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Olive oil processing. Professor Alsaed A.K. University of Jordan. Jordanian olive oil industry. Introduction Olive tree is considered the most important tree in Jordan.

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Olive oil processing

Olive oil processing

Professor Alsaed A.K.

University of Jordan


Jordanian olive oil industry

Jordanian olive oil industry

  • Introduction

  • Olive tree is considered the most important tree in Jordan.

  • Total area cultivated with olives constitutes about 71% of the area planted with fruit trees and 26% of the total planted area.

  • The total No. of olive trees in the country is about 12m, producing 250000 tone olive fruits where 30000 tone is used for pickling and the rest is used for oil pressing giving about 25000 to 30000 tone of olive oil

  • The olive fruit average production per 1 donum is about 205 kg which is considered relatively low.


Olive oil processing

  • The country reached in year 2000 to self-sufficiency with regard to olive oil and a surplus of about 7000 to 10000 tone/year is recorded

  • Due to the new planting of olives in the last 15 years(1990-2004) the olive cultivated area increased to about 177%

  • 77% of the olive trees take their need of water from raining fall where as the rest (23%) are being irrigated

  • Consumption of olive oil (per capita) in Jordan is considered low(4 kg/year) compared to 7 kg in Syria and 20 kg in Greece

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Olive oil processing

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Drawbacks of the jordanian olive sector

Drawbacks of the Jordanian olive sector

  • The Jordanian olive sector faces some drawbacks such as:

  • A. The production cost is high due to the high cost for fertilizers, pesticides, employee and irrigation water

  • B. The low productivity of the olive tree grown in Jordan(15-30kg)

  • C. The low quality of a major part of the locally produced olive oil due to some incorrect practices such as rough handling and improper harvesting (methods and timing), unsuitable packing, transportation and storage of the olive fruit


Olive oil processing

  • D. The research activities regarding the Jordanian olive sector are still in their infancy stage compared with other olive producing countries i.e. research institutes are not existing, limited number of specialized laboratories for quality characterizing of olive oil are available etc

    E. The competitivety of the Jordanian olive oil in the international markets is low since major part of the quantity available for exporting does not comply with the international standards

  • F. The other olive products like olive pickles and other olive by-products i.e olive meal or cake or olive water are not utilized efficiently


Olive varieties grown in jordan

Olive varieties grown in Jordan

  • The number of common varieties cultivated in the country reaches to about 20.

  • The most popular variety is Nabali where oil percentage reaches to about 34%

  • Another two varieties having excellent olive flavor are Quanbeesi and Souri

  • Nasohi gabaa2 is considered the best for green and black pickles purposes

  • Ascolano, Santcatrine and Santaugastine are the best for pickled olive paste processing


Olive oil processing

  • Raseeai variety (improved Nabali) is used for both oil production (olive percentage may reach to 28%) and pickling

  • Nabali, Raseeai and Grossadi (Spain) are the varieties that can tolerate dry conditions whereas Nasohi gabaa2 are suitable for high attitudes and high precipitation (rainfall) areas.

  • On the other hand, Turkish origin varieties such as Ivolic, Jaker and Ormjek suit deserts and can be irrigated with salty water


Insects and diseases

Insects and Diseases

  • Insects infestation and diseases spreadibility are considered relatively low in Jordan compared with other olive producing countries

  • Such decrease in diseases and pest infestation might be due mainly to the low relative humidity prevalent for several months in the olive cultivated areas

  • In some years intensive infestation may occur for olive trees encountering water shortage and grown outside their suitable area


Olive harvesting

Olive harvesting

  • Harvesting is conducted either manually or mechanically. Manual methods in spite of their advantages in having almost intact and sound fruits but they are costly and constitute about 40 % of the total production cost

  • The mechanical harvesting is practiced widely in the developed countries and on small scale in the underdeveloped countries where it is characterized by being costly


Olive oil processing

  • Improper harvesting is probably the most significant problem facing the olive sector either on national or international scale

  • Sometimes incorrect practices are being used in olive harvesting such as using sticks or gathering and combining fallen and infested or diseased olive fruits with those harvested freshly from the trees


Olive oil processing

  • It is well established that for olive oil production, fruits should be harvested according to the ripening equation which was developed by the Spanish olive research center

