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English for Graduate Students 清华大学 徐燕红 副教授 Xu Yanhong Associate Professor of English Tsinghua University Get into contact… 清华大学 徐燕红 副教授 Text Book 1. Active English for Postgraduates (Reading & Writing) 《 当代研究生英语》 (读写教程)

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English for graduate students l.jpg

English for Graduate Students

清华大学

徐燕红 副教授

Xu Yanhong

Associate Professor of English

Tsinghua University


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Get into contact…

清华大学

徐燕红 副教授


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Text Book

1. Active English for Postgraduates (Reading & Writing) 《当代研究生英语》(读写教程)

2. Face to Face: an English Listening & Speaking Course 《听说教程》


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Final Test

  • Structure & Vocabulary (20%)

  • Cloze (10%)

  • Reading (5 passages ×4 or 4 passages ×5 , 40%)

  • Translation (15% )

  • Writing (15%)

    考试时间:

    7月 18日(下午2:00-4:30) 150分钟


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Lecture Plan

1 – Introduction; Unit 1 7 – Unit 9

2 – Unit 3 8 – Unit Review

3 – Unit 4 Face to Face

4 – Unit 6 1,2,3,4,5,7,9,12,,13,14,15

5 – Unit 7

6 – Unit 8

Plus materials for listening and speaking

from Face to Face & two units for each class

《听说教程》每次课两单元


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Lecture 01

Introduction


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Guidelines

1. Performance vs. Examination-orientated Learning

traditional approach: to centre upon examination; study text English, classroom English (artificial English)

2. Grammatical Correctness vs. ‘Homemade English’

To standardize/polish English (decent; elegant)

3. Communication vs. ‘Vocabulary + Grammatical Rules’ Approach (Communicative Appropriateness)

Traditional approach: vocabulary & grammar; new approach: communication, to develop communication skills (genuine language)

Distinguished (adj.)

Reporter / journalist: open-minded; outspoken; creative

Editor; TV host/hostess; talk show host/hostess

Silence is gold.


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Course Description

Zero in on the target!

Target:

  • Learn to communicate successfully in English.

  • Improve communication skills in different situations.


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What is Communication?

1. A two-way process:

(message) sender-receiver relationship

(two partners involved in a communicative process)

2. An interactive process:

  • express oneself

  • make the partner understand

  • get the response from the partner


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A list of some of the main reasons for communicating

  • Giving or asking for factual information.

  • Expressing what you think or finding out what someone else thinks.

  • Expressing what you feel and finding out what someone else feels. (pleasure, displeasure, liking, not liking, satisfaction or dissatisfaction, disappointment, worry, sympathy, gratitude, or desire)

  • Expressing what you think is right or wrong

  • Apologizing to or forgiving someone

  • Organizing someone by giving suggestions, advice, persuasion, order, etc

  • Being sociable (greetings, introduction)


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Lecture 02

Let You Dreams Come True


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To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs I

Avoid negative sources, people, places, things and habits.

Believe in yourself.

Consider things from every angle.

Don’t give up, and don’t give in.


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To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs II

  • Enjoy life today; yesterday is gone and tomorrow may never come.

  • Family and friends are hidden treasures. Seek them and enjoy their riches.

  • Give more than you planned to give.


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To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs III

  • Hang onto your dreams.

  • Ignore those who try to discourage you.

  • Just do it!

  • Keep on trying. No matter how hard it seems, it will get easier.

  • Love yourself first and most.


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To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs IV

  • Make it happen.

  • Never lie, cheat, or steal. Always strike a fair deal.

  • Open your eyes and see things as they really are.

  • Practice makes perfect.

  • Quitters never win, and winners never quit.


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To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs V

  • Read, study and learn about everything important in your life.

  • Stop procrastinating.

  • Take control of your own destiny.

  • Understand yourself in order to better understand others.


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To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs VI

  • Visualize it.

  • Want it more than anything.

  • Accelerate your efforts.

  • You are unique of all of God’s creations. Nothing can replace you.

  • Zero in on your target, and go for it.


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Supplementary Expressions

CV: curriculum vitae

Resume

What’s your marital status?

single, married, divorced

engaged, separated


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Presentation

choose a topic

deliver a speech (3-5 minutes)

discussion

Topics:

mass media

English as an international language

American culture; cultural shock

cross-cultural communication


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Lecture 1

Unit 1 – A cyberspace: if you don’t love it, leave it

Homework – P16 II: B; P17 III; P18 IV


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Key to homework

P16 II: B

acbdb bcacd

Leave me alone. (Don’t bother me.)

On duty; off duty

on leave (on sick leave; on vacation leave)

The Graduate School offers MPA/JM program. (courses)

Would you please do me a favor? (do sb a favor)

hug (n&v)

give sb a hug; hug sb

give sb a kiss; kiss sb

prefer (v)

prefer sth to sth; prefer to do sth;to have preference for sth

Tax is imposed on all citizens.


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Word study: cost, pay, charge…

1). This pair of shoes cost me 200 yuan.(花费)

… cost sb (some money)(花费…多少钱)

My graduate education cost me RMB 49,000.

2). I paid 200 yuan for this pair of shoes.(支付)

… pay (some money) for sth (为…支付…)

I paid RMB49, 000 for my graduate education.

3). They charged 200 yuan for this pair of shoes.(索要)

…charge (some money) for sth(就…索要)

– How much do you charge for this pair of shoes?

– I/We charge 200 yuan for this pair of shoes.

…charge sb (some money) for sth(就…向…索要)

e.g. They charged me 200 yuan for this pair of shoes.

The Graduate School charged me RMB 49,000 for my education.


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bill sb for sth(要求…为…付帐)

e.g. My telephone company bills me every month.

e.g. They bill me for electricity very month.

afford sth; afford to do sth

e.g. I can't afford three weeks away from work.

e.g. I can’t afford to buy a car.

fee

a membership fee; a license fee; a tuition fee; application fee; admission fee

Tax; personal income tax (after-tax income/salary)

Our government is from the people, for the people and by the people.


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on leave; on duty; on holiday/sick leave

set sb’s eyes on sth

set aside; put away

to open an account; to deposit money in sb’s account;

to withdraw money from sb’s account

account book; account number; debit card; credit card

identity card; driver’s license; pass

employee’s card (working identity card)


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P17 III

exactly as that

won annually by

they virtual because

simply across still

even concern response

access to led

between place

sb win a prize; sth win sb a prize

concern about sth

lead sb to do sth

Highly-endanger group


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Love it or leave it. (idiom)

If you don’t love it, leave it.

The rules of the game (observe)

It’s a small world.

The world is getting smaller.

The world has turned into a global village.

International travel (a common thing)

Jet set: a group of people who travel regularly between different countries (businessmen, business leaders, bankers, security dealers/agents, politicians, pop stars, UN officials, etc)

UN: the United Nations (member states)

EU: the European Union

Lawyers, judges, police officers, civil servants / officials

Don’t bother me. Leave me alone.


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Para. 1

psyche (n.)

– A young woman who loved and was loved by Eros and was united with him after Aphrodite's jealousy was overcome. She subsequently became the personification of the soul. (from Greek Mythology)

普绪客一个爱上爱神厄洛斯或为他所爱的年轻女子,在阿芙洛蒂特的嫉妒心消除之后,他们俩结为夫妇她后来成了灵魂的化身

– human soul and spirit; human mind 心灵

hanker after

America is a spacious country.


