English II. 1 st Quarter Vocabulary. Roots: In, Im, Il, Ir. Definition: In or into. a. Words and meanings: Insect [IN in + SECT to cut] – an invertebrate with a body cut into 3 pieces. Induce [IN into + DUC to lead] – to lead into or persuade.
Roots: In, Im, Il, Ir
Definition: In or into
Words and meanings:
Insect [IN in + SECT to cut] – an invertebrate with a body cut into 3 pieces.
Induce [IN into + DUC to lead] – to lead into or persuade.
Innate [IN in + NAT to be born] – born in one.
ALSO: Illuminate, Impede, Invoke, Inspect
Roots: In, Im, Il, Ir
Words and meanings:
Intangible [IN not + TANG to touch] – not able to be touched.
Immobile [IM not + MOB to move] – unable to move.
Impunity [IM not + PUN to punish] – free from punishment.
Also: Impervious, Infinite, Incredible, Irreverent
DEFINITION: To follow.
Words and meanings:
Sequel – continuation
Sequence – a following of one thing after another.
Consequence – something that logically follows from an action.
Also: Inconsequential, sequential, subsequent
Words and meanings:
Interstate – between states
Intermediary – one who acts as a mediator or go-between.
Interim – a time between periods or events.
Also: Intercede, Intercollegiate, Interlude
DEFINITION: Away, down, off, from, apart, completely
Words and meanings:
Demote [DE down + MOT to move] – to move down in rank.
Deciduous [DE off + CID to fall] – falling off, as leaves fall from trees.
Also: Decapitate, Deflect, Deter, Deport
Words and meanings:
Pervade [PER through + VAD to go] – to go through; to spread throughout.
Perceive [PER through + CAP to take] – to take note of; to grasp mentally.
Also: Permit, Perennial, Perspective
DEFINITION: To throw.
DEFINITION: To turn.
DEFINITION: To make.
DEFINITION: A large destructive fire.
Synonyms: inferno, blaze, wildfire
Sentence: Ten homes were destroyed in the conflagration that was started by an arsonist.
DEFINITION: A law or proclamation.
Synonyms: order, doctrine, edict, rule
Sentence: The judge issued a decree outlawing facial hair.
DEFINITION: Lacking in; free from.
Synonyms: barren, destitute, empty
Sentence: Her personality is devoid of wit and creativity, which is why she is single.
DEFINITION: Causing feelings of excitement.
Synonyms: stimulating, elating, thrilling
Sentence: We always have exhilarating discussions in Mr. Halpin’s class.
DEFINITION: A change.
Synonyms: undulation, variation, shift
Sentence: Not doing homework for 2 weeks caused a dramatic fluctuation in his grade.
DEFINITION: Unable to be tired out.
Synonyms: tireless, unflagging, unrelenting
Sentence: Her indefatigable spirit helped her overcome the greatest challenges in her life.
DEFINITION: To make right.
Synonyms: correct, repair, amend
Sentence: Only an act of God could rectify some of the problems created by man.
DEFINITION: Something that corrects an error or a fault.
Synonyms: solution, relief, cure
Sentence: A remedy for bad behavior is stricter punishments.
DEFINITION: To spread; to make widely known.
Synonyms: distribute, disseminate, publicize
Sentence: It is your responsibility to propagate the information about the party.
DEFINITION: Nearness in space or time.
Synonyms: closeness, vicinity, juxtaposition
Sentence: Sonora’s proximity to In-n-Out enables students to walk there for lunch.
DEFINITION: Giving strength and vitality.
Synonyms: strengthen, vitalize
Sentence: An afternoon nap can be invigorating after a hard day’s work.
DEFINITION: The quality of wearisome constancy, routine, and lack of variety.
Synonyms: tediousness, dullness, repetitiveness
Sentence: Some struggle with the monotony of their daily lives and enjoy the change of pace the weekend brings.
DEFINITION: To cause to continue.
Synonyms: maintain, preserve, sustain, keep going
Sentence: It is unfortunate that society perpetuates stereotypes about minorities.