  • By using this equation, the proper harvesting time is determined by computing the change in color of the olive fruits. Proper harvesting time is reached when this change in color is about 60 -70%

  • Unfortunately, many of the Jordanian olive farmers are not familiar with this equation which affects significantly the quality of the produced olive oil


Olive postharvest treatment

Olive postharvest treatment

  • Packing, transportation and storage of olive fruit

  • The proper pack for olive fruit is the ventilated plastic box. Although it is used by some Jordanian olive farmers, major part of Jordanian farmers use the jute or plastic bag with inefficient ventilation

  • Due to the short period of the olive season (4-6 weeks), sometimes the olive fruits are stored under unsuitable conditions (high temperature, low relative humidity, unsuitable packs, inefficient ventilation etc leading to inferior olive oil quality) for a relatively long time (3-10 days)


Olive oil processing

  • Pressing

  • According to the international olive oil standard, virgin olive oil is defined as the oil obtained from olives using mechanical or physical methods only and under specific conditions

  • Pressing includes many steps such as feeding, washing, crushing and milling, paste mixing or malexation, separation of the phases, separation of the oil from the musty and filtration, filling and storage


Olive oil processing

  • Three types of olive press are being used for olive oil production i.e the pressure process, centrifugation process, combined method or what is called sinolea or selective filtration or percolation method

  • Total No. of olive press in Jordan is about 107, with a capacity of about 300 tone/hr. Part of these presses were established before 1990 and it is old and produce about 40% of the produced olive oil. The second part of presses was established between 1990 and 2000; they have new technology and press about 40% of the olive oil. The 3rd part of the presses was established after 2001 and use highly sofisticated technology and produce about 20% of the olive oil


Olive oil processing

Table no. 1. Some sensory & chemical quality properties of olive oil as is in the modified local specification


Olive oil processing

2.


Olive oil processing

Table No. 2.Olive oil profile form used to evaluate the sensory properties (to be filled by the taster)


Olive oil processing

1.


Olive oil processing

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  • . : 3.3% 3.3%.


Olive oil processing

  • 8, 0% 2% 3, 3% ( 1).

  • 2. : . 20.


Olive oil processing

  • 3. : 270 232 . 270 .

  • 4. : .


Olive oil processing

  • .

  • .

  • 3 .

  • 9 1424 .


Olive oil processing

  • Fruity Pungent Bitter.

  • : . .

  • : .

  • : .


Olive oil processing

  • :

  • 6 . :

  • Winey-Vinegary: .

  • Grubby: .

  • :Earthy .


Olive oil processing

  • Dry/Hay-Wood: .

  • Fusty/Heated-up: .

  • Mouldy/Musty-Humid: .


Olive oil processing

  • - . .

  • Heated or Burnt: .

  • Pressing Mat: .


Olive oil processing

  • Metallic: .

  • Vegetable Water: .

  • : 3 .

  • Rancid: .


Olive oil processing

  • Muddy Sediment: .

  • Cucumber: () .

  • 1.

  • ( 2) ( ) .


Olive oil processing

3


Table no 3 the area production of olives oil production in the years between 1996 2002

Table no. 3. The area & production of olives & oil production in the years between 1996- 2002


Table no 4 the jordanian market of olive oil in the years between 1996 2002

Table No.4.the Jordanian market of olive oil in the years between(1996- 2002)


Table no 5 evaluation of the local olive presses

There are more than 107 presses of olive oil in Jordan classified into three categories:

  • presses established before 1992

  • Press about 40% of annual production.

  • Old, their equipments & building were not established on the national specifications.

  • Equipment & Building should be m modernized, converted into the cold pressing, Increase the efficiency of management & storage, for the production of fine olive oil that meet thenational specification.

  • presses established between 1992 - 2002

  • Press about 40% of annual production.

  • Considered new, some developing was made to walk with the great revolution occur in this section.

  • A presses of great capabilities was established with the investment transform from small family into a large manufacturing.

  • This phase helped in the production of Jordanian olive oil of fine quality.

c. presses established after 2001

  • Press about 20% of annual production.

  • Was build & equipped to go with national requirement; production, storage, packaging. Now, these companies try to enter international markets by selling their special products.

  • Many local & foreign sponsors held a field studies on the state of presses and put the required recommendations to develop this section.

