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Blood Vessels. Vessels. Arteries Strong elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart Smallest ones are called arterioles – connect to capillaries Veins Thinner, less muscular vessels that carry blood toward the heart Smallest ones are called venules – connect to capillaries

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Presentation Transcript
vessels
Vessels
  • Arteries
    • Strong elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart
    • Smallest ones are called arterioles – connect to capillaries
  • Veins
    • Thinner, less muscular vessels that carry blood toward the heart
    • Smallest ones are called venules – connect to capillaries
    • Contain valves
  • Capillaries
    • Penetrate nearly all tissues
    • Walls are single-layered squamous cells
    • Very thin
    • Function: allow gas/nutrient/waste exchange
control of blood flow
Control of Blood Flow
  • Precapillary sphincters
    • Circular, valve-like muscle at arteriole-capillary junction
  • Vasoconstriction
    • Narrowing blood vessels’ lumen (passageway)
  • Vasodilation
    • Expanding blood vessel’ lumen
control of blood flow1
Control of Blood Flow
  • Through veins – very inefficient
  • Slow, weak arteriole pushing doesn’t help much
  • What helps
    • Contraction of diaphragm
    • Pumping action of skeletal muscles
    • Valves
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Average is 120/80 (systolic/diastolic)
major blood vessels
Major Blood Vessels
  • Aorta – largest artery, leaves heart from LV
    • Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, abdominal aorta
  • Pulmonary Trunk
    • Leaves RV
    • Splits left and right and lead to lungs
  • Pulmonary Veins
    • Return blood from lungs to heart
    • Connects to LA
  • Superior and inferior vena cava
    • return blood from head (superior) and body (inferior) to the heart
    • Connects at RA
disorders
Disorders
  • MVP – mitral valve prolapse – mitral valve doesn’t close all the way; creates a clicking sound at the end of the cardiac cycle
  • Heart murmurs – valves do not close completely; causing a harmless sound
disorders1
Disorders
  • Myocardial infarction – a blood clot obstructs a coronary artery – commonly called a heart attack
  • Hypertension – high blood pressure, force within arteries is too high
disorders2
Disorders
  • Atherosclerosis
    • Deposits of fatty materials (cholesterol) which form a plaque and block blood flow
    • Treatment:
      • Insertion of catheter and balloon to open the vessels
      • Can also do a bypass
        • Vein is inserted to replace the artery to supply blood to the heart
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