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MED 103: Medical Terminology. Lisa H. Young, RN, BSN, MA Ed. Elements of a Medical Terms. Roots the constant, unchanging foundation of a medical term usually of Greek or Latin origin nearly all medical terms have one or more roots. Elements of a Medical Terms. Combining vowel

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Med 103 medical terminology

MED 103: Medical Terminology

Lisa H. Young, RN, BSN, MA Ed.

Elements of a medical terms
Elements of a Medical Terms

  • Roots

    • the constant, unchanging foundation of a medical term

    • usually of Greek or Latin origin

    • nearly all medical terms have one or more roots

Elements of a medical terms1
Elements of a Medical Terms

  • Combining vowel

    • has no meaning of its own

    • joins a rootto another root

    • joins a root to a suffix

    • makes a word easier to pronounce

    • “o” is the most common combining vowel, followed by “a”

Elements of a medical term
Elements of a Medical Term

  • Combining form

    • combines a rootand a combining vowel

    • can be attached to another root or combining form

    • can precede asuffix

      Example: enter/o

Elements of a medical term1
Elements of a Medical Term

  • Identify the elements of the following word:


    gynec/ -o- -logist



Greek latin and old english words
Greek, Latin, and Old English Words

  • Some medical terms do not break down (deconstruct) into word elements


    • Greek: toxin meaning poison

    • Latin: medical meaning toheal

    • Old English: record meaning to remember

Terms that are alike
Terms That Are Alike

  • Many words in the medical language are very similar.


  • ilium and ileum

  • malleus and malleolus

Chapter 1 summary
Chapter 1 Summary

  • Elements

    • prefix, root, combining vowel, combining form, and suffix

  • Greek, Latin, and Old English Words

    • Some do not break down

  • Terms That Are Alike

    • Look alike/sound alike


  • Added to the end of a root/combining form

  • Changes the meaning of medical terms

  • Use of combining vowel

    hemat -oma= root + suffix

    hemat/o -logist = root + combining

    vowel + suffix

Classification of suffixes
Classification of Suffixes

  • Diagnostic

    • Diagnosis, procedure, or test

  • Surgical

    • Describes surgical procedures

  • Pathological

    • Describes a sign/symptom of a disease

Classification of suffixes1
Classification of Suffixes

  • Adjectives

    • 28 suffixes mean pertaining to

  • Nouns

    • do not fall under any classifications

    • maintain the root or combining form as a noun

Diagnostic suffixes
Diagnostic Suffixes

  • Identify the suffixes of the following words:


    hemat/ -oma



    hemat/ -uria


Surgical suffixes
Surgical Suffixes

  • Identify the suffixes of the following word:


    append/ -ectomy



    lith/o -tripsy

    combining suffix


Pathological suffixes
Pathological Suffixes

  • Identify the suffixes of the following words:


    cyst/ -itis



    cyan/ -osis


Adjective suffixes
Adjective Suffixes

Suffixes meaning pertaining to:

-ac cardiac pertaining to the heart

-arypulmonarypertaining to the lungs

-iorposteriorpertaining to the back of the body

Noun suffixes
Noun Suffixes

  • Identify the suffixes of the following words:


    arteri/ -ole



    ven/ -ule



  • Added to the beginning of a medical term

  • Change the meaning of medical terms

  • No use of combining vowel

    peri-cardium = prefix + root

    epi-cardium = prefix + root

Position prefixes
Position Prefixes

  • Identify the prefixes of the following words:


    epi- dermis

    prefix root


    hypo dermis

    prefix root

Number and measurement prefixes
Number and Measurement Prefixes

  • Identify the prefixes of the following word:


    multi- para

    prefix root


    primi- para

    prefix root

Direction prefixes
Direction Prefixes

  • Identify the prefixes of the following word:


    anti- vert

    prefix root


    syn- apse

    prefix root

Element review
Element Review

  • Identify the prefixes and suffixes of the following word:


    hypo- / gastr / -ic


Chapter 2 summary
Chapter 2 Summary

  • Suffixes and Prefixes

    • Change the meaning of medical terms

  • Suffix

    • Added to the end of a root/combining form

    • Use of combining vowel

  • Prefix

    • Added to the beginning of a medical term

Decoding terms
Decoding Terms

  • CARD Method

    • Check for the word parts in a term

    • Assign meanings to the word parts

    • Reverse the meaning of the suffix to the front of

      the definition

    • Define the term

Word analysis definition pronounciation
Word Analysis, Definition & Pronounciation

  • Analyze the following term:


    1. suffix — itis meaning inflammation

    2. prefix endo— meaning inside

    3. root cardmeaning heart

    4. put the terms together—inflammation

    of the inside of the heart

Building terms
Building Terms

  • Spelling Rules

    • If the suffix starts with a vowel, a combining vowel is NOT needed to join the parts

      arthr/o itis = arthritis

    • If the suffix starts with a consonant, a combining vowel IS needed to join the two word parts

      arthr/o + plasty = arthroplasty

Building terms1
Building Terms

  • If a combining form ends with the same vowel that begins a suffix, one of the vowels is dropped

    Endo- + cardi/o + itis = Endocarditis

  • If two or more combining forms are used in a term, the combining form is retained

    Gastr/o + enter/0 + itis = Gastroenteritis

Building terms2
Building Terms

  • When two or more combining forms are used to make a medical term, special notice must be paid to the order in which the combining forms are joined

    Esophag/0 + gastr/o + duoden/o + scopy =


    (joining the CF reflects the direction in which the scope travels through the body)


  • Singular / Plural Rules

    • Ends in –a add –ae vertebraae

    • Ends in -is add –esarthrosises

    • Ends in –ix or –ex add –ices appendixices

    • Ends in –itis add –itidesarthritisitides

    • Ends in –nx add –ngesphalanxnges

    • Ends in –um add an –a endocardiumia

    • Ends in –us add an –I digitusi

    • Ends in –y add –iesthearpyies

Chapter 3 summary
Chapter 3 Summary

  • Word Analysis and Definition

    • break it down into its component elements

  • Plurals and Pronunciations

    • memorize the plurals of medical terms

    • correct pronunciation is vital

  • Precision in Communication

Composition of the body
Composition of the Body

  • The body is composed of:

    - organs

    - tissues

    - cells

    - organelles

    - molecules

    • atoms

Structure and functions of cells
Structure and Functions of Cells

  • Basic Functions of Life

    - manufacture

    - production


    - replication



  • Primary Tissue Groups

    - connective

    - epithelial

    - muscle

    - nervous

Organs organ systems
Organs & Organ Systems

  • Integumentary

    • Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glandis

  • Skeletal

    • Bones, ligaments, cartilages, tendons

  • Muscular

    • Muscles

Organs and organ systems
Organs and Organ Systems

  • Nervous

    • Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organ

  • Endocrine

    • Glands that secrete hormones: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal, thymus

  • Cardiovascular

    • Heart, blood vessels

Organs and organ systems1
Organs and Organ Systems

  • Lymphatic

    • Lymph vessels and nodes, thymus spleen

  • Digestive

    • Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines

  • Respiratory

    • Control intake and output of air, exchange gases between air and blood

Organs and organ systems2
Organs and Organ Systems

  • Urinary

    • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

  • Reproductive

    • Male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, blubourethral glands, urethra, penis

    • Female: ovaries, uterine (fallopian) tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva

Prefixes for body organization
Prefixes for Body Organization

ana- up, apart, away

cata- down

en- in

endo- within

epi- above, upon

meta- beyond, change

para- neat, beside, abnormal

Suffixes for body organizations
Suffixes for Body Organizations

ai, -ouspertaining to

-ia, -ism condition, state of

-on structure


-some body

-stasis controlling, stopping

-um structure, thing, membrane

-us structure

Anatomical positions planes and directions
Anatomical Positions, Planes, and Directions

Anatomical planes
Anatomical Planes

Positional directional terms
Positional & Directional Terms

  • Anteroposterior (AP) & Posteroanterior (PA)