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Para. 2

cyberspace:

formally a playground for computer fans;

now is getting popular with people from different backgrounds.

Fill a form

Marital status: single, married, divorced

(engaged, separated, widowed)

Flirt (v): flirt with sb

What’s your hobby?

My hobby is: chasing after girls, flirting with good-looking boys.

Chinese-Americans: American-born Chinese

(ABC, banana man)

A pretty girl with blond hair and blue eyes


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flirt (v)

flirt with sb / each other

flirtatious (adj.)

a flirtatious man / woman

fill in a form

Marital status: single, married (divorced)

a fake single

MBA: married but available / apart

atypical pneumonia


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Para. 3

The nature of cyberspace: the metaphor of real estate, as an intellectual, legal, artificial environment constructed on top of land.

A real estate businessman

(salesman)

Mall: a covered place

Seiga Electronic Mall


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Para. 4

Cyberspace: a giant and unbounded world of virtual real estate. (more than a nasty place)

To capture public attention (a charming guy, public figure)

PR officers (Public Relation)

NBA: National Basketball Association

Players’ image

Sports star

(would-be) high-ranking official

Pornographic (adj.): porno

pornography (n.): porn


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Para. 5

Cyberspace is a voluntary destination. People can choose where to go and what to see.


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Para. 6, 7, 8 & 9

Para. 6

define cyberspace

Para. 7

e-mail which is private and consensual

Para. 8

information & entertainment services (sent to you on the condition of being requested)

Para. 9

“real” communities – groups of people who communicate among themselves. (like bars, restaurants or bathhouses)


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Para. 10 & 11

Para. 10

In cyberspace, people with like-minded interests band together. (People with similar interests and tastes form a community in cyberspace, and these people communicate among themselves.)

like-minded: having similar tastes or opinions

hip (adj.): fashionable; trendy; up-to-date

hippie: rebellious young people in 60s

yuppie: young, urban professionals

BoBo: bohemian bourgeois (low-profiled)

Petit bourgeois

Bohemian: artistic, intellectual, rebellious

Para. 11

In cyberspace, communities are chosen by the users, not forced on them by accidents of geography.

Cyberspace gives individuals a choice: love it or leave it.

be/get stuck: be unable to escape

sign off: leave


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Para. 12

The trend of future development of cyberspace: new communities can be formed; some old ones may survive, and others wither away (market-style evolution of governance).

Global village: a nice dream but impossible to manage.

Regional conflicts


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Para. 13 – 16

Para. 13

Cyberspace communities will put in their own government apart from the terrestrial government.

Para. 14

Cyberspace participants should find solutions to its problem. (by using labels)

Para. 15

Labeling services are produced by private enterprises and local groups.

fanfare

– a loud flourish of brass instruments, especially trumpets

号曲响亮的铜管乐声,尤指号角

– a spectacular public display 炫耀在公众前炫耀

Para. 16

Cyberspace is not a perfect place; however, it’s a place where we have individual choice & individual responsibility.


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Face to FaceUnit 1 Family

Listening comprehension

P5 3: cultural differences between an Indian family and a British one


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Vocabulary

grandparent great-grandparent

ex-husband ex-girlfriend

half brother adopted son

stepmother brother-in-law

twin sister twin brother

a nuclear family an extended family

to have four generations under one roof


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Words for household chores:

clean the house dust the furniture

set the table take out the trash

make the beds do the shopping

vacuum, sweep, mop the floors

make, fix, prepare, cook meals

do/wash the dishes do the laundry

fix things

take care of kids


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Discussion:

  • What are generally the advantages of being close to one’s family? (P2 3)

    2. What differences do you know between family life in China and that in the western countries? (P6 (6))


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(mid-night) talk show

In China, family members are emotionally closer to each other.

In the oriental culture, we emphasize more on team powers. We prefer team players to individualists. (team spirit)

In the western culture, individualism is more emphasized.

(cultural differences)

one-child policy (We follow the one-child policy.)


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Lecture 2

Unit 3 – The Case against Man

Homework – P69 II: B; P70 III; P71 IV


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Key to homework

A

uncovered concurred accompanies

frustrated stereotype switching

dismissed distracted adapted

assume probe subordinate

B

DABCABCABC

Lifeguard

(TV series, Bay Watch; Beauty Watch; bathing beauty; bathing suit; business suit; uniform; evening dress, casual wear, sports wear, party wear – fancy dresses)

Anatomise; bathe; take a shower / bath; bathe


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Be able to do sth

Be capable of sth/ doing sth

A skillful worker

Ability

Capability (capacity)

To spoil sb

(Food) get spoilt

Bilateral cooperation

Interact; interactivity


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Retain; keep (retain / keep one’s title, position, office)

Get

Gain (gain / lose; gain /lose profits; profit-gaining; profit-losing)

Earn money (to earn a decent salary / an annual income of RMB 500,000 / USD 50,000)

Obtain (information)

Acquire (knowledge, a foreign language, a skill)

Get / acquire/ earn / receive a degree

Refrain from doing sth

Decline; reject

A dead man; a dying man


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World War II (President Roosevelt; a disabled man; wheelchair)

Physical disability; Mental disability

Statesman; politician

Versatile (adj.);

survive (vt.) survive / sb

Survive a/an an earthquake / aircraft / catastrophe / financial crisis / depression

Reject; decline (decline an invitation)

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

Casino (gambling: Macao, Las Vegas, Montreal, Copenhagen, etc )

Near-sighted (adj.); far-sighted (adj.);

a spoiled kid; spoiled food


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III wheelchair)

Been raise spread out

dying of began caused

According to up to as

Unusual be linked to of course

However came into ranging

Raise; grow

Safari

Come into full flower

Range from … to …


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III wheelchair)

viewed almost even

lower means reality

become like grow

proving status afford

faced necessarily disciplined

longer own schedule

taking until


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P wheelchair)69 II: B

DABCA BCABC

(air crash)

P70 III

been raise spread out

dying of began caused

According to up to as

unusual be linked to of course

however came into ranging

range from… to…

The students of the MPA class range from government officials to (self-employed) businesspeople.

advanced English; a sense of frustration

Well-educated; a highly/well-paid job; well-established

(CEO: chief executive officer; chairman/president of board; middle-aged, well-educated, well-established man) Canto; Cantonese; dim sum (China Town)


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It’s piece of cake. It’s a snap. wheelchair)

A snap decision (resign / quit one’s job)

El Nino year

A changeable weather

Celebrity; celebrities (adore movie stars, sports stars, pop stars, some politicians, TV host / hostess, etc)

The Royal family

Vietnam

She’s in her late twenties.

Be in sb’s early / mid / late twenties

Globe

Globalization; economic globalization;

cultural globalization; an age of globalization

Jet set; jet lag

Buy an airline ticket at a discount; business class; economy class; check-in; have your check-in luggage weighed; hand luggage; passenger; stewardess; steward; (flight attendant: unisex; chairperson); departure hall; arrival hall; flight number; security gate; ID card (identification card); pass control; luggage reclaim; customs; (smuggling)


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Bohemia bourgeois wheelchair)

Buoyancy


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Explanations & Paraphrases wheelchair)

to protect the environment; environmental protection

to increase people’s environmental awareness

ecology: the relation of plants and living creatures to each other and to their surroundings (生态)

an ecosystem: an ecological unit consisting of a group of plants and living creatures interacting with each other and with their surroundings (生态系统)

a species; several species

endangered species


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Can you name some of the environmental problems we are facing?

