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Models of Teaching Howard L. Jones Deductive Strategies… David P. Ausubel’s Efforts Concepts Defined Concepts Outcomes Find the Pattern Circumference Diameter 11 cm 3.5 cm 56 inches 17.8 inches 4 ft. 1.3 ft. 22 m 7 m

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Models of teaching l.jpg

Models of Teaching

Howard L. Jones

Deductive Strategies…

David P. Ausubel’s Efforts


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Concepts Defined

Concepts

Outcomes


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Find the Pattern

CircumferenceDiameter

11 cm 3.5 cm

56 inches 17.8 inches

4 ft. 1.3 ft.

22 m 7 m

3.1 inches 1 inch


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Find the Pattern

CircumferenceDiameter

11 cm 3.5 cm

56 inches 17.8 inches

4 ft. 1.3 ft.

22 m 7 m

3.1 inches 1 inch

Circumference = 3.14… x Diameter


Find the pattern6 l.jpg
Find the Pattern

C = ∏D

CircumferenceDiameter

11 cm 3.5 cm

56 inches 17.8 inches

4 ft. 1.3 ft.

22 m 7 m

3.1 inches 1 inch

Circumference = 3.14… x Diameter


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Inductive Teaching

Big Idea

Smaller Ideas Smaller Ideas

Small Ideas Small Ideas


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Multiple Paths to Learning

  • Teacher Gives Students Magnets

  • Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets

  • Students Determine Characteristics of Objects that Magnets Attract

  • Teacher Gives Students Other Materials

  • Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

  • Students Verify Predictions


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Deductive Teaching

Big Idea (Big Deal)

Smaller Ideas Smaller Ideas

Small Ideas Small Ideas


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Another Way…

Deductive Teaching

  • Teacher Writes on Board “Magnets are attracted to other metals, mostly those made of iron and steel”

  • Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness

  • Teacher Asks Students For Examples

  • Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets

  • Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to magnets

  • Students Verify Predictions


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Teacher Writes the Answer on Board …

Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness

Teacher Asks Students For Examples

Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Teacher Gives Students Magnets

Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets

Students Generate Answer Based on heir Observations

Teacher Gives Students Other Materials and Magnets

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Deductive Inductive


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Teacher Writes the Answer on Board …

Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness

Teacher Asks Students For Examples

Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Teacher Gives Students Magnets

Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets

Students Generate Answer Based on heir Observations

Teacher Gives Students Other Materials and Magnets

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Deductive Inductive


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But There are Other Outcomes

Concepts Defined Generalizations

Concepts Rules

Principles

Outcomes


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A Generalization

  • has a broad level of application.

  • contains two or more concepts.

  • states the relationship which exists between (among) the concepts found in the generalization.


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  • Objects by an outside force in motiontend to stay in motion unless interacted upon by an outsideforce

  • He moremass an object has the greater the forcenecessary to accelerate it

  • For everyaction there is an equal and oppositereaction


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  • As the size of a place changes the kinds of goods and services found in that place tend to change.

  • When two or more societies interact, each tends to acquire some of the characteristics of the other society.

  • When two or more groups of people wish to use the same land in different ways, a conflict usually results.


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How to teach rules and generalizations governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.DEDUCTIVELY (and effectively)

The work of David Ausubel


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Ausubel’s Postulates governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

  • Thinking can be taught

    Deductive Thinking


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Deductive Thinking governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

General

Specific


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Basic Postulates governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

  • Learning is more than passive listening

  • Teacher must present generalizations that govern the meaningfulness of new information

  • The purpose of teaching is to strengthen cognitive structures


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David P. Ausubel governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

“Preconceptions are amazingly tenacious and resistant to extinction.”

Advance Organizers


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Elements of Ausubel Lessons governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

  • Advance Organizer

Introductory material presented ahead of the learning task and at a higher level of abstraction and inclusiveness than the learning task itself.


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Organizers, we have organizers … governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

Concept Definition Landforms are land surfaces

that have characteristic

shapes and sizes.

Analogy Two-paragraph comparison

between river systems and

the body’s circulatory system

Generalization The more technology and

knowledge humans possess,

the less limiting are the

influences of nature on

human life.


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Organizers, we have organizers … governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

Concept Definition Landforms are land surfaces

that have characteristic

shapes and sizes.

Analogy Two-paragraph comparison

between river systems and

the body’s circulatory system

Generalization The more technology and

knowledge humans possess,

the less limiting are the

influences of nature on

human life.


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  • A chemical bond is a state in which the atoms of two or more elements are at lower energy levels than they would be if they existed separately.

  • A Spanish verb is like a good mystery; it tells who did it and when.

  • A season is an arbitrary period of time with distinctive features.

  • When the ing ending is placed on words ending with vowel-consonant-e (e.g. mate, live), the e is dropped.


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The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Agriculture Resource Manufacturing

Extractions

Technology Persistent

Problems

Irrigation Seed Energy

Fertilization Mechanization

Transportation


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The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Agriculture Resource Manufacturing

Extractions

Technology Persistent

Problems

Irrigation Seed Energy

Fertilization Mechanization

Transportation

Intelectual Scaffolding


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The Ever Popular Concept Map limiting are the influences of nature on human life.


