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PRONOUNS. Pronouns. A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun. A pronoun can refer to a person, place, thing, or idea. The word that a pronoun refers to is called the antecedent. Raymon visited Death Valley, and he was impressed. Refers to .

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Pronouns1
Pronouns

  • A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun. A pronoun can refer to a person, place, thing, or idea. The word that a pronoun refers to is called the antecedent.

    Raymonvisited Death Valley, and he was impressed.

Refers to


Personal pronouns
Personal pronouns

  • Pronouns such as we, I, he them, and it are called personal pronouns. Personal pronouns have a variety of forms to indicate different persons, numbers, and cases.


Person and number
Person and Number

  • These are first-person, second-person and third-person personal pronouns, each having both singular and plural forms.


Case

  • Each personal pronoun has three cases: subject, object, and possessive. Which form to use depends on the pronouns function in a sentence.

    Subject:He read about Death Valley.

    Object: Julie asked him about the rocks.

    Possessive: Ramon brought his book.


Subject pronouns
Subject Pronouns

  • A subject pronoun is used as a subject in a sentence or as a predicate pronoun after a linking verb.


Pronouns as subjects
Pronouns as Subjects

  • Use a subject pronoun when the pronoun is a subject or part of a compound subject.

    You and he think the movie was scary.


Predicate pronouns
Predicate Pronouns

  • A predicate pronoun follows a linking verb and identifies the verb’s subject. Use the subject case for predicate pronouns.

    The owner was he.

identifies

subject

Predicate Pronoun


Object pronouns
Object Pronouns

  • An object pronoun is used as a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.


Direct object
Direct Object

  • The pronoun receives the action of a verb and answers the question whom or what.

    The mysterious death of king Tut fascinates me.

Direct Object


Indirect object
Indirect Object

  • The pronoun tells to whom or what or for whom or what an action is performed.

    Chu lent me a video on the topic.

to

Indirect

Object

Direct

Object


Object of a preposition
Object of a Preposition

  • The pronoun follows a preposition (such as to, from, for, against, by, or about).

    We will save the video foryou.

preposition

Object of a

preposition


Possessive pronouns
Possessive Pronouns

  • A possessive pronoun is a personal pronoun used to show ownership or relationship.

The Chinese museum kept its amazing secret for years.

No one saw the mummies in their colorful clothes.

Then Professor Mair and his tour group arrived.


Reflexive pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns

  • A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and directs the action of the verb back to the subject. Reflexive pronouns are necessary to the meaning of a sentence.

    Houdini called himself a master escape artist.

reflects


Intensive pronouns
Intensive Pronouns

  • An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun in the same sentence. Intensive pronouns are not necessary to the meaning of a sentence.

    You yourselves have seen magic shows on TV.


Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns

  • An interrogative pronoun is used to introduce a question.

    Who made up this riddle?


Using who and whom
Using Who and Whom

  • Who is always used a subject or predicate pronoun.

    Who knows the answer to the riddle?

    Your favorite comedian is who?

  • Whom is always used as an object.

    Whom did you tell?

    To whom did you give my name?


Demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns

  • A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, place, thing, or idea. The demonstrative pronouns – this, that, these, and those – are used alone in a sentence.


Pronoun agreement
Pronoun Agreement

  • The antecedent is the noun or pronoun that a pronoun replaces or refers to. The antecedent and the pronoun can be in the same sentence or a in different sentences.

    Louis writes his own detective stories.

    Agatha Christie writes mysteries. Her stories are famous.

Refers to

Replaces


Agreement in numbers
Agreement in Numbers

  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to a singular antecedent.

    One story has its setting in Egypt.

  • Use a plural pronoun to refer to a plural antecedent.

    The characters have their motives for murder.


Agreement in person
Agreement in Person

  • The pronoun must agree in person with the antecedent.

    Louis likes his mysteries to have surprise endings.

    You want a story to grab your attention.

3rd person

2nd person


Indefinite pronoun agreement
Indefinite-Pronoun Agreement

  • An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a specific person, place, thing, or idea.

    Something unusual is going on in Loch Ness.

    Has anyone photographed the Loch Ness monster?


Singular indefinite pronouns
Singular Indefinite Pronouns

  • Use a singular personal pronoun to refer to a singular indefinite pronoun.

    Everyone took his or her camera to the lake.

    One dropped his camera in the water.

Refers to

Refers to


Plural indefinite pronouns
Plural Indefinite Pronouns

  • Use a plural personal pronoun to refer to a plural indefinite pronoun.

    Several reported their sightings of the monster.

    Many could not believe their own eyes!

Refers to

Refers to


Pronoun problems we and us
Pronoun Problems – “we” and “us”

  • The pronoun we or us is sometimes followed by a noun that identifies the pronoun. Use we when the pronoun is a subject or a predicate pronoun. Use us when the pronoun is an object.

    We owners don’t always understand our pets.

    Dogs and cats often surprise us owners.


Pronoun problems unclear reference
Pronoun Problems – Unclear Reference

  • Be sure that each personal pronoun refers clearly to only one person, place, or thing.

  • Confusing: Tony and Fred want to become veterinarians. He now works at an animal shelter (who works? Tony or Fred?)

  • Clear: Tony and Fred want to become veterinarians. Fred now works at an animal shelter.


Pronoun problems pronouns in compounds
Pronoun Problems – Pronouns in Compounds

  • Use the subject pronoun I, she, he, we, and they in a compound subject with a predicate noun or pronoun.

    Kathy and he decided to research a mystery.

    The research team was Jim and I.


Pronoun problems problems in compounds
Pronoun Problems – Problems in Compounds

  • Use the object pronouns me, her, him, us, and them in a compound object.

    Samantha asked Jim and me about the movie.

    Kathy loaned our report to Mac and her.


Intervening phrases
Intervening Phrases

  • Sometimes words and phrases come between a subject and a pronoun that refers to it. Don’t be confused by those words in between, Mentally cross out the phrase to figure out agreement.

    Jim, like the others, brought his map. (His agrees with Jim, not with others.)

    Five planes from a Navy airfield lost their way in the Bermuda triangle. (Their agrees with planes, not with airfield.)


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