  • Anterior & ventral to the front/belly side

  • Posterior & dorsal back of body/back

  • Superior & Cephaladupward/toward head

  • Inferior & Caudaddownward/toward tail

  • Medial pertaining to the middle

  • Lateral pertaining to the side

  • Ipsilateral pertaining to same side

Position directional terms
Position & Directional Terms

  • Contralateral pertaining to the opposite side

  • Unilateral pertaining to one side

  • Bilateral pertaining to two sides

  • Superficial on the surface of the body

  • Deep away from the surface of the body

  • Proximal near the origin

  • Distal far from the origin

  • Dextradtoward the right

Position directional terms1
Position & Directional Terms

  • Sinistradtoward the left

  • Afferent carrying toward a structure

  • Efferent carrying away from structure

  • Supine lying on back

  • Prone lying on stomach

Abdominal regions and quadrants
Abdominal Regions and Quadrants

Chapter 4 summary
Chapter 4 Summary

  • Organization of the Body

    • All the elements interact with each other

  • Anatomical Position, Planes, and Directions

    • Describe the location of anatomical structures

Digestive system
Digestive System

  • Alimentary Canal

    Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine

  • Accessory Organs

    Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas

Functions of the digestive system
Functions of the Digestive System

Prefixes of the digestive system
Prefixes of the Digestive System

  • Prefixes for the Digestive System

    • Endo- within

    • Exo- outside

    • Hypo- below

    • Par- near

    • Peri- surrounding

    • Retro- behind

    • Sub- under

Suffixes of the digestive system
Suffixes of the Digestive System

  • Suffixes for the Digestive System

    • -al, - ar, -ary, -eal, -id, -ine, -ous, -icpertaining to

    • -aseenzyme

    • -crineto secrete

    • -kininmovement substance

    • -stalsiscontraction

Digestive system1
Digestive System

  • Define the following root elements:

    - bari

    - digest

    - laparo

    - lymph

Digestive system root elements
Digestive System Root Elements

  • Identify and define the root elements of the following terms:

    - amylase

    - deglutition

    - elimination

    - peristalsis

Digestive systems root elements
Digestive Systems Root Elements

  • Define the following root elements:

    - cusp

    - lingu

    - mandibul

    - saliv

Digestive system root elements1
Digestive System Root Elements

  • Define the following root elements:

    - chol/e

    - emuls

    - gall

    - hepat

Digestive system root elements2
Digestive System Root Elements

  • Define the following root elements:

    - amin

    - hydr

    - carb

    - lact

Digestive system prefixes
Digestive System Prefixes

  • Define the following prefixes:





Digestive system suffixes
Digestive System Suffixes

  • Define the following suffixes:

    - itis

    - ectomy

    - osis

    - dynia

    - ist

Digestive system2
Digestive System

  • Define the meaning of the following suffixes:

    - um

    - rrhoid

    - ion

    - ative

Digestive system3
Digestive System

  • Define the following suffixes:

    - um

    - in

    - ion

    - gen

    - us

Urinary system
Urinary System

  • Anatomy and Physiology

    • Kidneys (nephron)