  • deforestation (caused by illegal logging)

  • soil erosion (caused by disappearance of forests)

  • desertification (caused by illegal logging, poor irrigation, overgrazing, industrialization, urbanization)

  • damaged ecosystems

  • endangered species

  • solid waste

  • water pollution

  • water shortages

  • acid rain

  • air pollution

    (According to Time, 1999)

    Sand storm


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Para. 1 facing?

… an intricate web of life

web

– a complex, interconnected structure or arrangement

网络; 一种复杂的、互相联系的组织或安排

a web of telephone wires 电话线网络

… the intricate structure of a planet

intricate (adj.) 复杂的, 错综的, 难以理解的

synonymy: complex, complicated, confused, involved, perplexing

antonym: plain, simple


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Para. 2 – 4 facing?

assume

the earth’s crust 地壳

evaporation 蒸发 condensation 凝结

solution 溶解 weathering 风化

various and complex life forms

Creation (Bible; God created the world. Creation; Christianity is a religious belief.)


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Para. 5 facing?

inanimate (adj.)

– not having the qualities associated with active, living organisms; not animate; dead; nonliving无活力的不具备与活跃的、有生命的机体相关的一些特质的;无生气的

– not animated or energetic; dull

无生气的没有活力或精力的;枯燥的

animated (adj.)

– having life; alive; living 有生命的;活着的

– filled with activity, vigor, or spirit; lively

栩栩如生的充满活力、生机或精神的;栩栩如生的

– designed or constructed in the form of an animated cartoon

动画片的用动画片形式设计或编制的


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Para. 6 – 8 facing?

in reverse

… one enormous intricately interrelated system

be composed of; be made up of; to consist of; to comprise

由…组成;由…构成

e.g. The committee is composed of / made up of / consists of / comprises 15 members.

constitute; make up; comprise 组成

e.g. 15 members constitute / make up / comprise the committee.

e.g. Many ethnic groups constitute / make up / comprise our nation.

life / biological chain


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Para. 9 – 11 facing?

wear and tear (n.)

– loss, damage, or depreciation resulting from ordinary use and exposure

损耗由于正常使用和暴露造成的损失、毁坏或贬值

wear-proof; wear-resistant (adj.)

耐磨的, 抗磨的

multiply (v) 增殖; 繁殖, 增加

When animals have more food, they generally multiply faster.

动物如果吃得多,通常繁殖也快。


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Para. 15 facing?

(translation)

Para. 20

(translation)

Massive weapons

Darwin: the theory of evolution

“The fittest survive.”

Social Darwinism


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I prefer sunny, foggy, humid, cool, cold, warm weather. facing?

We prefer warm and fine weather.

In Northern Europe, the weather tends to be cold and rainy/snowy. There is lack of sunshine.

Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland (Norkia-land)

Iceland

Almost highest income, Highest income tax; highest suicide rate

People would feel depressed. (depression)


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In an age of globalization, people are (closely) related to one another.

Oral interpretation

(small / social talk)

A: Your wife is very beautiful.

B: Where, where?

C: Everywhere.

(word by word translation)


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We carry out one child policy in China. one another.

(birth control)

People would die of starvation.

Gain / put on weight (junk food; high calories)

Fattie

I can hardly live up to my parents’ expectations.


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Lecture one another. 3

Unit 4 – The Future of English

Homework – P99 II: B; P101 III; P102 IV


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(mandarin Chinese; Cantonese; mainland China one another.

Peace-keeping troops)

Top ten

Top three


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P84 one another.

Br English Am English

air plane

ticket office

karat

given name

tailpipe

pants; slacks (shorts)

line (n & v)

train station

highway; freeway; expressway (no traffic lights)

first floor


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Br English one another.

Mixed school (Boy’s school; girl’s school; finishing school)

(apple polisher; to polish one’s English)

Attend a summer language school in Canada

Graduation ceremony (commencement)

To hold wedding ceremony (wedding ring, wedding cake, wedding dress/gown, marriage license)

To divorce sb; get married; get divorced

British writer: John Milton (15th, 16th writer)

Paradise Lost; Paradise Regained

A British joke

Life (escalator)

Financial year

Fish monger (tropical fruits: mango, pine apple, coconut, durian, lichee)


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Primary school one another.

(junior high school, senior high school; high school lover)

Timber

Single ticket

Return ticket

Compulsory subject (optional subject)

Post graduate student (graduate school, law school)

Lorry / van (long vehicle; container)

Holiday


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Key to homework one another.

P99 II: A

on up by in

behind behind through in

out in on in

by out up with

down off away in


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P one another. 100 II: B

Prime time constantly

at regular intervals At arm’s length

come off got over

yielded put into operation

challenging resorts to

swarming with take in

(swarm with…)


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P one another. 101 III

Former (the latter) among purpose

for serves strengthened

official majority

heavily similar extends

through limits adds

familiar ways and

ability as means

(control tower)

Perception

Heritage; world cultural heritage; legacy

The war broke out / took place.

Come into being; put into operation


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the first/second half of the 19 one another. th century

the British Empire (the United Kingdom)

“In the British Empire, the sun never sets.”

The English Commonwealth

Colony (former colonial countries)

force sth upon sb

economic; economical; economy


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British History one another.

– a history of foreign invasions

the Celtic tribes in today’s England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland

A.D. 43 – Roman occupation (the Roman Empire)

(Britain became a Roman province)

5th century A.D. – Anglo-Saxon period

(Germanic Tribes Angles, Saxons, & Jutes from North Europe, Vikings: Denmark, Sweden, Norway (Finland, Iceland))

Angles land – England

11th century – Norman conquest

(Normandy, a northern province in France, decedents of Norwegians)

15th & 16th centuries – Renaissance

(the rebirth of the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations)


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English – a language of foreign linguistic influences one another.

Celtic (the native language of Britain)

Latin influence, Germanic influence, French influence

Indo-European language family: Latin (Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek); Germanic language (German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Old English), Slavic language (Russian, Polish, etc); Indian language; Arabic language; Hebrew

Chinese (Tibet: Mount Everest; Shangri-la)

ironical tone

BrE (British English); AmE (American English)


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stream of consciousness one another.

standardize (v)

the Atlantic ocean

Negative words:

scarcely, hardly, seldom, barely, rarely…

fail to do sth


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National characteristics: one another.

American – open, open-minded, advanced-looking, casual, liberal, humble, eloquent, materialistic, individualistic, aggressive, direct…

Mobile (a nation on the wheel)

Personal belongings: books, CDs, hi-fi, pet, computer, etc

(Anti abandoning pet campaign)

(I’ll quit. Pack one’s things and leave.)

(pack; unpack)

Polite (rude): Would you please shut your mouth up?

Talkative; eloquent

Englishman / European – conservative, stiff, arrogant, restrained, polite…


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Chinese – compromising, humble / modest, sophisticated, practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

vain

The grass is always greener on the other side of fence.

(bold)


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Dear Professor Zhang, practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

We believe that you enjoy using the computer you’ve borrowed from the English Faculty. And you may continue to use it until next Monday (June 1).