DEFINITION: Harmful to living things.
Synonyms: injurious, hurtful, destructive
Sentence: Crime has a deleterious effect on the neighborhood’s reputation.
DEFINITION: Foolish or unreasoning fondness.
Synonyms: in love, infatuated, smitten
Sentence: Sophomore boys are too easily enamored with girls.
DEFINITION: Requiring sitting or little activity.
Synonyms: inactive, seated, motionless
Sentence: A sedentary lifestyle has been linked to poor health and obesity.
DEFINITION: Inspiring enthusiasm.
Synonyms: exhilarating, invigorating, exciting
Sentence: A stimulating activity always makes time go by faster.
DEFINITION: Lacking grace when moving.
Synonyms: clumsy, awkward, uncoordinated
Sentence: The ungainly competitors are the first to be eliminated on Dancing With the Stars.
DEFINITION: To fluctuate between opinions.
Synonyms: waver, be doubtful, be indecisive
Sentence: Many vacillate over major decisions, like which college to attend.
DEFINITION: A state of peace and quiet.
Synonyms: serenity, quietude, calmness
Sentence: After a hectic day, we all seek tranquility.
DEFINITION: Extremely cold.
Synonyms: icy, frosty, frozen
Sentence: The ocean is too frigid to swim in without a wetsuit.
DEFINITION: Cause to start burning.
Synonyms: light, set fire to, kindle
Sentence: The conflagration was ignited by a discarded cigarette.
DEFINITION: Impossible to doubt.
Synonyms: sure, certain, proven
Sentence: There is indisputable proof that sophomores are too smart for their own good!
DEFINITION: Reading carefully with intent to remember.
Sentence: When perusing your textbook, it is important to write down some of the information.
DEFINITION: Following in an effort to capture.
Synonyms: following, chasing, going after
Sentence: The police are still pursuing the criminal.
DEFINITION: To fill completely.
Synonyms: flood, overwhelm, soak
Sentence: Make sure you saturate the sponge before washing the car.
DEFINITION: The quality of being separated from others.
Synonyms: privacy, isolation, hiding
Sentence: The seclusion found in one’s room can provide needed tranquility.
DEFINITION: Displaying love or desire.
Synonyms: loving, fond, lovesick
Sentence: The amorous couple exchanged gifts on their anniversary.
DEFINITION: Accomplished or supremely skilled.
Synonyms: masterful, supreme, perfect
Sentence: With plenty of practice, you can become a consummate writer.
DEFINITION: In a contrary or opposite way.
Synonyms: On the other hand, contrarily, vice versa
Sentence: All mothers are women; conversely, not all women are mothers.
DEFINITION: Producing no result or effect.
Synonyms: ineffectual, useless, pointless
Sentence: Convincing someone that he or she is wrong is often futile.
DEFINITION: A ritual recitation of words to produce a magical effect.
Synonyms: chant, charm, spell
Sentence: They believed that the incantation and special brew would raise the dead.
DEFINITION: Impossible to avoid.
Synonyms: certainly, unavoidably, necessarily
Sentence: Inevitably, we will all become worm food.
DEFINITION: A foolish, short-lived passion.
Synonyms: crush, obsession
Sentence: Teenagers often confuse infatuation with true love.
DEFINITION: Seemingly without end.
Synonyms: endless, eternal, never-ending
Sentence: A long, boring speech or sermon is often described as interminable.
DEFINITION: In a hard-working manner.
Synonyms: arduously, strenuously, diligently
Sentence: They worked laboriously to dig out the miners in Chile.
DEFINITION: The state or quality of being reluctant to speak.
Synonyms: silence, reserve, restraint
Sentence: Reticence is a quality that is usually displayed by shy people.
DEFINITION: To cover or hide.
Synonyms: conceal, screen, veil
Sentence: The early morning fog shrouds the coast, making it difficult to see.
DEFINITION: At the same time.
Synonyms: together, concurrently, jointly
Sentence: The dancers moved synchronously as they moved across the floor.
DEFINITION: To come out.