    • Ureters

    • Bladder

    • Urethra

    • Urinary meatus

    • Trigone

Urinary system1
Urinary System

  • Functions of the Kidneys

    • filter blood to eliminate wastes

    • regulate blood volume

    • maintain homeostasis

    • secrete renin

    • secrete erythropoietin

    • synthesize vitamin D

Urinary system2
Urinary System





Urinary system3
Urinary System

  • Prefixes for the anatomy of the urinary system

    • Extra- outside

    • En- in

    • Par- beside, near

    • Retro- backward

Urinary system4
Urinary System

  • Suffixes for the anatomy of the urinary system

    • -al, -ar, -ic pertaining to

    • -ation, -ion process of

Urinary system5
Urinary System

  • ectomyexcision, resection

  • -lithotomy extirpation

  • -lysis release

  • -pexyrepair, reposition

  • -scopyinspection

  • -stomybypass, drainage

  • -tomydrainage, division

  • -tripsyfragmentation

Male reproductive system
Male Reproductive System

  • Primary Sex Organs

  • Secondary Sex Organs

  • Accessory Glands

Male reproductive system1
Male Reproductive System

  • Testes

    • Location

    • Structure

  • Spermatic Cord

    • Location

    • Structure

  • Spermatogenesis

Spermatic ducts accessory glands
Spermatic Ducts & Accessory Glands

  • Spermatic Ducts

    • Epididymis

    • Vas deferens

    • Ejaculatory ducts

  • Accessory Glands

    • Prostate

    • Seminal vesicle

    • Bulbourethral glands

Male reproductive system2
Male Reproductive System

  • Penis

    • erection

    • ejaculation

Male reproductive system3
Male Reproductive System

  • Prefixes for the anatomy of the male reproductive system

    • en- in

    • par- near, beside

  • Suffixes for the anatomy of the male reproductive system

    • -al, -ous, -ar, -ile, -atic, -icpertaining to

    • -ferouspertaining to carrying

    • -genesis production

    • -one substance that forms

Male reproductive system4
Male Reproductive System

  • cisionresection

  • -ectomyexcision, resection

  • -ligation occlusion

  • -pexyrepair, reposition

  • -plastyrepair, supplement

  • -stomyrepair

  • -tomydrainage

Female reproductive system
Female Reproductive System

  • Perineum

  • Vulva

    • structures of the vulva

Female reproductive system2
Female Reproductive System


Fallopian Tubes


Female reproductive system3
Female Reproductive System

  • Suffixes for the anatomy of the female reproductive system

    • -archebeginning

    • -ationprocess of

    • -pause stop, cease

    • -salpinxfallopian tube

    • -ectomyexcision, resection

    • -pexyrepair, reposition

    • -plastyrepair, supplement, alteration,replacement

    • -scopyinspection

    • -tomydrainage, division

    • -lysis release

    • -ligation occlusion


  • Embryo

  • Placenta

  • Fetus


  • Suffixes for the A & P of pregnancy

    • -blast embryonic, immature

    • -cyst sac

    • -gravida, -cyesis pregnancy

    • -para, -tocia delivery


  • Stage One: dilation and effacement

  • Stage Two: expulsion of the fetus

  • Stage Three: expulsion of the placenta


Anatomy of breast

Mammary gland

Nervous system
Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System

  • Sensory Input

  • Motor Output

  • Evaluation and Integration

  • Homeostasis

  • Mental Activity


  • Brain and spinal cord


  • Nerves all over the body

The brain
The Brain

  • Divisions of the Brain

  • Cerebrum

  • Cerebellum

  • Brain stem

The cerebrum
The Cerebrum

  • Four Cerebral Lobes

  • Frontal lobe

  • Parietal lobe

  • Temporal lobe

  • Occipital lobe

Functions of the brain
Functions of the Brain

  • Functional Regions of the Brain

    • thalamus

    • hypothalamus

    • basal nuclei

    • limbic system

    • brainstem

    • cerebellum

Spinal cord
Spinal Cord

  • Four Regions:

    • cervical

    • thoracic

    • lumbar

    • sacral

Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System

  • Functions of the Cardiovascular System

    • Pulmonary circulation

    • Systemic circulation

    • Arteries (great, upper and lower)

    • Veins (upper & lower)

Cardiovascular system1
Cardiovascular System

Cardiac Cycle

- electrical properties of the heart

Circulatory system
Circulatory System

  • Functions of the Peripheral Circulation

    - carry blood

    - transport

    - maintain homeostasis

    - regulate blood pressure

Circulatory system1
Circulatory System

  • Suffixes

    -ar, -ary, -ic, -al, -id, -eal pertaining to

    -cyte cell

    -ia condition

    -ion process of

    -um structure


Components of Blood

Formed Elements

- RBCs

- hematocrit

- WBCs

- platelets

- plasma

- serum


  • Functions of Blood

    - maintain homeostasis

    - maintain body temperature

    - transport nutrients, vitamins, and


    - transport waste products

    - transport hormones

    - transport gases

    - protect against foreign substances

    - form clots

    - regulate pH and osmosis


Common Prefixes

a- without

anti- against

inter- between

mono- one

poly- many

pro- before



cyte cell -phil attraction

-exia condition -poiesis formation

-gen producing -poietin forming

-globin protein substance substance

-in substance - siderin iron

-kine movement substance

-leukin white substance - stasis controlling,

-lysis breaking down stopping

-osis abnormal condition -thrombin clotting


Immune lymphatic systems
Immune & Lymphatic Systems


Physical Mechanisms

Cellular Mechanisms

Humoral Defense Mechanisms

Lymphatic system
Lymphatic System


Cells, Tissues, Organs

Lymph Nodes


Lymphatic system1
Lymphatic System

  • Functions

    • absorption

    • removal

Lymphatic system2
Lymphatic System

T lymphocytes

B lymphocytes

Null Cells


Lymphatic organs
Lymphatic Organs




Thymus Gland

Immune system
Immune System

  • Humoral Immunity

    • specificity

    • memory

    • discrimination

  • Immunity

    • Cellular

    • Humoral

    • Natural Active Immunity

    • Natural Passive Immunity

    • Artificial Active Immunity

    • Artificial Passive Immunity

Respiratory system
Respiratory System

Structures of the Respiratory System

- nose

- pharynx

- larynx

- trachea

- bronchi and bronchioles

- alveoli

Functions of the Respiratory System

- exchange of gases

- regulation of blood pH

- protection

- voice production

- olfaction

Respiratory system1
Respiratory System

  • Prefixes

    ex- out

    in- in

    inter- between

    oxy- oxygen

    para- near

    re- again


    -centesis drainage

    -ectomy excision, resection

    -lysis release

    -plasty alteration, reposition, repair,

    replacement, supplement

    -rrhaphy repair

    -tomy drainage


  • Classes of Joints

    - fibrous

    - cartilaginous

    - synovial

  • Functions and Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    - functions

Muscles and tendons
Muscles and Tendons