Aggressive

Chinese American (citizenship)

Job applicant; job interview


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a daily, a weekly practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

cheque (check)

ration, rational, rationalize, rationalization

(Latin influence)

standard, standardize, standardization

globe (n), global, globalize, globalization

pro-; anti-

the late Chairman Mao


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loan words: practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

jeep, sofa, coffee, bus, taxi, radar, romantic, hysteria, truck,Internet, cool, clone, chocolate, ice cream,

Majio, Jiaozi, Tongfu, Kongfu, tea, Confucius


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Native tongue practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

English-speaking community

Lower class, middle class, upper class

Middle class: upper middle class; lower middle class

Middle class community

A snobbish society

A best seller: Class(格调)

Fluent but wrong English

In an age of globalization, you should be a global communicator. (English)

You’re never too old to learn.


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Be due to sth practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

Merchant; business person (unisex: good-looking)

Oscar Wilde: Well-dressed women and good-looking men

Fake beauty

(wear too much / heavy make-up, have a painted face)

Gay culture; lesbian culture

One shouldn’t be discriminated by his race, color, age, family background, sexual orientation. (Western culture)

(homosexual; heterosexual; bisexual)


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I’m glad to meet you. practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

(French: Enchanté)

Holiday in Rome

Royalties and celebrities

Revolution (-tion)

Bald

A middle-age bald man

Bold


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Recover from: get over practical, (idealistic,) honest, etc

I’ve got over my homesickness.

Madam; sir

Sporting

Give in to

Novelty

The Pacific (Ocean); the Atlantic (Ocean)

The English: British English

Elizabeth I (15th – 16th century): Renaissance

The rebirth of the ancient Greek and Roman cultures/civilizations

Shakespeare (drama and sonnet, Romeo and Juliet: balcony)

(tragedies: King Lear, Othello, Hamlet, Macbeth)

(Shakespeare in Love; an Oscar-awarded film)

Elizabeth II


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A small old-time European city: narrow, winding and cobbled streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.


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Package travel streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.

the tourist attractions

Explore in a foreign country

Trend: take a year out to travel (a daydream)

(take a year out between school and university, between university and a new job)

Advantages:

Meet new, different people, get relaxed, enlarge your horizons, open your minds, enjoy life, eat different food,

(We live to eat. We eat to live.)

Disadvantages:

Lose your friends; become jobless, homeless, penniless; lose prospect for promotion

Tip: take a year out to travel when you’re young and have no ties.

Pick up odd jobs to cover your travelling expenses

Run a bar: enjoy life and cover one’s living expenses


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Be cut off from the mainstream society/culture streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.

(idealism for youth-hood; idealist)

Pick up a stable job with a handsome salary, establish a family, and buy a house and car (a middle-class life model)

Old hippie (loser)

Hippie: a rebellious young intellectual or artist (painter, musician, sculptor, photographer)

Yuppie: a young urban professional

Eastwood

Keep the purity of English

France and Germany:

Ask for directions (get lost)

Swarm

Resort to sth


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At an interval of five days streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.

At regular intervals

Daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly

Annual

The invasion of American culture in the worldwide

(Americanization; Californianization; Westernization)

(Orientalism; oriental fantasy)

(American dream)

Pro-American party; anti-American party

The late (the late Chairman Mao; the late Princess Diana)

Poet laureate

Core vocabulary


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Cultural movement: Pure French streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.


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Face to Face streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens. Unit 2 Appearances

Listening comprehension

P12 2; P13 4


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Vocabulary streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.

sleeveless top

short-sleeve long-sleeve

vest suit

shirt T-shirt

jeans leggings

pants shorts

loose pants with patch pockets

high-heels low-heeled shoes

platform shoes (松羔鞋) pumps(矮跟鞋)

sneakers sandals

socks(短袜) stockings(长筒袜)

work wear (uniform) sports wear

casual wear party wear

evening dresses (gowns)


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Discussion: streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.

  • What you wear is what you are.

  • It’s more important to dress comfortably than fashionably.

    3. How would you describe your own taste in clothes?

    (old-fashioned, conservative, formal, classic, fashionable, trendy, casual, informal, eccentric, unusual, fancy, shocking)


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Oral Practice streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.


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Oral Practice streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.


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Unit 3 Personality Characteristics streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.

Listening comprehension

P15 2; P18 2


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Oral Practice streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.


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Oral Practice streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.


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Lecture streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens. 4

Unit 6 – Love in L.A.

Homework – P162 II: B; P162 III; P163 IV


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P162 B streets with shops on both sides (fashion, food, fruit, fish shops), churches, houses with balconies, fountains, and gardens.

Signaled steer stand out

Stand up for secondary stand by

Steered pulled up pull into

Expire

Cloze

Reading knowledge because

To came imagine

Taken gazed with

When once in

And used thinking

Memory that no

Truly humor


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At funeral, the priest says: from dust to dust, from ashes to ashes.

Christianity, the Creation (Bible)

God made Adam out of clay, giving him his fame and a breath of life.

God made Eve by picking a rib from Adam.

The Garden of Eden (Iraq) (immortality)

The Tree of Knowledge (the Tree of Good and Evil)

Expelled them from the Garden

The original sin

The Adam’s throat


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Long time no see. to ashes.

Long time no hear.


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Brand names for famous to ashes.cars: Rolls Royce, Lambourghinis, Porsche, Ferrari, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Cadillac, Volve, Buick, Honda, Skoda, VW, Citroën, Renault, Nissan, Toyota, Mazda, Audi, (Polo)

Their images in China?

Benz: expensive, comfortable, a symbol of success

Nissan: economical, of high quality, lasting, not energy-consuming

lorry, truck; container; van

car; private car; business car

world-class

A successful man; an established man (well-established)

Bug car; a broken car (fall apart)


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smog = smoke + fog to ashes. (a big, polluted city)

a stable job

jobless (adj.), unemployed, laid-off

between jobs, free lance, artist, act, actress

Knight; free-lance writer, free-lance reporter, free-lance designer, free-lance language instructor

air-conditioning; air-conditioner

evening dress

Director, film producer, script writer, photographer, costume designer, special effects designer, etc

tequila pop

fancy style of life

It occur to sb that…

What kind of life is a better life?

Ad: advertisement; commercial (commercial break)

Gown: evening dress


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What kind of life is a better life? to ashes.

Travelling around the world, go sightseeing in America, Europe (France – Paris, nightlife, perfume, food, fashion, arts, misty and sexy ladies; Italy – Rome, fashion shows, Venice, historic sites, food; Spain – women, bull show; Britain – London, theatre, royal life, palace, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben; Switzerland, chocolate, mountain-climbing; Holland – canal, windmill, tulip, Amsterdam)

Many friends: go party (party animal), sharing happiness, build up career connections

Shopping (buy expensive, fancy things – car, house, villa, town house, high-rise apartment, clothes

Vacation – Hawaii: lying on the beach, get relaxed, get suntanned, watch beach beauty; Switzerland: skiing

Eating – French cuisine, Italian cuisine, Chinese cuisine


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Purchase (v); purchasing a professional basketball team; buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club

run for the mayor, president, etc

Donation: donate money to an organization, to benefit the society

Found a university


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He was imagining, daydreaming. buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club


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kind of = kinda buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club

b.s. (bullshit) street talk

hip: fashionable, trendy

Venezuela: a country people value their appearances

a home to Miss World

Girls attend beauty schools.

Finishing school (help young girls to be more good-mannered, accomplished, language skills, being sociable, the goal is to help them marry up)

Husband-hunter; men/women killer

An excuse to deny sb’s invitation:

I’ve been busy recently.

My work has been keeping me busy.