Synonyms: appear, arise, turn up
Sentence: The facts emerged when the witness told his side of the story.
DEFINITION: To maintain possession.
Synonyms: keep, maintain, hold
Sentence: The Raiders retained possession of the ball after the fumble.
DEFINITION: To give credit.
Synonyms: assign, ascribe, blame
Sentence: They attributed their success to patience and hard work.
DEFINITION: Easy to see or understand.
Synonyms: apparent, evident, blatant
Sentence: It is obvious that USC is better than UCLA.
DEFINITION: Sufficient for the purpose.
Synonyms: enough, satisfactory, decent
Sentence: You have an adequate amount of experience to get the job done.
DEFINITION: Exact, as in performance, execution, or amount.
Synonyms: exact, specific, definite
Sentence: Be sure to use the precise words when you quote someone else.
DEFINITION: To make easier.
Synonyms: help, ease, expedite
Sentence: Giving one’s full effort will facilitate the process of learning a new skill.
DEFINITION: The act of passing from one state or place to the next.
Synonyms: change, shift, alteration
Sentence: Some students have a difficult time with the transition from junior high to high school.
DEFINITION: Refused or to refuse.
Synonyms: discarded, spurned, thrown away
Sentence: She rejected his amorous attempts because she was infatuated with someone else.
DEFINITION: A belief or opinion.
Synonyms: idea, view, concept
Sentence: The notion that Sonora is the best school is indisputable.
DEFINITION: Praises or awards.
Synonyms: honors, recognition, tributes
Sentence: The soldier received accolades for his service in the military. OR The chef received accolades for his fine cuisine.
DEFINITION: A correction or change.
Synonyms: adjustment, addition, alteration
Sentence: We are sometimes asked to vote on an amendment to the law. OR The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are known as The Bill of Rights.
DEFINITION: To destroy completely.
Synonyms: wipe out, erase, obliterate
Sentence: The plan is to annihilate the world of terrorism. OR The strong medicine will annihilate the virus.
DEFINITION: Made certain.
Synonyms: guaranteed, confirmed, clinched
Sentence: The victory is assured now that everyone is healthy. OR He assured us that our identities would be withheld.
DEFINITION: Filled with wonder or delight.
Synonyms: charmed, enthralled, beguiled
Sentence: The captivated audience watched the performance from the edge of their seats. OR Her gaze held him captivated for hours.
DEFINITION: Not easy.
Synonyms: difficult, hard, complicated
Sentence: The further along you go in Math, the more complex the problems become.
DEFINITION: A struggle or problem.
Synonyms: battle, fight, dispute
Sentence: War is a conflict that causes great losses on both sides.
DEFINITION: The set of circumstances that surround a situation or event.
Synonyms: setting, condition, background
Sentence: Most literature allow readers an insight to the context of daily life of a culture or time period.
DEFINITION: To determine the meaning of something.
Synonyms: decode, solve, understand, figure out
Sentence: He was unable to decipher the code before the bomb went off.
DEFINITION: A change toward something smaller or lower.
Synonyms: decrease, erosion, lessening
Sentence: The decline in morale can be blamed on the new manager.
DEFINITION: The quality of having or showing good judgment.
Synonyms: discreetness, sensibleness, common sense
Sentence: Use great discretion when dealing with unfamiliar situations or people.
DEFINITION: To make possible.
Synonyms: allow, permit, empower
Sentence: Being able to speak many languages enables a person to communicate within a global community.
DEFINITION: The act of ensuring obedience.
Synonyms: administration, insistence, carrying out
Sentence: A decline in the number of police officers makes law enforcement more difficult.
DEFINITION: Increased or intensified in quality.
Synonyms: improved, intensified, deepened
Sentence: Her enhanced beauty was a result of more sleep and less makeup.
DEFINITION: A process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage.
Synonyms: development, growth, advancement
Sentence: Some believe the evolution of man is an on-going process that began thousands of years ago. OR Beyonce’s evolution from an ordinary girl to a diva took place during her teen years.
Synonyms: Outperform, beat, surpass
Sentence: The final cost should not exceed $5000.
