Retaining Information in the Brain. Explicit memories are language-based facts and experiences that can be brought to conscious awareness. The network: left and right frontal lobes <--> hippocampus.
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Explicit memories are language-based facts and experiences that can be brought to conscious awareness.
The network: left and right frontal lobes <--> hippocampus.
Fig. 24.1 (mp324 cp309 f8.11) With left-hippocampus damage, people have trouble remembering verbal information, but they have no trouble recalling visual designs and locations. With right-hippocampus damage, the reverse is true. (Schacter, 1996).
Memories are not permanently stored in the hippocampus. If a rat's hippocampus is removed 3 hours after it learns the location of food, long-term storage is disrupted; 48 hours later does not .(Tse et al. 2007 mp324 cp309).
During deep sleep, the hippocampus processes memories for later retrieval. Frontal cortex and hippocampus appear to be having a dialogue during sleep. (Euston et. al. 2007 p324 cp310 ).
Cortex areas surrounding the hippocampus support the processing and storing of explicit memories.
Fig. 24.2 (mp325 cp310)Implicit memories, created by classical conditioning, are laid down in the cerebellum. The movie 'Memento' borrows the LeDoux (1996) experiment.
With a damaged cerebellum, the conditioned reflexes of classical conditioning cannot occur. (Daum & Schugens, 1996 mp325 cp 310)).
The basal ganglia are deep brain structures involved in motor movement, facilitating formation of procedural memories for skills.
The basal ganglia receive input from the cortex but do not return signals for conscious awareness of procedural learning.
We all experience infantile amnesia primarily because the hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature. This leads evolutionary psychologists to theorize that explicit (language-based) memories are relatively new. (Bauer et. al. 2007 mp325 cp310).
Fig. 24.3: (mp326 cp311 ) Memorize for the next exam.
Stress hormones provoke the amygdala (two limbic system, emotion-processing clusters) to intitiate a memory trace in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia and to boost activity in the brain's memory-forming areas. (Buchanan, 2007 mp326 cp 311).
Emotional arousal can sear certain events into the brain, while disruptuing memory for neutral events around the same time. (Birnbaum et al. 2004 mp 3326 cp311).
Emotions can persist without our conscious memory of what caused them. (Feinstein et al., 2010 mp326 c311).
Memory serves to predict the future and to alert us to potential dangers. Weaker emotions mean weaker memories. (Cahill, 1994 mp326 cp311).
Flashbulb memories are noteworthy for their vividness and the confidence with which we can recall them. They are, however, susceptible to the misinformation effect.