Introduction to medical terminology
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Introduction to Medical Terminology. Introduction. Special vocabulary used by health care professionals for effective and accurate communication Most medical terms have Greek or Latin origins.

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Introduction to Medical Terminology

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Introduction to medical terminology

Introduction to Medical Terminology


Introduction

Introduction

  • Special vocabulary used by health care professionals for effective and accurate communication

  • Most medical terms have Greek or Latin origins.

  • These terms date back to the founding of modern medicine by the Greeks and by the influence of Latin when it was the universal language in the Western world.

  • Other languages, such as German and French, have also influenced medical terms.

  • Today, many new terms are derived from English, which is considered the universal language.


Introduction to medical terminology

1. psychology: the study of

2. pathology: the study of

3. hematology: the study of

4. cardiology: the study of

5. dermatology: the study of

6. gerontology: the study of


Good news

Good news!??

  • The good news is that there are only about 300 Latin and Greek word elements,

  • From which thousands of medical terms may be formed.


Term components

TERM COMPONENTS

  • Most medical terms have three basic component parts: the root, the suffix, and the prefix.

  • Each term is formed by combining at least one root(the foundation or subject of the word), and a suffix (the word ending that modifies and gives essential meaning to the root).

  • A prefix is placed at the beginning of a term only when needed, to further modify the root or roots.


Introduction to medical terminology

  • Root

    • Fundamental unit of each medical word

    • Establishes basic meaning of word

    • Part to which prefixes and suffixes are added

  • Suffix

    • Short word part or parts added to the end of a word

    • Modifies the meaning of the root

    • Indicated by a dash before the suffix (-itis)


Introduction to medical terminology

  • Prefix

    • Short word part added before a root

    • Modifies the meaning of the root

    • Followed by a dash (pre-)


Exercise 1

EXERCISE 1

  • Breaking down and defining the key components in a term often defines the term or gives clues to its meaning. In the term lipemia, lip is the ………..that means………… , and -emia is the…………. that means……..

  • (root, fat, suffix, blood condition)

  • Memorizing key medical term components makes it possible to decipher that the term refers to the condition of ……..in the…….

  • (fat, blood)


Patterns of term formation

PATTERNS OF TERM FORMATION


Introduction to medical terminology

1. Root/Suffix

  • cardi/ac means……

  • pertaining to the heart

    2. Prefix/Root/Suffix

  • epi/card/ium means….

  • structure or tissue upon the heart

    3. Prefix/Prefix/Root/Suffix

  • sub/endo/cardi/al means

  • pertaining to below or under and within the heart

    4. Root/Combining Vowel/Root/Suffix

  • cardi/o/vascul/ar means

  • pertaining to the heart and vessels


Introduction to medical terminology

5. Root/Combining Vowel/Suffix

  • cardi/o/logy means

  • study of the heart

    6. Root/Combining Vowel/Suffix (Symptomatic)

  • cardi/o/dynia means

  • pain in the heart

    7. Root/Combining Vowel/Suffix (Diagnostic)

  • cardi/o/rrhexis means

  • rupture of the heart

    8. Root/Combining Vowel/Suffix (Operative)

  • cardi/o/rrhaphy means

  • suture of the heart


Exceptions

Exceptions

  • Most medical terms are formed by combining a root or roots and modified by suffixes and prefixes.

  • Occasionally, terms are formed by a root alone or a combination of roots.

  • Example: duct

    |

    Root

    to lead

    ovi/duct

    | |

    Root/Root

    | |

    egg/to lead


Introduction to medical terminology

  • Oviduct refers to the uterine tube.

  • Sometimes, a term is formed from the combination of a prefix and suffix.

  • Example: meta/stasis

    | |

    Prefix/Suffix

    | |

    beyond, after, or change/stop or stand

  • Metastasis refers to the spread of a disease, such as cancer, from one location to another.


Combining forms and combining vowels

COMBINING FORMS AND COMBINING VOWELS

  • 1. psych o logy = psychology

  • 2. path o logy = pathology

  • When a medical term has more than one root, the roots are joined together by a vowel, usually an “o.”