A tip for dealing with people: offer a hand-shake

drive (driveway)


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He is smart. buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club

He seems/sounds/looks/appears smart.

He was genuine.

He sounded genuine.


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Use adjectives to describe Jake and Mariana: buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club

Jake:

easy-going, irresponsible, giddy, clever, careless, not serious, not hard-working, talkative, sociable, sophisticated, (speak with a playful tone)

Mariana:

good-natured, good-mannered, polite, cautious, friendly, quiet, serious, timid, shy, less sociable, careful


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Make up buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club

To wear make-up

She often wears heavy make-up. (to paint one’s face)


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Unit 4 Friendship buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club

Listening comprehension

P23 2; P26 3


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Oral Practice buying and selling companies, shoot a movie or a TV series, sponsor a game (Olympic Games; Asian Olympic Games), buy a club

P23 1: What do you think of friendship?

  • Friends should be close in age.

  • Friends should share the same beliefs and values.

  • Friends should come from similar family background.

  • Friends should have more or less the same personalities.

  • Friends should enjoy doing the same kind of things.

  • Friends should have the same educational background.


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  • Good friends are hard to find, harder to leave, and impossible to forget.

  • A good friend should cheer you up when you are feeling down.

  • In prosperity, our friends know us; in adversity, we know our friends.

  • A friend is one who walks in when the rest of the world walks out.

  • A friend is one who accepts me as I am.

  • A friend is one you look up to in some way and yet you can be critical of.

  • A friend is one who knows you and loves you just he same.

  • A friend in need is a friend indeed.


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Bosom friends impossible to forget.

Congenial friends

Close friends

Intimate friends

One’s confidant

A circle of friends


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Valuable sayings: impossible to forget.

  • Many people will walk in and out of your life, but only true friends will leave footprints in your heart.

  • If someone betrays you one, it is his fault; if he betrays you twice, it is your fault.

  • Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people.

  • Beautiful young people are accidents of nature, but beautiful old people are works of art.

  • Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is mystery. Today is a gift.

  • Show your friends how much you care.


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Unit 5 Famous people impossible to forget.

Listening comprehension

P30 3, 4; P31 2

P31 1: What are your guiding principles in life?

(written exercise)


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Oral Practice impossible to forget.

P31 1: What do you think a role model should like?

Good qualities:

Hardworking, handsome, well-dressed, intelligent, skillful, beautiful, creative, caring, athletic, friendly, kind, neat, rich, dedicated, determined, popular, professional, etc

Michael Jordan (Airman)


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Oral Practice impossible to forget.

P31 1: What are your guiding principles in life?

Timeless

Keep young in one’s heart

(keep a young look)


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Lecture impossible to forget. 5

Unit 7 – Entropy

Homework – P191 II: B; P192 III; P193 IV


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Key impossible to forget.

P191 B

dbcab cadbc

Cc

Well-educated well-equipped

Well-dressed well-established

Well-paid low-paid

Well-informed well-fed

Canteen

Rebellious, revolutionary (class strike)


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P192 III impossible to forget.

Having to means without

Yet insists on believing in

Spends to say in a sense

While implies denies

Hard take up was urged

Gay or straight man, lesbian

(sexual orientation)

People shouldn’t be discriminated by their race / family background / age / gender / sexual orientation.

(sue sb ) to get compensation

Hire a lawyer

Manly (feminine); masculine


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My youth is gone. (Gone with the Wind) impossible to forget.

Youth is like a river of no return.

We should memorize the good old days.

Let bygones be bygones.

High school lover

College lover

Old flame

(First love dies hard.)


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I’ll always love you, till the seas go dry. impossible to forget.

I’ll always love you, till the rocks melt with the sun.

(poetry, image)

Classic poetry; modern poetry


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A war, disaster breaks out. impossible to forget.

Keep sth from doing sth

Be interested in sth

Be attached to sth

Be preoccupied with sth


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A Red, Red Rose impossible to forget.

Robert Burns (1759 – 1796, Scottish poet)

O, my love is like a red, red rose,

That’s newly sprung in June.

O, my love is like a red, red rose,

That’s sweetly played in tune.

As fair are you, my bonnie lass,

So deep in love am I,

And I will love you still, my dear,

Till the seas go dry.


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Till the seas go dry, my dear, impossible to forget.

And the rocks melt with the sun!

And I will love you still, my dear,

While the sands of life shall run.

And fare you well, my only love,

And fare you well, a while!

And I will come again, my love,

Though it were ten thousand mile!

(Farewell, my concubine)


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Auld Lang Syne impossible to forget.

Should auld acquaintance be forgot,and never brought to mind?Should auld acquaintance be forgot,for the sake of auld lang syne.

For auld lang syne, my jo,

For auld lang syne,

We’ll take a cup o’kindness yet

For auld lang syne.


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Auld Lang Syne impossible to forget.(友谊地久天长)

(Sung by Leo Sayer)

Should auld acquaintance be forgot,and never brought to mind?Should auld acquaintance be forgot,for the sake of auld lang syne.

If you ever change your mind,but I living, living me behind,

Oh… bring it to me, bring me your sweet love,bring it home to me.


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I'll give you jewelry and money too. impossible to forget.That' s all, all I'll do for you.Oh… bring it to me, bring me your sweet love,Bring it home to me. Yeah~ yeah~

Darling you know I laughed when you left,but now I know that I only hurt myself.Please bring it to me, bring your sweet sweet love,bring it home to me, bring it home to me.


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Unit 7 Occupations impossible to forget.

Listening comprehension

P41 2; P42 3


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Oral Practice impossible to forget.

P44 1: a job interest inventory survey


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Oral Practice impossible to forget.

P46 4: a questionnaire to discover your career moves

What do you think is your ideal job? Describe it in the following aspects. When career is concerned, which of the following aspects are more important and which are less important:

- payment- prospects for promotion

- job security- social status

- relation with boss- relation with colleagues

- location- size of the enterprise

- job being challenging / making you give full play to your talent

(co-worker, office politics)

“go getter”


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name card (Am E) business card (Br E) impossible to forget.

clerk clerical

sales clerk sales manager

sales representative (rep)

auditor 查帐员 broker经纪人 (stock dealer)

technician 技师 programmer 编程人员

accountant 会计 teller (cashier) 出纳员

inspector巡视员 director 主管

Public Relations officer

chairman of the board of governors 总裁

chairman of the board of directors 董事长

member of the board of directors


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What do you do? / Can you tell me something about your job? impossible to forget.

I’m a bartender / porter / chef / head chef / taxi driver / bus driver..

I’m a fisherman / zoo keeper / housekeeper / farmer / steelworker.

I’m a street vendor / ambulance driver / newspaperman.

I’m a secretary / computer programmer / pilot / body guard.

I’m a fashion model / pop singer / famous TV compere.

(master of ceremony)

I’m a nurse / a coach / police officer / army officer / civil servant.

I’m a teacher in elementary school / university teacher / politician.


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I’m an engineering / photographer / fashion designer / artist.

I’m a restaurant manager / sales manager / personnel director / banker.

I’m a stewardess / steward / flight attendant.

I’m an accountant / a lawyer / a surgeon / a doctor / journalist.

I’m the vice-president of new toy development at Universe Toy Company.

I’m the general manager of the Sheraton, Beijing..

I’m the CEO of General Electricity. (Chief Executive Officer)


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I work in the Bank of China. artist.

I design a car / computer program.