  • Table No.5. Evaluation of the local olive presses


    Figure 10 steps of the extraction of olive oil by pressing method

    Figure 10. Steps of the extraction of olive oil by pressing method


    Figure 11 steps for the extraction of olive oil by centrifuging method

    Figure 11. Steps for the extraction of olive oil by centrifuging method


    Figure 12 steps for the extraction of olive oil by senolla method

    Figure 12. Steps for the extraction of olive oil by senolla method


    Figure14 the main producers of olive oil

    Figure14. The main producers of olive oil

    Main Producers

    Other countries

    18%

    Spain

    42%

    Greece

    17%

    Italy

    23%


    Productive countries of olive oil

    • 1050

    • 1020

    • 900

    • 750

    • 600

    • 558

    • 450

    • 410

    • Thousand Tons

    • 300

    • 150

    • 103

    • 60

    • 60

    • 35

    • 50

    • 45

    • 40

    • 30

    • 8

    • 7

    • 6

    • .

    • 5

    • 5

    • 0

    • Italy

    • Syria

    • Tunis

    • Spain

    • Libya

    • Jordan

    • Yemen

    • Algeria

    • Turkey

    • Cyprus

    • Portugal

    • Morocco

    • Lebanon

    • Palestine

    • Argentina

    Productive countries of olive oil


    Figure 15 the main importer countries of olive oil

    The main Importers

    300

    200

    Million Ton

    100

    0

    USA

    European

    Union

    Brazil

    Australia

    Japan

    Canada

    Figure 15. The main importer countries of olive oil


    Figure 16 exports imports of the 3 main producers of olive oil

    The case of Italy

    Imports

    +

    Production

    1000

    Exports

    +

    Consumption

    Thousand Ton

    500

    0

    Spain

    Italy

    Greece

    Figure 16. Exports & imports of the 3 main producers of olive oil


    Figure 17 the main exporters of olive oils

    The Main Exporters

    300

    200

    Million Ton

    100

    0

    European Union

    Tunisia

    Turkey

    Syria

    Figure 17. The main exporters of olive oils


    Figure 18 quantities of olive oil consumed all over the world

    Global Consumption

    3000

    2000

    Thousand Tons

    1000

    0

    Consumption in 1991

    Consumption in 2002

    Figure 18. Quantities of olive oil consumed all over the world


    Figure 20 the global local prices of olive oil

    Local Price

    Global Price

    3

    JD/ Individual

    2

    1

    0

    1995

    1996

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    *

    Figure 20. The Global & local prices of olive oil

    Global & Local Prices of Olive Oils


    Figure 21 consumption from olive oil other vegetable oils

    Consumption from olive oil & other

    vegetable oils

    16

    12

    Kg/ Individual

    8

    4

    0

    olive oil

    vegetable oils

    Figure 21. Consumption from olive oil & other vegetable oils


    Figure 22 the jordanian exports of olive oil

    1000

    Exports

    Mean Value

    Thousand Ton

    500

    0

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    Figure 22. The Jordanian exports of olive oil


    Figure 23 the main market of the jordanian olive oil exports

    Sudan

    Ukraine

    USA

    0.23%

    4%

    Qatar

    9.6%

    0.21%

    UAE

    11%

    Saudi Arabia

    53.2%

    Kuwait

    21.8%

    Figure 23. The main market of the Jordanian olive oil exports


    Olive oil processing

    INTERNATIONAL OLIVE OIL COUNCIL COI/T.2OIDoc.no.5 - [email protected]://www.intenationaloliveoil.org/SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL STANDARD

    • GLASS FOR OIL TASTING 1. PURPOSE The purpose of this standard is to describe the characteristics of the glass intended for use in the organoleptic analysis of edible oils (odor, taste, flavor).

    • In addition, it describes the adapted heating unit needed to reach and maintain the right temperature for this analysis.


    2 description of the glass

    2. DESCRIPTION OF The GLASS

    • The drawing in Figure 1 attempts to establish the optimum characteristics desirable in a piece of apparatus of this kind, which can be specified as follows: a) Maximum steadiness, to prevent the glass from tilting and the oil from being spilled. b) A base which easily fits the indentations of the heating unit so that the bottom of the glass is evenly heated.