The success of our campaign has exceeded our wildest expectations.
Sentence: We admired the expertise with which he prepared the meal.
I have no expertise in sewing/sewing expertise.
DEFINITION: uncovering; putting in view or danger
Synonyms: showing, risk, airing, display
Sentence: You should always limit your exposure to the sun.
Even a brief exposure to radiation is very dangerous.
DEFINITION: of, on, for or coming from the outside
Synonyms: Outer, exterior, visible
Female kangaroos carry their young in pouches that are external to their bodies.
This cream is for external use only.
Synonyms: Betray, leave
Sentence: Do not forsake me!
She refused to forsake her beliefs, even when threatened with death.
Synonyms: clarify, explain, brighten
Synonyms: motivation, drive, reward
Sentence: Tax incentives have been very effective in encouraging people to save and invest more of their income.
Bonus payments provide an incentive to work harder.
Synonyms: Include, integrate
Sentence: Suggestions from the survey have been incorporated into/in the final design.
This aircraft incorporates several new safety features.
DEFINITION: a feeling of embarrassment or worry that prevents you from saying or doing what you want
Synonyms: Embarrassment, self-consciousness
She was determined to shed her inhibitions and have a good time.
DEFINITION:something such as energy, money or information that is put into a system, organization or machine so that it can operate
Synonyms: Contribution, effort
Sentence: I didn't have much input into the project .
The power input will come largely from hydroelectricity.
DEFINITION: a period between two events or times, or the space between two points
Sentence: We see each other at regular intervals - usually about once a month.
DEFINITION: having a lot of small parts or details that are arranged in a complicated way
Synonyms: Complicated, elaborate, complex
Sentence: The watch mechanism is extremely intricate and very difficult to repair.
Police officers uncovered an intricate web of deceit.
DEFINITION: a person who suffers very much or is killed because of their political or religious beliefs, and is often admired because of it
Synonyms: sufferer, victim
Sentence: She fought against racism all her life and died a martyr to the cause.
DEFINITION: the quality of being good and deserving praise
Synonyms: value, advantage
Her book has the merits of being both informative and readable.
We discussed the merits of herbal tea.
DEFINITION: to be involved in a difficult situation, especially for a long period of time
Synonyms: stalled, stuck, delayed
Sentence: The peace talks are mired in bureaucracy.
DEFINITION: a model of something, or a very clear and typical example of something.
Synonyms: model, way of thinking
Sentence: Some educators are hoping to produce a change in the current cultural paradigm.
DEFINITION: A belief that something is true without having any proof.
Synonyms: assumption, guess
Sentence:The presumption of innocence is central to the justice system.
There is no scientific evidence to support such presumptions.
Synonyms: get, obtain, acquire
Sentence: She's managed somehow to procure his telephone number.
DEFINITION: intended as a punishment
Synonyms: disciplinary, corrective
Sentence: Detention is meant to be punitive, not fun.
DEFINITION: the process of getting back something lost, especially health, ability, possessions, etc.
Synonyms: revival, healing, improvement
Sentence: Mira made a speedy recovery from the operation.
At last the economy is showing signs of recovery.
DEFINITION: When water or glass, etc. refracts light or sound, etc., it causes it to change direction or to separate when it travels through it
Synonyms: distortion, deflection
Sentence: The glass prism refracted the white light into the colors of the rainbow.
DEFINITION: having a very bright or splendid appearance.
Synonyms: dazzling, splendid, stunning, brilliant
Sentence: I saw Anna at the other end of the room, resplendent in a red sequined cocktail dress.
DEFINITION: to greatly respect and admire someone or something
Synonyms: admired, respected, venerated
Sentence: Nelson Mandela is revered for his brave fight against apartheid.
DEFINITION: help and comfort when you are feeling sad or worried
Synonyms: comfort, support
Sentence: When his wife left him, he found solace in friends.
Music was a great solace to me.
DEFINITION: a particular personal way of thinking or set of opinions OR a place, especially a high place, which provides a good clear view of an area
Synonyms: angle, perspective
Sentence: From our lofty vantage point, we could see the city spread out below us.
