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Unit 2. Tourism Development. Agents of tourism development. Organisations, bodies and individuals which influence or contribute towards the development of tourism products and services. These agents can include: Development agencies Landowners Development companies Consultancies

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Unit 2

Tourism Development

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Agents of tourism development

Organisations, bodies and individuals which influence or contribute towards the development of tourism products and services.

These agents can include:

  • Development agencies

  • Landowners

  • Development companies

  • Consultancies

  • Leisure organisations

  • Entertainment organisations

  • Local authorities

  • National governments

  • National and regional tourist boards

  • Voluntary and community groups

  • Pressure groups

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Agents of tourism development

There are usually a range of agents working together and these come from different categories:

  • Private sector companies

  • Public sector organisations

  • Voluntary sector bodies

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The Objectives of Tourism Development

  • Economic

  • Environmental

  • Sociocultural

  • Political

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  • Employment creation - jobs in hotels, transport, tourist attractions, farming, crafts

  • Increased earnings from foreign currency - tourists buy local products and services. Leakage occurs when income from tourism goes to boost profits of tour operators - major problem in many developing countries where there are all-inclusive holidays.

  • Increased income for commercial operators - Private companies want to make a profit e.g. Disney

  • Economic development and regeneration - e.g. Bradford - run down industrial city which promoted tourism development to create jobs and boost income

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Environmental Objectives

  • To preserve wildlife - tourism development (buildings) can disrupt or destroy natural habitats and visiting tourists cause increased litter, pollution, noise and even light.

  • To provide environmental education - can help to conserve the environment - notices about litter and keeping to the path etc. can be seen in many resorts

  • To improve the environment - renovation or regeneration of buildings and areas. Planning applications that include environmental improvements are viewed more favourably.

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Sociocultural Objectives

  • To promote of understanding between the cultures of tourists and those of the local population - responsible tourism development agents are aware of the significant differences between the cultures of tourists and those of the host population and seek to promote an understanding between them.

  • To provide cultural entertainment for the tourists – increased income for locals.

  • To improve to the quality of life of the local population - Regeneration of run down areas into thriving tourism and business areas - e.g. Lace Market in Nottingham, Canary Wharf in London.

  • To increase the provision of community facilities - Locals also benefit from the tourist facilities - health and fitness centres in hotels. In poorer countries, new roads, airports etc benefit local trade, fresh water and shops - although in reality many can't afford the goods.

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Political Objectives

  • To enhance the image of a place - regeneration of an area together with investment in new facilities and marketing all enhance an areas image = improvement of quality of life for locals. This then encourages more investment.

  • To create a regional or national identity - countries and areas seek to create a regional or national identity which is then used to promote tourism to an area - e.g. UK for foreign visitors - Royal family, castles and history, red London buses etc.

  • To boost national morale or pride and use this to gain political advantage.

  • Toimprove the balance of payments through increased foreign exchange earnings will benefit a government's position.

  • To increase international understanding

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Managing the Impact of tourism development

Aim is to maximise the positive impact and minimise the negative impact

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Maximising the positive impact

  • Retention of visitor spending – provide everything at the resort so visitors stay and spend money – Euro Disney

  • Reduce leakage

  • Invest tourist income in local facilities e.g. road improvements

  • Training to improve skills of locals

  • Educate tourists – use water and electricity supplies carefully, recycle

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Minimising the negative impacts

  • Carry out and environmental impact assessment before starting development

  • Planning control – is development appropriate for the area?

  • Adopt sustainable tourism principles – Agenda 21

  • Manage visitors and traffic – park and ride, out of season attractions

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Case study - Bradford

  • Victorian industrial city suffering from economic recession

  • Regeneration – old woollen mills – Industrial heritage trail and bargain priced fabrics from factory outlets.

  • Surrounding attractions – Bronte Home

  • National museum of Photography, film and television

  • Flavours of Asia – restaurants

  • Over 6 million visitors per annum

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Case study Cambridge

  • Park and ride

  • Charge for entry to colleges – restricts numbers and improves tourist behaviour

  • Guided tours

  • Promotion of other attractions in surrounding area

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Case Study - Antigua

Positive impacts –

  • Economic = more jobs, better infrastructure

  • Environmental = Improved surroundings, some green tourism

  • Sociocultural = traditional steel bands and crafts maintained, slavery museum

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Case study - Antigua

Negative impacts

  • Economic = jobs not in management, increased cost of living, leakage

  • Environmental = pollution, loss of natural vegetation, coral reefs destroyed

  • Sociocultural = loss of traditional songs, all-inclusive holidays mean that tourists don’t go to local restaurants and get to understand local culture

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Case study of ecotourism Galapagos Islands

  • Charge $100 to enter national park – keeps place exclusive, money used to maintain national park

  • Must be accompanied by guide

  • Keep to trails

  • Take no food onto islands

  • Wash to remove sand and pollen grains to preserve unique ecosystem on each island

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Galapagos Islands

  • Has helped to maintain unique environment

  • Has improved economy – income and jobs

  • Has upset local fishermen whose fishing grounds are now restricted

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Case study - Majorca

  • Problems with water and ‘the wrong sort of tourist’

  • Attempt to attract fewer tourists from higher socioeconomic groups – by improvements in accommodation and restricting flights

  • How do locals feel?

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The Exam

  • Two and a half hours – plenty of time to do reading – don’t rush to start writing

  • 4 questions

  • Two case studies – one UK and one overseas – UK case study may not be a real place but will be based on one.

  • 60% of the marks are available to E grade students make sure you get all of them!

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Tourism Development Questions

  • Describe facilities and amenities

  • Explain role of agents of tourism development and associated conflicts

  • Describe and explain the impacts of tourism development

  • Explain strategies to maximise the positive impacts and minimise the negative impacts of tourism development

  • Suggestions for tourism development – museums, accommodation etc – not theme parks or leisure centres

  • Describe a location

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Key words

  • List – bullet points OK

  • Describe – say something brief about the place/amenity etc

  • Explain – give a detailed answer

  • Analyse – give ‘for’ and ‘against’ with reasons and conclude

  • Evaluate - give ‘for’ and ‘against’ with reasons and conclude

  • Justify – explain ‘why’ in detail