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The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Agriculture Resource Manufacturing

Extractions

Technology Persistent

Problems

Irrigation Seed Energy

Fertilization Mechanization

Transportation

Subsumption


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External Conditions limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Teacher informs student what is expected

Teacher invokes recall of component concepts

Student makes statement in own words

Student demonstrates in another situation

Reinforcement

Internal Conditions

Mastery of component concepts

Rule and Generalization Learning(including Defined Concepts)


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Deductive Processes limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Generalization

data data data data data data

data data data

conglomerate conglomerate conglomerate

data data data data data data data

data conglomerate

data

data data data data data data data

data data data data data

data data data


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Deductive Processes limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Generalization

data data data data data data

sub- sub- sub-

generalization generalization generalization

data data data data data data data

sub generalization

data

data data data data data data data

data data data data data

data data data


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Deductive Processes limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Advance Organizer

data data data data data data

Integrative Integrative Integrative

Reconciliation Reconciliation Reconciliation

data data data data data data data

IntegrativeReconciliation

data

data data data data data data data

data data data data data

data data data


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If a teacher lectures in the middle of limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

the forest and nobody’s there to

listen, does he actually make sense?


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Calendars limiting are the influences of nature on human life.


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Why do we need calendars anyway? limiting are the influences of nature on human life.


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Calendars are affected not only by limiting are the influences of nature on human life.agricultural needs but also by religious and political concerns


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hat's my Advance Organizer limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Calendars are affected not only by agricultural needs but also by religious and political concerns


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The Ancient Celts … limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • Recognized only two seasons - light and dark. This time of year was still called dark.


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Jewish Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Nisan


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George Washington’s Multiple Birthdays limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

And a Third One


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George Washington’s Birthday Celebrations limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • February 11, 1732

    (Band of Fourth Continental Army serenades him at Valley Forge in 1778)

    • February 22, 1732

    (Generally observed from 1796)

    • President's Day

    (Third Monday of February - P. L. 90-363;

    effective 1971)


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George Washington was first in war, first in peace… limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

And the first to have his birthday juggled to make a long weekend.

-Ashley Cooper


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Early Roman Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • Apparently borrowed from Greeks

    (Romulus founds Rome in 738 BCE)


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Early Roman Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • Apparently borrowed from Greeks

    (Romulus founds Rome in 738 BCE)

  • Ten months and 304 days

    (60 days in middle of winter ignored)


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Early Roman Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • Apparently borrowed from Greeks

    (Romulus founds Rome in 738 BCE)

  • Ten months and 304 days

    (60 days in middle of winter ignored)

  • Names of months

    (Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis,Sextilis, September, October, November, December)


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Early Roman Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • Apparently borrowed from Greeks

    (Romulus founds Rome in 738 BCE)

  • Ten months and 304 days

    (60 days in middle of winter ignored)

  • Names of months

    (Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis,Sextilis, September, October, November, December)

  • Legend has it that Numa Pompilius (452 BCE) adds January and February and a month called Mercedinus

    (22/23 days between February 23-24 every other year)


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Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September


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Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)


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Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)

  • Every four years, February (which had 28 days) was given an additional day


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Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)

  • Every four years, February (which had 28 days) was given an additional day

  • Every year thereafter to have 365 days

Finally


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Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)

  • Every four years, February (which had 28 days) was given an additional day

  • Every year thereafter to have 365 days

  • Quintilis renamed July


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Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)

  • Every four years, February (which had 28 days) was given an additional day

  • Every year thereafter to have 365 days

  • Quintilis renamed July

  • Sextilis renamed August


Julian calendar58 l.jpg
Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)

  • Every four years, February (which had 28 days) was given an additional day

  • Every year thereafter to have 365 days

  • Quintilis renamed July

  • Sextilis renamed August

  • Moved Beginning of Year to January 1


Julian calendar59 l.jpg
Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)

  • Every four years, February (which had 28 days) was given an additional day

  • Every year thereafter to have 365 days

  • Quintilis renamed July

  • Sextilis renamed August

  • Moved Beginning of Year to January 1

  • 3651/4 days; but still 11 minutes,14 seconds longer than solar year


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Julian Calendar limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  • By 46 BCE winter occurs in September

  • 46 BCE declared to have 445 days

    (the “year of confusion”)

  • Every four years, February (which had 28 days) was given an additional day

  • Every year thereafter to have 365 days

  • Quintilis renamed July

  • Sextilis renamed August

  • Moved Beginning of Year to January 1

  • 3651/4 days; but still 11 minutes,14 seconds longer than solar year

  • Augustus Caesar ensures regulation by 8CE


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Dionysius Exiguus limiting are the influences of nature on human life. ca. 525 CE

  • Dates birth of Jesus and misses by at least four years


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Don’t fool with the religious elements of the calendar… limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Mathematicians make mistakes…Take Geronimo Cardano, a resident of strictly religious Italy in the 16th century. He tried running a horoscope on Jesus and wound up in prison.


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But… limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

By 1580 CE, the Spring Equinox fell on March 11, ten days before it should


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So what? limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

Council of Nicea…325 CE

Easter celebrated on the first Sunday after the 14th of Nisan (Passover)…

WHICH JUST HAPPENS TO BE

first Sunday after the first full moon after the Spring Equinox


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