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Chapter 12. Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads. Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World. Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements Changed in classical period Improvement of infrastructure Development of empires. Trade Networks Develop.

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads


Long distance travel in the ancient world
Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World

  • Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements

  • Changed in classical period

    • Improvement of infrastructure

    • Development of empires


Trade networks develop
Trade Networks Develop

  • Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization

  • Maintenance of roads, bridges

  • Discovery of Monsoon wind patterns

  • Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes


Trade in the hellenistic world
Trade in the Hellenistic World

  • Bactria/India

    • Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls

  • Persia, Egypt

    • Grain

  • Mediterranean

    • Wine, oil, jewelry, art

  • Development of professional merchant class


The silk roads
The Silk Roads

  • Named for principal commodity from China

  • Dependent on imperial stability

  • Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire

  • Sea Lanes and Maritime trade as well



Organization of long distance trade
Organization of Long-Distance Trade

  • Divided into small segments

  • Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision

  • Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage


Cultural trade buddhism and hinduism
Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism

  • Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes

  • India through central Asia to east Asia

  • Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants

  • Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE



Buddhism in china
Buddhism in China – 400 CE

  • Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations

  • Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5th c. CE


Buddhism and hinduism in se asia
Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia – 400 CE

  • Sea lanes in Indian Ocean

  • 1st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia

    • Rulers called “rajas”

    • Sanskrit used for written communication

    • Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths


Christianity in mediterranean basin
Christianity in Mediterranean Basin – 400 CE

  • Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3rd c. CE

  • Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, Europe

  • Sizeable communities as far east as India

  • Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced


Christianity in sw asia
Christianity in SW Asia – 400 CE

  • Influence of ascetic practices from India

  • Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies

  • After 5th c. CE, followed Nestorius

    • Emphasized human nature of Jesus


Spread of manichaeism
Spread of Manichaeism – 400 CE

  • Mani a devout Zoroastrian (216-272 CE)

  • Viewed himself a prophet for all humanity

  • Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism

  • Dualist

    • good vs. evil

    • light vs. dark

    • spirit vs. matter


Manichaean society
Manichaean Society – 400 CE

  • Devout: “the Elect”

    • Ascetic lifestyle

    • Celibacy, vegetarianism

    • Life of prayer and fasting

  • Laity: “the Hearers”

    • Material supporters of “the Elect”


Decline of manichaeism
Decline of Manichaeism – 400 CE

  • Spread through silk routes to major cities in Roman Empire

  • Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sassanid persecution

    • Mani arrested, dies in captivity

  • Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute


The spread of epidemic disease
The Spread of Epidemic Disease – 400 CE

  • Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens

  • Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear

  • Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague

  • Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency



Internal decay of the han state
Internal Decay of the Han State – 400 CE

  • Court intrigue

  • Formation of actions

  • Problem of land distribution

    • Large landholders develop private armies

  • Epidemics

  • Peasant rebellions

    • 184 CE Yellow Turban Rebellion


Collapse of the han dynasty
Collapse of the Han Dynasty – 400 CE

China after the Han Dynasty, 220 CE

  • Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure

  • Alliance with landowners

  • 200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms

  • Immigration of northern nomads increases


Sinicization of nomadic peoples
Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples – 400 CE

  • Social and cultural changes to a Chinese way of life

  • Adapted to the Chinese environment

    • Agriculture

  • Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage


Popularity of buddhism and daoism
Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism – 400 CE

  • Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines

  • Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity

  • Religions of salvation


Fall of the roman empire internal factors
Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors – 400 CE

  • The Barracks Emperors

  • 235-284 26 claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles

  • Epidemics

  • Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies


Diocletian r 284 305 ce
Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE) – 400 CE

  • Divided empire into two administrative districts

  • Co-Emperors, dual Lieutenants

    • “Tetrarchs”

  • Currency, budget reform

  • Relative stability disappears after Diocletian's death, civil war follows

  • Constantine emerges victorious


Fall of the roman empire external factors
Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors – 400 CE

  • Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity

    • Formerly buffer states for Roman Empire

  • Attacked by Huns under Attila in 5th c. CE

  • Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman Empire

  • Sacked Rome in 410 CE, established Germanic emperor in 476 CE



Cultural change in the roman empire
Cultural Change in the Roman Empire 450-476 CE

  • Growth of Christianity

    • Constantine’s Vision, 312 CE

    • Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice

    • Converts to Christianity

  • 380 CE Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman Empire


St augustine 354 430 ce
St. Augustine (354-430 CE) 450-476 CE

  • Hippo, North Africa

  • Experimented with Greek thought, Manichaeism

  • 387 converts to Christianity

  • Major theologian


The institutional church
The Institutional Church 450-476 CE

  • Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early Church

    • Divinity of Jesus

    • Role of women

  • Church hierarchy established

    • Patriarchs, Bishop of Rome primus inter pares


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