DEFINITION: Always the same; showing a single form or character in all occurrences.
Synonyms: unvarying, homogeneous, undifferentiated, consistent, identical
Sentence: Military personnel are expected to be uniform in dress and behavior. OR Gatby’s mannersisms are not uniform; they change depending upon whom he is with.
DEFINITION: A medium or device through which something is transmitted, expressed, or accomplished.
Synonyms: medium, means, channel, mechanism
Sentence: She uses her artwork as a vehicle to express her political beliefs. OR Tonight’s performance is a vehicle for her to display her talents.
DEFINITION: Slightly short of or not quite accomplished.
Synonyms: almost, nearly, about, practically
Sentence: Virtually everyone signed the contract. OR After 12 hours, the job is virtually done.
DEFINITION: Widely circulated or spread out.
Synonyms: common, popular, sweeping, broad, extensive
Sentence: There have been widespread layoffs in the last two years. OR There is widespread fear of the effects of global warming.
DEFINITION: Of or relating to sight; capable of being seen.
Synonyms: optical, observable, visible
Sentence: Most people are visual learners, not auditory. OR There was no visual evidence to support his argument.
DEFINITION: To run away secretly.
Synonyms: escape, flee, sneak away
Sentence: The prisoner plans to abscond from his cell at midnight.
DEFINITION: Existing only in the mind; dealing with something without purpose or intention.
Synonyms: theoretical, complex, hypothetical
Sentence: Truth, pride, and other non-physical character traits are abstract.
DEFINITION: Amounting to a whole; total
Synonyms: mass, collective, collected
Sentence: The aggregate number of goals scored after two games is 20.
DEFINITION: A share set aside for a specific purpose.
Synonyms: allotment, allowance, rationing
Sentence: Every month, my parents have an allocation of money they save for our vacation.
DEFINITION: To change.
Synonyms: modify, change, transform
Sentence: We had to alter our plans because of the weather.
DEFINITION: Having or showing little or no feeling or emotion.
Synonyms: indifferent, uninterested, listless
Sentence: All who are in favor should voice their opinions and stop being so apathetic.
DEFINITION: A uniting force or tie; something that fastens or connects things together.
Synonyms: tie, link, connection
Sentence: The bond between the man and his dog was so great that they could not live without each other.
DEFINITION: A harsh discordance of sounds; a meaningless mixture of sounds.
Synonyms: discord, noise, clamor
Sentence: He could not hear over the cacophony of instruments in the band room.
DEFINITION: Having power and ability.
Synonyms: efficient, accomplished, adequate
Sentence: You are capable of doing anything you put your mind to.
DEFINITION: Maximum amount that can be contained; power of receiving impressions, knowledge
Synonyms: expanse; ability, competency
Sentence: He had a large mental capacity for remembering names and birthdays.
DEFINITION: To play in a lively manner.
Synonyms: frolic, rollick, romp
Sentence: Children like to cavort in the water, splashing each other.
DEFINITION: A rate that is rapid.
Synonyms: rapidness, speediness, quickness
Sentence: A doctor must respond with celerity to an emergency situation.
DEFINITION: Made reference to.
Synonyms: mentioned, referred, brought up
Sentence: The class cited the literature as evidence in their essays.
DEFINITION: A group of words containing a subject and a predicate (verb).
Sentence: An independent clause is a complete sentence; a dependent clause is not.
DEFINITION: Power or influence.
Synonyms: pull, authority, prestige
Sentence: People who keep their word have more clout than those who make empty promises.
DEFINITION: Extraordinarily great in size, extent, or degree.
Synonyms: gigantic, huge, enormous
Sentence: She made a colossal mistake by letting her reckless friend borrow her car.
DEFINITION: A meeting for deliberation, discussion, or decision.
Synonyms: conference, discussion, meeting
Sentence: The patient had a consultation with his doctor about his test results.
DEFINITION: Working or acting together willingly for a common purpose or benefit.