    Description of the glass

    DESCRIPTION OF The GLASS

    • c) A narrow mouth which helps to concentrate the odors and facilitates their identification.

    • d) Made of dark-colored glass to prevent the taster from perceiving the colour of the oil, thus eliminating any prejudices and impeding the possible formation of biases or tendencies that might affect the objectiveness of the determination.


    2 1 dimensions

    2.1. Dimensions

    • The glass is sketched in Figure 1, and has the following dimensions:

    • Each glass shall be equipped with a watch-glass, the diameter of which shall be 10 mm larger than the mouth of the glass.

    • This watch-glass shall be used as a cover to prevent the loss of aroma and the entry of dust.


    Tasting glass

    TASTING GLASS


    2 1 dimentions

    2.1 Dimentions


    2 2 manufacturing characteristics

    2.2. Manufacturing characteristics

    • The glass shall be made of resistant glass;

    • it shall be dark-colored so that the color of its contents cannot be discerned, and shall be free from scratches or bubbles.

      The rim shall be even, smooth and flanged.

    • The glass shall be annealed so that it stands the temperature changes it has to undergo in the tests


    2 3 instructions for use

    2.3. Instructions for use

    • The glasses shall be cleaned using un-perfumed soap or detergent and shall then be rinsed repeatedly until the cleaning agent has been totally eliminated.

    • The final rinse shall be with distilled water, after which the glasses shall be left to drain and then dried in a desiccation stove.

    • Neither concentrated acids nor chromic acid mixtures shall be used.


    Instructions for use

    Instructions for use

    • The glasses shall be kept in the stove until required for use or

    • shall be kept in a cupboard in which they shall be protected from contamination from any extraneous odors.


    Instructions for use1

    Instructions for use

    • Before use, each glass shall be smelled to ensure that no extraneous odor is present.

    • When the test is being prepared care shall be taken to record the code of each glass and the oil it contains.

    • The panel supervisor shall be the only person to know this code/oil relation.


    3 device for heating samples

    3. DEVICE FOR HEATING SAMPLES

    • The samples shall be organoleptically examined at a set temperature which, in the case of edible oils, shall be 28 2C.

    • For this purpose, a heating device (see Figure 2) shall be installed in each booth within the tasters reach.


    Heating device

    HEATING DEVICE


    Olive oil processing

    • It comprises an aluminium block immersed in a thermostatically-controlled water bath so as to keep a uniform temperature.

    • This block has a series of indentations into which fit the bottoms of the glasses.

    • The temperature difference between the heating device and the oil contained in the glasses inserted in the indentations of the various blocks shall not be more than 2 C.


    International oive oil council coijt 20 doc no 6 18 june 1987

    INTERNATIONAL OIVE OIL COUNCIL COIJT.20/Doc.no.6 18 June 1987

    • SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL STANDARD

    • GUIDE FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A TEST ROOM

    • 1 and 2. INTRODUCTION and PURPOSE

    • The test room is designed to provide the panel participating in the sensory tests with

    • a suitable, comfortable, standardized environment

    • which facilitates work and helps to improve the repeatability and reproducibility of the results.

    • The purpose of this standard is to specify the basic conditions that have to be met when installing a test room.


    3 general specifications for installation

    3. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR INSTALLATION

    • The premises, however large they are, shall meet the following specifications:

    • They shall be pleasant and suitably lighted but neutral in style.

    • For this purpose, a soothing, plain, light color is recommended for the walls so that a relaxed atmosphere is created.

    • The color scheme of the room and its lighting can affect the results of the sensory analysis.


    Olive oil processing

    • The premises shall be such that they are easily cleaned and shall be separated from any source of noise;

    • consequently, they shall preferably be sound proofed.

    • They shall also be kept free from extraneous odors for which purpose, if possible, they shall be fitted with an effective ventilation device.

    • If the fluctuations in ambient temperature so warrant, the test room shall be equipped with air conditioning to keep the atmosphere close to 20-22 C.


    3 1 dimensions

    3.1. Dimensions

    • The dimensions of the premises often depend upon the possibilities of the laboratories or companies.

    • Generally, they should be sufficiently spacious to permit the installation of ten booths and an area for preparing the samples.