I cook in a restaurant.

I grow and sell fruits and vegetables.

I manage a business.

I sell real estate / insurance.

I edit a journal / magazine or newspaper.

I host a TV program.

I work as a secretary.

I work as a tourist guide.

I work as a sales clerk in a boutique.


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Lecture artist. 6

Unit 8 – Billion-Dollar Babies

Homework – P218 II: B; P219 III; P220 IV


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Key artist.

P218 B

CD (store, retrieve)ABBACDDBAC

Buying impulse (marketing; buying behavior; brand loyalty; target customer; shop to drop; shopaholic; workaholic; alcoholic); established men (to establish oneself); white collar; gold collar

He is involved in this case.

jet plane (jumble jet, passenger jet)

jet set (CEOs, bankers, business leaders)

virtual space (cyber space)

professionals; unskilled workers (odd jobs)

assuming that, provided that (if)

Age-defying cream

Provided that (if); assuming that (if)


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P219 III artist.

Be depicted marvel at suffering

Beneath as when

Enjoy Nearly from

Before so long have not respected

Used than announcing

(the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages)

(the Old Time ? – 5th century, the Middle Ages 5th century – 15th century, the Renaissance 15th and 16th centuries, the Modern Time 17th / 18th century – present)

desktop, laptop

(palmtop)

industrial design

interior design

IKEA (candle-holder)

Studio; catch on


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Be composed of artist.

Present oneself to

Participate in

down and out

down but not out

run out

dress in a fancy style

Be subject to sth

Round trip (return ticket, round-trip ticket)

(fear, worry, nightmare, ghost) haunt sb

Used to do sth


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Millionaire; billionaire artist.

Techno-billionaires

Business

Market share; profits; a profit-making company; non profit-making institutions, ROI (returns over investment), sales volume, CEO (chief executive officer),

revenues, net gain, turnover, annual turnover

PIT (personal income tax), after-tax salary, annual income,

Market leader

Seattle, Washington State

Washington, DC (District of Columbia)


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Web-friendly, environment(ally)-friendly products, photograph-friendly, camera-friendly

IPO: initial public offering

Share holdings; share holder

Stock value; stock prices

E-biz: e-business, e-commerce

Online shopping

Books, CDs, cosmetics, drugs, software programs, etc

Features: not expensive, requiring large stock,

Dangdang.com

Go bankrupt (bankruptcy); be closed down; close…down


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Tangible assets (buildings, properties, real estates, facilities, equipment, etc)

Intangible assets (human resources, talent pool, brain tank, brand names, reputation)

IC (integrated circuit)

Stock values get shrunk (shrink, shrank, shrunk)

Revenues; expenses

Cost; profits;

Conclude a deal; business transaction

Commission (agency, agent, broker, dealer)

Stock holder; stock (market) investor

Profit-making / profit-losing companies

SOE (state-owned enterprises)


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Be a business owner (to own one’s own business) facilities, equipment, etc)

Be self-employed

Be jobless / unemployed / out of job

Be between jobs

Be freelance (writer, reporter, designer)

Be artist (actor, actress, film director, film producer, musician, dancer, singer, painter)

Glossy magazine


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John Davison Rockefeller (1839 – 1937) facilities, equipment, etc)

He was a US industrialist and philanthropist. In 1863 he built an oil refinery in Cleveland, which was incorporated in 1870 into the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. On retirement, he devoted his attention to charitable corporations, donating $550 million. In 1913, he founded the Rockefeller Foundation.

Rockefeller Center in Manhattan, New York City


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Andrew Carnegie (1835 – 1919) facilities, equipment, etc)

He was also a US industrialist and philanthropist. As a telephone operator with the Pennsylvania Railroad (1853 – 1865), he foresaw the demand for iron and steel, and founded the Keystone Bridge Company. From 1873 he concentrated on steel manufacture, pioneering mass production techniques. By 1901 the Carnegie Steel Company was producing 25% of US steel. Carnegie endowed 2,800 libraries and donated more than $350,000 million to charitable foundations.

Carnegie Hall


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Careers at Carnegie Hall facilities, equipment, etc)

Exciting and challenging opportunities exist for those interested in pursuing a career at Carnegie Hall. In addition to many rewarding professional opportunities, we offer a chance to work in one of New York’smost beautiful landmark buildings, which is also a gathering place for the finest artists from around the world. Below is a listing of the departments that offer opportunities to qualified candidates, when available, ranging from internships to part-time and full-time positions:

Administration Artistic Programming & Administration Development Education Finance Hall Operations Human Resources Information Technology & New Media Marketing & Creative Services Public Affairs Ticketing Services


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Resume facilities, equipment, etc)

Personal data

name, gender/sex (male; female), date of birth, nationality, tel number & address (snail / email)

education background

working experience


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Resume facilities, equipment, etc)

Name: HUANG Hua

Sex / gender: male/female

Date of Birth:

Nationality:

Telephone No.

Permanent address:

Mail Box 2003, School of Journalism

Tsinghua University

(Haidian District)

Beijing 100084, China

Mail Box Chuanmei 3

Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tshinghua Univ.

University Town, Nanshan District

Shenzhen 518000, Guandong Province, China


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Resume facilities, equipment, etc)

CV (curriculum vitae)

Education

2003 – Present: graduate student in Mass Communication and Journalism

Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University

Degree to be awarded: Master of Arts, July 2006

1994 – 1999: B.A. in Television News

Department of Television Studies

Beijing Broadcasting University

Work Experience

2003 – Present: Shenzhen Television Station

1999 – 2003: News Department, CCTV

Qualifications: CET-4 and CET-6 certificates

Toefl score: 645 (2002)


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An application letter facilities, equipment, etc)

Position applied

Qualifications

Experience

Hope to get an interview

Enclosed you’d find … (my resume and files of qualifications)


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Face to Face facilities, equipment, etc)

Unit 9

P56 2

P57 4


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Unit 12 facilities, equipment, etc)

P74 3

News programs:

news announcer

international news; domestic news; local news

entertainment news;

business news (stock news: Stock Watch; financial news) ;

sports news

weather news;

(newspaper sections: political, economic, social, cultural, international, real-estate, entertainment, sports section, advertisement )


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The Group of Seven (the G7) facilities, equipment, etc)

(the seven economic powers in the world)

The largest industrialized nations

top story (headline)

To discuss trade issues

The major issues

Farm policy

correspondent in Paris (journalist, reporter; journalism)

Imported agricultural products

attend a conference

Protest

To open one’s market to…

Expect to do sth

Beef, steak, roast beef, hamburgers

The issue of beef

To face election


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Unit 13 Business facilities, equipment, etc)

P79 2

P80 3


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Unit 15 Culture facilities, equipment, etc)

P90 4

P93 3


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Lecture 7 facilities, equipment, etc)

Unit 9 – They Dared Cocaine and Lost

Homework – P244 II: B; P246 III; P247 IV


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P244 facilities, equipment, etc)

Check-up check-out check in

Checks over check in checked out

Checked over check off checked on

Check on run through ran down

Run out ran into runs over

(Dumb, Dumber)


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P246 facilities, equipment, etc)

So presence furthermore attend

Signs with just though

At Green for read

raised sometimes

State what expected refers

Whereas divorced

Sign: dressing code


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poppy facilities, equipment, etc)

n.[植]罂粟, 深红色

marijuana[mArI5hwB:nE]

n.[植]大麻

n.[植]大麻, 大麻干叶和花

cocaine[kEJ5keIn]

n.古柯碱,可卡因

heroin[5herEJIn]

n.海洛因, 吗啡


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Drug abuse (power abuse) facilities, equipment, etc)

Drug addict (internet addict)

Drug addiction (alcohol addiction, computer addition)

Drug dealer

Drug trafficking

Drug user

Anti-depressant (depress v; depressed adj. depression)

Stimulant (stimulate v)

Alcoholic; workaholic

Immune

Strong, wealthy, gifted (musician, artist, painter, dancer, singer, athlete, architect, designer, poet, novelist, director, etc)



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Back-alley (back street) of ballet.