Sentence: Because the criminal was so cooperative with police, they reduced his sentence.
DEFINITION: Acceptance as valid or truth.
Synonyms: trust, assurance, belief
Sentence: Do not give credence to gossip.
DEFINITION: To make weak or feeble.
Synonyms: exhaust, weaken
Sentence: Being without food and water greatly debilitated the lost hikers.
DEFINITION: The state or quality of being different.
Synonyms: variety, multiplicity
Sentence: Cultural diversity can be identified by the variety of languages spoken in a country.
DEFINITION: A particular environment or walk of life.
Synonyms: specialty, arena, area, field
Sentence: The study of English is in my domain; mathematics is not.
DEFINITION: Difficult to understand; confusing.
Synonyms: puzzling, ambiguous, incomprehensible
Sentence: Understanding teenagers is often difficult because of their enigmatic behaviors.
DEFINITION: Lasting for a short time.
Synonyms: brief, temporary, transient
Sentence: A fly has an ephemeral life span.
DEFINITION: Calmness of temperament.
Synonyms: composure, poise, serenity, coolness
Sentence: It’s important to maintain your equanimity during stressful situations.
Def: equal in value, measure, force, effect, significance, etc.:
- His silence is equivalent to an admission of guilt.
-The news erroneously wrote “Obama” bin laden rather than Osama bin laden
Def: a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania.
-Diving in the Great Barrier Reef gives one a sense of euphoria.
-The school expanded the building as more students enrolled.
Def: fully and clearly expressed or demonstrated; leaving nothing merely implied; unequivocal:
- The teacher gave explicit instructions for homework.
Def: to praise highly
-The people would extol their king as if he were a God.
Def: to putrefy or rot.
-The untreated wound was left to fester.
Def: a narrow opening produced by cleavage or separation of parts.
- The earthquake created fissures between the neighborhoods.
Def: in flagrant manner( flagrant: shockingly noticeable or evident; obvious)
- The candidates flagrantly expressed their anger towards each other.
Def: serving as, or being an essential part of; basic
- Using formulas is fundamental part of solving math problems.
Def: to skip about, as in dancing or playing; frolic.
- A deer gamboled on the field.
- Employers cannot discriminate workers based on gender.
Def: brought into existence; produced
-The graphics and animations were computer generated.
Def: the rate or range of occurrence or influence of something, especially of something unwanted
- the high incidence of heart disease in men over 40.
Def: the quality or state of being incredulous; inability or unwillingness to believe.
-When her son told her he was late getting home because of a UFO, she expressed her incredulity.
Def: lack of discretion; imprudence.
-His indiscretion ruined all the relationships he has had.
- His indiscretion keeps him from being a ninja.
Def: an introductory act or step; leading action:
- When you first get to school, initiative in making friends is necessary.
Def: lacking in vigor or vitality; slack or slow
- When discussing important topics, KRod talks in a languid manner.
Def: favorable to progress or reform, as in political or religious affairs
-Democrats have liberal views on abortion.
Def: to remain or stay on in a place longer than is usual or expected, as if from reluctance to leave
-We lingered awhile after the party.
Def: easy to understand
-a lucid explanation.
-It was a simple marginal error.
-The government monitors some phone conversations.
Def: something that a person cannot conquer, achieve, etc.
-The performance test proved to be my nemesis.
Def: nonetheless; however
- a small but nevertheless important change.
Def: not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; unbiased
- A judge has to be objective overseer.
Def: not quick or alert in perception, feeling, or intellect; not sensitive or observant; dull.
- Many people have stereotypes that blonds are obtuse.
-In The Great Gatsby, Gatsby has panache
Def: seemingly valid or acceptable
-His theory of the Clippers being better then the Lakers is plausible.
Def: profoundly moving, touching
- The scene in the movie was so poignant that people started to cry.
- The prime source of production of honey is bees.
-profusion of food in Africa would alleviate the starvation problems.
-The police pursued the suspect.
Monks are by far the most rational people.
-Vitamins are subsidiary to child’s growth.
-This chemical has no utility as an agricultural fertilizer .