Blood Vessels

Blood Vessels PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Arteries. Away from the heartThick, muscular wallsVery elasticArteriolesDiameter varies in response to neural stimuli and local chemical influences.. CapillariesConsist of a single tunica internaGas, nutrient, and waste exchangeBrain capillariesBlood-brain barrierCapillary bedsPrecapillary sphincterShunting of bloodDigestion.

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Blood Vessels

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1. Blood Vessels Closed circulatory system Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins 3 tunics Lumen Tunica interna Endothelium Connective tissue Tunica media Smooth muscle Elastin Vasoconstriction Vasodilation Tunica externa Collagen fibers Nerve fibers Lymphatic vessels Elastin fibers

3. Arteries Away from the heart Thick, muscular walls Very elastic Arterioles Diameter varies in response to neural stimuli and local chemical influences. Capillaries Consist of a single tunica interna Gas, nutrient, and waste exchange Brain capillaries Blood-brain barrier Capillary beds Precapillary sphincter Shunting of blood Digestion

4. Venous System Toward the heart Venules—porous—free movement of fluids and white blood cells. Veins 3 tunics—but thin Venous valves Varicose veins Incompetent valves hemorrhoids Maintenance of Blood Pressure Neural control Shunting and vasoconstriction. Vasomotor center Baroreceptors Carotid and aorta Chemoreceptors Higher brain centers Hormones Catecholoamines Atrial natrietic peptide ADH Alcohol Histamine—other vasodilators

5. Hypertension 30% of people over 50 Damages arteries Causes heart failure, vascular disease, renal failure, stroke, and blindness. Enlargement falled by hypertrophy of the myocardium Contributing factors: Diet (sodium, saturated fat, cholesterol.) Obesity Age Race Heredity Stress Smoking—nicotine is a vasoconstrictor.

6. Atherosclerosis Damage to the tunica interna Viral Bacterial Hypertension Reinjury Inflammation LDLs—”bad cholesterol” Foam cells Fatty streak stage Arteriosclerosis Hypertension Stroke Heart attack Coronary bypass Angioplasty tPA—tissue plasminogen activator Clot buster HDL—removes cholesterol from vessel walls.

7. Arteries Aorta—largest artery Ascending Descending Right and left coronary arteries Common carotid arteries—branch to form internal and external carotids External—supply tissues of the head except the brain and orbits. Internal—supply the orbits and most of the cerebrum. Vertebral arteries—branch to the cervical spinal cord, neck, cerebellum, pons, and inner ear.

10. Arteries to Know Know the arteries on the proceeding chart plus: Arteries of the arm—brachial, radial, ulnar Arteries of the leg—femoral, popliteal, anterior tibial, posterior tibial Be able to identify these arteries on a diagram like that on page 631. Also know the locations served by these arteries.

11. Veins Dural sinuses—veins of the brain drain into these enlarged chambers and drain to the internal jugular veins. External jugular veins—superficial head structures. Vertebral veins—cervical vertebrae & neck muscles. Brachiocephalic—mammary glands and first 2 or 3 intercostal spaces.

14. Veins to Know Know the veins on the preceding chart plus: The veins of the arms—cephalic, axillary, brachial, radial, ulnar. The veins of the legs—external iliac, femoral, popliteal, anterior tibial, posterior tibial, great saphenous vein, hepatic portal vein. The great saphenous vein is a superficial vein. Connect with many of the deep veins of the legs and thighs. Be able to identify these veins on a diagram like that on page 638. Also know the locations served by these arteries.

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