Junky (junk)

3 People with elegant occupations, handsome income, stable family life or relationship

To lose a battle

Yuppie: young, urban professionals

Dinc/dink: double income no child / kid

All my money has got locked in the stock market. / real property

John has got stuck in a unlucky marriage. (get stuck)

Unlock (unlocked)

Fall in love with sb; fall out of love from sb

Single-parent family


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To picture sth; to envision sth of ballet.

Science; B.S. (bachelor of Science)

Arts; B.A. (bachelor of Arts)

Master of Juris (JM)

JM candidates (graduate students)

Ph D students / candidates

Medical science

To pursue a Ph D degree

To go abroad to pursue further education

Make quick money

Tsinghua University is a prestigious university in China, which enjoys high academic excellence.

An image of a successful man in US: an elegant occupation, a family, some kids, expensive cars, magnificent house, exotic vacations

Villa, townhouse, apartment, high-rise apartment


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Suffer depression of ballet.

A good doctor must be a good talker.

Law school; medical school

Go downhill

sissy



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Resume of ballet.

Name: HUANG Hua

Sex / gender: male/female

Date of Birth:

Nationality:

Permanent address:

Mail Box 2002, Law School

(Mail Box 2003, School of Software Engineering)

Tsinghua University

(Haidian District)

Beijing 100084, China

A308

Tsinghua Research Institute Building

High-tech Park, Nanshan District

Shenzhen 518057, China


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Resume of ballet.

CV (curriculum vitae)

Education

2003 – Present: graduate student in law

Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University

Degree to be awarded: Master of Juris, July 2005

1986 – 1990: B.S. in city gas engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Harbin Institute of Architectural and Civil Engineering

Work Experience

1996 – Present: Shenzhen Gas Corporation

1990 – 1996: Ningbo Gas Corporation, Zhejiang Province

Qualifications:


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Unit 13 Business of ballet.

P79 2

P80 3


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Unit 15 Culture of ballet.

P90 4

P93 3


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Lecture 8 of ballet.

  • Writing

  • Guiding principle: one paragraph one subject.

  • Recommend the use of topic sentence at the beginning of each paragraph.

  • Put the passage in a logic order by some expressions such as: first, second, third, … last; on the one hand, on the other hand; from my point of view, in my opinion, to my thinking, I believe, I think; regarding sth, as to sth, as far as sth is concerned; in conclusion, in a word, to summarize; but, however


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Writing of ballet.

  • Topic sentence

  • 关联词

    细节问题:

    名词可数或不可数

    动词时态、语态、是否第三人称单数

    词性(名词、动词、形容词、副词)


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A how-to package for writing: of ballet.

1. Three paragraphs

2. Topic sentence

3. Transitional words

First, second, third…

For instance, for example

From my point view, in my opinion, to my thinking

Furthermore, however, but


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1.写作步骤 of ballet.

审题、构思、展开段落、修改定稿

2.写作过程重点部分

段落的展开即初稿的完成,是写作过程中最重要的一步。

  • 文章有文章的中心主题,段落有段落的主题。但是段落中阐述的内容是为文章主题服务的。

  • 注意句子与句子、段落与段落之间的逻辑过渡。恰当的使用过渡词和过渡句将使段落结构严谨,同时容易将内容展开。段与段之间的衔接要运用必要的“启、承、转、合”手段,使文章结构合理完整。

  • 文章段落和句子的“启、承、转、合”

    在一篇文章中,各自然段、句子都是为文章的中心思想服务,各段落、句子之间存在着某种逻辑关系。文章段落之间的逻辑关系是由过渡词来完成,在修辞上称启、承、转、合。即开头、承接、转合、综合或总结。


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The Value of Time of ballet.

开始段

(启)

A proverb says: “Time is money.” But in my opinion, time is even more precious than money. Why? Because when money is spent, we can earn it back. However, when time is gone, it will never return. This is the reason why we must value time.

扩展段

(承、转)

It goes without saying that the time at our disposal is usually limited. Hence, even an hour is extremely precious. We should make full use of our time to do useful things. As students we must not spare our efforts to engage in our studies so as to serve society and our nation in the future. But it is a pity that there are a lot of people who do not know the importance of time. They spend their precious time smoking, drinking and gambling. They do not realize that wasting time is equal to wasting a part of their valuable life.

结尾段

(合)

In a word, we should get into the good habit of saving time. Do not put off what can be done today until tomorrow. Laziness will not only bring us failure but also lead us to the road of poverty.


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连接句子的用词: of ballet.

开头

in the first place, in the beginning, to begin with, to start with;

firstly, first of all, at present, currently, recently, now;

generally speaking, in general, it goes without saying that…

承接

second, secondly, third, thirdly;

what is more, moreover, in addition to…, furthermore, similarly

转合

but, however, anyway;

on the other hand, in other words, as a matter of fact

综合

finally, eventually, above all;

in conclusion, in brief, in short, in sum, on the whole;

to sum up, to summarize, to conclude, therefore


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Example of ballet.

Directions: You are asked to write in 120 – 150 words about the title of Importance of Keeping Fit. You should base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

1. 随着社会的发展,人们越来越重视身体健康。

2. 身体健康的重要性。

3. 如何保持身体健康。


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With the development of the society, people have begun to realize the importance of good health. They have started to pay more attention to the food they eat and the exercises which may help strengthen their body.

Certainly good health is very important to everyone. Without good health, one can not study and work well and his life will be terrible. With good health, he can live a happy life, and work to success.

There are a number of things which will help one keep fit and healthy. First, one should do exercises every day such as running, swimming, walking, boating and so on. Second, he should pay attention to the balanced food. He should eat regularly and shouldn’t eat too much. Besides / in addition / furthermore / moreover, prevention is also important. He should have a physical check regularly in a hospital. By doing so he will be strong and healthy.


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Directions: realize the importance of good health You are asked to write in 120 – 150 words about the title of Significance of Education on TV . You should base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

1. 电视教育为许多人提供了教育机会;

2. 电视教育起的作用;

3. 如何进一步普及电视教育。


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These days TV offers people a chance of education in various fields. TV stations in China provide not only language courses, but also a number of other courses, such as trade, management, law, accounting, finance and so on. In fact, it has become a remarkable part of China’s education system.

If there were no education on TV, we wouldn’t have present economic growth as present colleges and universities are too few to train a large number of professionals who are now playing an important role in the nation’s four modernizations. It is estimated that, every one out of four professionals received college education on TV.

Therefore, the government should make the education on TV more available to people on the one hand, and improve the teaching quality and testing system on the other hand so as to satisfy the urgent needs for more qualified professionals.


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Direction: For this part, you are to write within 30 minutes a composition of 120-150 words or so about your view on China’s entry into the WTO.