  • the “o” is used to link the two parts and it provides easier pronunciation.

  • This vowel is known as a combining vowel.

  • “O” is the most common combining vowel (i is the second most common) and is used so frequently to join root to root or root to suffix that it is routinely attached to the root and presented as a combining form.

  • A combining form is…….. a with a………. attached.


Defining medical terms through word structure analysis

DEFINING MEDICAL TERMS THROUGH WORD STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

  • You can usually define a term by interpreting the suffix first, then the prefix (if present), then the root or roots.

  • Example: pericarditis

  • peri/ card/ itis

    | | |

    prefix root suffix

    | | |

  • around heart inflammation

  • pericarditis (inflammation around the heart)


Introduction to medical terminology

  • Beginning students often have difficulty differentiating between prefixes and roots (or combining forms) because the root appears first in a medical term when a prefix is not used.

  • It is important to memorize the most common prefixes so that you can tell the difference.

  • Also, keep in mind that a prefix is used only as needed to further modify the root or roots.


Rules for forming and spelling medical terms

RULES FOR FORMING AND SPELLINGMEDICAL TERMS


F ive basic rules for forming an d spelling m edical terms

F IVE BASIC RULESFOR FORMING AN D SPELLING M EDICAL TERMS

  • If the root ends in a consonant (any letter except a, e, i, o, u) and the suffix begins with a consonant, insert a combining vowel (usually an “o”) between the component parts

  • hepat/o -megaly is spelled hepatomegaly and is defined as……….


Introduction to medical terminology

2. A combining vowel is not used before a suffix that begins with vowel: vas/o -ectomy is spelled vasectomy and is defined as…….

3.If the root ends in a vowel and the suffix begins with the same vowel, drop the final vowel from the root and do not use a combining vowel: cardi/o -itis is spelled carditis and is defined as……..

4. Most often, a combining vowel is inserted between two roots even when the second root begins with a vowel: cardi/o esophag/o -eal is spelled cardioesophageal and is defined as………..

5. Occasionally, when a prefix ends in a vowel, and the root begins with a vowel, the final vowel is dropped from the prefix: para- enter/o -al is spelled parenteral and is defined as……..


Exercise 2

EXERCISE 2

1. angi/o -ectasis is spelled……and means………

  • angiectasis

  • expansion or dilation of a vessel

    2. hemat/o -logy is spelled…… and means…..

  • hematology

  • study of blood

    3. gastr/o enter/o -stomy is spelled….and means…

  • gastroenterostomy

  • creation of an opening (between) stomach and small intestine


Introduction to medical terminology

5. oligo- ur/o -ia is spelled…… and means…….

  • oliguria

  • condition of defcient urine

    6. oste/o -ectomy is spelled…… and means…….

  • ostectomy

  • excision (removal) of bone


Spelling medical terms

SPELLING MEDICAL TERMS

  • Correct spelling of medical terms is crucial for communication among health care professionals.

  • Careless spelling causes misunderstandings that can have serious consequences.

  • The following list shows some of the pitfalls to avoid.

  • Some words sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings. Context is the clue to spelling.

    For example,

  • ileum (part of the intestine) and ilium (part of the hip bone)

  • sitology (study of food) cytology (study of cells)


Introduction to medical terminology

2. Other words sound similar but are spelled differently and have different meanings. For example,

  • abduction (to draw away from) adduction (to draw toward)

  • hepatoma (liver tumor) hematoma (blood tumor)

  • aphagia (inability to swallow) aphasia (inability to speak)


Introduction to medical terminology

3. Some words have more than one accepted spelling. For example,

  • orthopedic orthopaedic

  • leukocyte leucocyte

    4. Some combining forms have the same meaning but different origins that compete for usage.

    For example,

    three combining forms mean uterus:

  • hyster/o (Greek)

  • metr/o (Greek)

  • uter/o (Latin)


Rules of pronunciation

RULES OF PRONUNCIATION


Abbreviations

Abbreviations

  • Can save time

  • May cause confusion

  • Acronym = abbreviation formed from first letter of each word in a phrase

    • ASAP = as soon as possible


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