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Chapter 12. Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads. Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World. Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements Changed in classical period Improvement of infrastructure Development of empires. Trade Networks Develop.

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

long distance travel in the ancient world
Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World
  • Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements
  • Changed in classical period
    • Improvement of infrastructure
    • Development of empires
trade networks develop
Trade Networks Develop
  • Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization
  • Maintenance of roads, bridges
  • Discovery of Monsoon wind patterns
  • Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes
trade in the hellenistic world
Trade in the Hellenistic World
  • Bactria/India
    • Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls
  • Persia, Egypt
    • Grain
  • Mediterranean
    • Wine, oil, jewelry, art
  • Development of professional merchant class
the silk roads
The Silk Roads
  • Named for principal commodity from China
  • Dependent on imperial stability
  • Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire
  • Sea Lanes and Maritime trade as well
organization of long distance trade
Organization of Long-Distance Trade
  • Divided into small segments
  • Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision
  • Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage
cultural trade buddhism and hinduism
Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism
  • Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes
  • India through central Asia to east Asia
  • Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants
  • Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE
buddhism in china
Buddhism in China
  • Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations
  • Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5th c. CE
buddhism and hinduism in se asia
Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia
  • Sea lanes in Indian Ocean
  • 1st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia
    • Rulers called “rajas”
    • Sanskrit used for written communication
    • Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths
christianity in mediterranean basin
Christianity in Mediterranean Basin
  • Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3rd c. CE
  • Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, Europe
  • Sizeable communities as far east as India
  • Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced
christianity in sw asia
Christianity in SW Asia
  • Influence of ascetic practices from India
  • Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies
  • After 5th c. CE, followed Nestorius
    • Emphasized human nature of Jesus
spread of manichaeism
Spread of Manichaeism
  • Mani a devout Zoroastrian (216-272 CE)
  • Viewed himself a prophet for all humanity
  • Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism
  • Dualist
    • good vs. evil
    • light vs. dark
    • spirit vs. matter
manichaean society
Manichaean Society
  • Devout: “the Elect”
    • Ascetic lifestyle
    • Celibacy, vegetarianism
    • Life of prayer and fasting
  • Laity: “the Hearers”
    • Material supporters of “the Elect”
decline of manichaeism
Decline of Manichaeism
  • Spread through silk routes to major cities in Roman Empire
  • Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sassanid persecution
    • Mani arrested, dies in captivity
  • Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute
the spread of epidemic disease
The Spread of Epidemic Disease
  • Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens
  • Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear
  • Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague
  • Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency
internal decay of the han state
Internal Decay of the Han State
  • Court intrigue
  • Formation of actions
  • Problem of land distribution
    • Large landholders develop private armies
  • Epidemics
  • Peasant rebellions
    • 184 CE Yellow Turban Rebellion
collapse of the han dynasty
Collapse of the Han Dynasty

China after the Han Dynasty, 220 CE

  • Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure
  • Alliance with landowners
  • 200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms
  • Immigration of northern nomads increases
sinicization of nomadic peoples
Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples
  • Social and cultural changes to a Chinese way of life
  • Adapted to the Chinese environment
    • Agriculture
  • Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage
popularity of buddhism and daoism
Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism
  • Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines
  • Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity
  • Religions of salvation
fall of the roman empire internal factors
Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors
  • The Barracks Emperors
  • 235-284 26 claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles
  • Epidemics
  • Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies
diocletian r 284 305 ce
Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE)
  • Divided empire into two administrative districts
  • Co-Emperors, dual Lieutenants
    • “Tetrarchs”
  • Currency, budget reform
  • Relative stability disappears after Diocletian\'s death, civil war follows
  • Constantine emerges victorious
fall of the roman empire external factors
Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors
  • Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity
    • Formerly buffer states for Roman Empire
  • Attacked by Huns under Attila in 5th c. CE
  • Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman Empire
  • Sacked Rome in 410 CE, established Germanic emperor in 476 CE
cultural change in the roman empire
Cultural Change in the Roman Empire
  • Growth of Christianity
    • Constantine’s Vision, 312 CE
    • Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice
    • Converts to Christianity
  • 380 CE Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman Empire
st augustine 354 430 ce
St. Augustine (354-430 CE)
  • Hippo, North Africa
  • Experimented with Greek thought, Manichaeism
  • 387 converts to Christianity
  • Major theologian
the institutional church
The Institutional Church
  • Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early Church
    • Divinity of Jesus
    • Role of women
  • Church hierarchy established
    • Patriarchs, Bishop of Rome primus inter pares
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