Outline:

1. The advantages of China’s entry into the WTO.

2. The disadvantages of China’s entry.

3. My analysis.


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1。同等学力英语辅导/指南 a composition of 1

人大、清华、北航

2。生词

3。清华大学出版社:在职研究生考研辅导(听力、词汇、语法、阅读、完型、翻译、写作、模拟题)


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To pursue lifelong learning a composition of 1

Learning resources:

21st Century (weekly)

The World of English (monthly)

VOA (special English)

BBC

CNN

Download films with English subtitle

(bt 下载)

Country pumpkin

Couch potato (couch, remote sensor, fries/chips, soda drinks, pop corns)

Sweet tooth (be fond of dessert)

Workaholic (shopaholic: shop to drop)


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End of party a composition of 1

Build and enlarge your information bank

I’d like to go out with you.

No biggie. (It’s a piece of cake.)

No big deal.

Everything is under control.

I’d like to improve my English.

I’m between jobs.

I’m a freelance / artist.

I’m self-employed. I run my own business.

I’d like to be promoted to project manager in the near future.


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English can only be learned bits by bits. a composition of 1

Collect information (expressions / usages)


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Film: Legally Blonde a composition of 1

Elle came from a rich family in Los Angles. That was her last year in CULA (City University of Los Angles), majoring in advertising. She was the queen among her schoolmates. Her family lived in a big house with swimming pool. She often went to shopping at malls with her good-for-nothing girlfriends.

UCLA (University of California, Los Angles)

Pretty (blonde) girls are silly, not serious, without brain.

Her life changed when her boyfriend dumped her and went to Harvard Law School. She felt sad, angry, confused. She ate a lot chocolate. Then one day she decided to apply to Harvard Law for admission. (comfort food)


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Pooh bear a composition of 1

College residence hall

Cool; cute; sweet

Blonde

East Coast; West Coast

East Coast: Harvard, Yale, Princeton, MIT, Cornell, etc.

Drop out

Convertible car

Lorry

Fashion merchandising

You don’t need Harvard Law School

Harvard is for people who are boring, ugly and serious.

Guider

Backup


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My family expects a lot from me (have a high expectation from me). They expect a lot from me.

If I want to be a senator by 30, I need to marry sb serious.

Pooh, bear, get into the car.

You’ll ruin your shoes.

Everybody likes me.

Eastern people are different.

Fiancée

Warner was engaged to Vivian.

Beauty salon

What am I supposed to do?

“I met somebody. Move out.”

A middle-aged high school drop out

It’s terrible. Happens everyday.

Unfortunate-looking


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My social events calendar is missing. (mixer, formals, trip to cape, parties)

Orientation week: welcome parties, barbecue, mixers, social events

Party animals

Schoolmates: Princeton, Berkely (UC), (high IQ)

Homecoming Queen

Barbie (beach)

Vegetarian

No biggie. (No big deal.)

Costume party

Vile

Innocent

West Cost: go for fun

East Cost: serious

One-night stand

To kick sb out (get/be kicked out)

Reading assignment


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Everybody likes me. to cape, parties)

Eastern people are different.

Fiancée

Warner was engaged to Vivian.

Beauty salon

It’s an emergency

What am I supposed to do? (You picked the wrong girl.)

“I met somebody else. Move out.”

A middle-aged high school drop out

It’s terrible. Happens everyday.

Unfortunate-looking

Flirtatious (to flirt with sb)

What are you waiting for?

Steal the bustard back.

You’ll never gather enough grades.

Internship spots (intern)

You’re not smart enough.


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What the hell do you want? to cape, parties)

Legal terms

Come again

Dumb ass; smart ass

Résumè (CV)

Pink; scented resume

It smells good.

Win a case

Lawyer (law school)

Internship spots

Fitness instructor; gold digger (marriage of convience)

Exercises make people happy. Happy people don’t shoot their husbands.

Fraud

Your secret is safe with me.


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Gold digger (young girl who is married to an old rich man) to cape, parties)

Fitness company

Perfect women’s bodies (go from 6 to 4)

Alibi

Get liposuction

It would ruin me.

Fraud

I’d rather go to jail than lose my reputation.

It’s not like a normal body can have this ass.

Don’t worry. Your secret will be safe with me.


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Case background to cape, parties)

Rich man:

Young wife (Brookel; amazing; gifted; make people lose weight)

Ex-wife

Daughter (almost the same age with the young wife)

A house with a swimming pool

Pool boy (Latin lover)

Ex-wife: spa (fountain)


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Bend & snap to cape, parties)

To attract people’s attention

Neck massage (foot massage)

What’s the point?

It has 98% of success of getting man’s attention.

“Oh I thought sth I dropped on the floor.”

Innocent; guilty (legal terms)

I’ve given her my word.

I’m discriminated against as a blond.

Discrimination against blond (good-looking people)

Legally Blond


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Go out with sb (date sb) to cape, parties)

Girls like me don’t go out with losers like you.

Insult sb

Slap sb on his/her face

We spent a beautiful night and you never called me.

Sorry for what?

Sorry for breaking my heart or having given me the greatest pleasure that I’ve ever known and then just taken it away?

Both.

I’ve already spent too many hours crying over you.

One night stand


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That’s very classy of you. to cape, parties)

Get wait-listed (wait list)

Angry daughter, ex-wife

Pool boy (Latin lover)

Have an affair

(one-night stand)

uniform

Gay; lesbian; bi-sexual (sexual orientation)

Prada, Channel, Gussie (designer’s name)

Gay men know designers. Straight men don’t.

Don’t stomp your little last-season Prada shoes at me, honey.

Do you have a proof that you and Mrs. X has an affair?

Only the love in my heart.


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Sexual harassment to cape, parties)

Are you hitting on me?I’m quitting.Law school is a mistake.

People never take me seriously. I turn out to be a joke.Victorian Secret modelDiscrimination against blonde girlsPermFirst impressions are not always correct. Upon the graduation ceremony


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You followed your intuition today. to cape, parties)

It’s time to discuss your career path.

Are you hitting on me?

I’m a law student who just realized that her professor is a pathetic asshole.

I’m quitting.Law school is a mistake.

People never take me seriously.

Victorian Secret modelTurns out that I’m a joke.

The hell with the law school.

Discrimination against blonde girls

There’s sth we can do about it.

You’re fired.

Quit before you get fired.

Your honor.

Perm


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First impressions are not always correct. to cape, parties)Upon the graduation ceremony

Be innocent / guilty

I’ve given her my word.

Made her fortune by telling women that they are too fat


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Warner graduated without a honor, without a girlfriend, without any job offers.

Emmet proposed to her.

Bonehead

Butterhead

Partner of a law firm

Diversity

Legally Blonde


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Resume without any job offers.

Name: HUANG Hua

Sex / gender: male/female

Date of Birth:

Nationality:

Permanent address:

Mail Box 2002, Law School

(Mail Box 2003, School of Software Engineering)

Tsinghua University

(Haidian District)

Beijing 100084, China

A308

Tsinghua Research Institute Building

High-tech Park, Nanshan District

Shenzhen 518057, China


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Resume without any job offers.

CV (curriculum vitae)

Education

2003 – Present: graduate student in software ngineering

Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University

Degree to be awarded: Master of Engineering, July 2005

1995 – 1999: B.S. in computer science and technology

Department of Computer Science

Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication

Work Experience

2003 – Present: Intertek Testing Services (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd

1999 – 2003: Cargo Services Far East Ltd (Shenzhen)

Qualifications:


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