Lecture 9 – Locomotion: Flight
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Lecture 9 – Locomotion: Flight. Powered flight has evolved several times:. Pterosaurs. Insects. Birds. Powered Flight : Bats. Supported by digits 2-5. Skin - patagium. Generation of Lift. Turbulent Flow. Laminar flow – parallel movement of air streams .

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Lecture 9 – Locomotion: Flight

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Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Lecture 9 – Locomotion: Flight

Powered flight has evolved several times:

Pterosaurs

Insects

Birds


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Powered Flight : Bats

Supported by digits 2-5

Skin - patagium


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Generation of Lift

Turbulent Flow

Laminar flow – parallel movement of air streams

Velocity across top is higher than bottom.

Bernoulli’s Theorem

Laminar Flow

P is air pressure.

Cis a constant.

dis the density of air, and V is velocity.

Lift = P(Lower) – P(Upper)


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Bats tend to be slow fliers.

Myotislucifugus (l.b.bat)- 20 MPH

Eptesicusfuscus (b.b.bat)- 40 MPH

Tadaridabrasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat) – up to 60 MPH


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Generation of lift at low flight speeds.

1. Increase camber, or curvature of the wing.

2. Increase angle of attack (even a symmetric airfoil can generate lift this way)


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Generation of lift at low flight speeds.

3. Alter wing size and shape.

Wing loading: Body weight /surface area.

Body WeightSurface AreaWing Load

House wren 11.0 g 48.4 cm2 0.24 g/ cm2

Glossophaga 10.6 g 99.3 cm2 0.11 g/ cm2

Myotis4.2 g 67.6 cm2 0.06 g/ cm2

b. Aspect ratio - length / width

Tadarida– high aspect ratio

Artibeus – low aspect ratio


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Stopping the up-stroke: Shoulder-locking mechanism

Greater tuberosity of humerus

Mollossids

Eumopsperotiswestern bonneted bat

Vespertilionids also.


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Moderately well-developed shoulder locking.

Modest greater tuberosity

* Situation similar in phyllostomids


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Poorly developed shoulder locking – entirely muscular.

Sac-winged bats – Emballonuridae.


Lecture 9 locomotion flight

Other Adaptations for Flight

Keeled manubrium of sternum.

Some (Natalidae) have rigid axial skeleton.

1. Compressed thoracic vertebrae - not fused, but very tightly interconnecting

2. Fused sacral vertebrae and fused lumbar vertebrae


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