instruction

  • Practice / Application

    20. Provides hands-on materials and / or

    manipulatives for students to practice

    using new content knowledge

    21. Provides hands-on activities for students

    to apply content and language

    knowledge in the classroom

II. Instruction

22. Uses activities that integrate all

language skills (i.e. reading, writing,

listening, speaking)

  • Lesson delivery

    23. Content objectives clearly supported by

    lesson delivery

II. Instruction

24. Language objectives clearly supported

by lesson delivery

25. Students engaged approximately 90% to

100% of the period

26. Pacing of the lesson appropriate to the

students’ ability level

III. Review / Assessment

27. Comprehensive review of key


28. Comprehensive review of key content


29. Regularly provides feedback to students

on their output (e.g. language, content,


III. Review / Assessment

30. Conducts assessments of student

comprehension and learning of all

lesson objectives (e.g. spot checking,

group response) throughout the lesson

Now, watch one more short video segment. Which elements of SIOP do you observe?


Teaching Reading K-2: “Thalia Learns theDetails” (Student case study No. 4)

Summary of video segment 2

In the beginning of the school year, Thalia Valdez is just beginning to get excited about letters. She attends kindergarten at the bilingual AMIGOS school in Cambridge, Massachusetts. With the support and guidance of her teacher, Jim St. Clair, Thalia steadily learns the details of the basics of reading and writing such as one-to-one word correspondence, letter sounds, and left-to-right text. She uses her fine motor skills in adding text to her inventive drawings.

Online resources

  • Welcome to SIOP Central! (CAL)

  • CREDE: Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence

  • Annenberg / CBS education series

Resources cont’d . . .

  • Center for Applied Linguistics

  • “ESL Infusion” (Ontario Institute for Studies in Education-OISE)

  • SIOP Institute

More resources . . .

  • Teaching Reading K-2: A Library of Classroom Practices (Annenberg/CPS)

  • The Learning Classroom: Theory into Practice(Annenberg/CPS)

The end

Contact information:

Prof. Melvin R. Andrade

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