    • However, it is obvious that the larger the area set aside for the installations, the better, since auxiliary areas can then be provided, for instance, for cleaning apparatus, arranging food preparations and assembling open panels.


    Olive oil processing

    • 3.2. Lighting

    • General lighting, whether from sunlight or lamps (for instance, strip lighting) shall be uniform, controllable and diffuse.

    • 3.3 Temperature and hygrometric conditionsThe premises shall be kept constantly at a pleasant temperature and under agreeable hygrometric conditions.

    • Except in special circumstances,

      a temperature of 20 - 22 C and hygrometric conditions of 60 to 70% relative humidity are recommended.


    4 description of booths 4 1 general characteristics

    4. DESCRIPTION OF BOOTHS 4.1. General characteristics

    • The sensory analysis booths shall be placed alongside each other in the premises.

    • They shall be identical and shall be separated by partitions which shall be sufficiently high and wide as to isolate the tasters when seated.

    • The booths may be made of any appropriate material which is easily cleaned and looked after (for instance, wood, vitrified plywood, laminated panelling, etc).

    • If paint is used, it must be completely odor-free when dry.


    Olive oil processing

    • The seats provided in the booths shall be comfortable and shall have an adjustable height device.

    • Each booth shall also be provided with individual lighting, the direction and intensity of which may be adjusted.


    Olive oil processing

    • It is highly recommended that the booths be equipped with a button connected to an outside light which

    • enables the taster to make known to the attendant outside that he has finished the test,

    • requires further samples,

    • is missing a piece of apparatus,

    • has noticed some irregularity, or

    • wishes information, etc. without distracting the other tasters.


    4 2 dimensions

    4.2. Dimensions

    • The booths shall be sufficiently large and comfortable.

    • In general, they shall have the following dimensions: Width: 0.75 m (without sink) 0.85 m (with sink) Length: 0.50 m (table) 0.20 m excess for partition Height of partitions: 0.60 m minimum from table Height of table: 0.75 m.


    4 3 arrangement

    4.3. Arrangement

    • The table surface shall be such that it is easily cleaned.

    • Part of this surface shall be used for a sink provided with running, drinking water.

    • However, if this is not practicable, this space may be used for a tray, spittoon or similar piece of equipment.


    Arrangement

    Arrangement

    • When the samples have to be kept during the test at a constant temperature that is above or below ambient temperature, it is advisable to have a suitable device for this purpose (bainmarie, hot plate, etc.).

    • A shelf may also be set up at a height of approximately 1.10 meters from the floor for placing various accessories (glasses, small apparatus, etc.).


    Arrangement1

    Arrangement

    • If the arrangement of the booths in the test room so permits, it is worthwhile installing a device to facilitate the presentation of the samples.

    • This may be in the form of a sliding hatch (Figure 1),

    • a revolving vertical device (Figure 2) suitable for glasses or cups (tall containers),

    • or a horizontally-opening hatch when the containers in which the samples are kept are small (Figure 3).

    • It is simply a question of ensuring that the opening is large enough for the trays and glasses containing the samples to pass through.


    Olive oil processing

    • to specify the duties of the panel supervisor.

    • The panel supervisor shall be a suitably trained, knowledgeable person who is an expert on the kinds of oils which he will come across in the course of his work.


    2 duties of the panel supervisor

    2. DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR

    • He is the key figure in the panel and is responsible for its organisation and running.

    • He shall summon the tasters sufficiently in advance and shall answer any queries regarding the performance of the tests,

    • but shall refrain from suggesting any opinion to them on the sample.


    Duties of the panel supervisor

    DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR

    • He shall be responsible for inventorying the apparatus,

    • and for ensuring that it is properly cleaned,

    • for preparing and coding the samples and presenting them to the tasters in accordance with the appropriate experimental design,


    Olive oil processing

    • as well as for assembling and statistically processing the data obtained.

    • The work of the panel supervisor calls for sensory skill,

    • meticulousness in the preparation of the tests,


    Duties of the panel supervisor1

    DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR

    • flawless organization for their performance and skill and patience in the planning and execution of the tests.

    • It is the duty of the panel supervisor to motivate the panel members by encouraging interest, curiosity and a competitive spirit among them.


    Duties of the panel supervisor2

    DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR

    • He shall ensure that his opinion is not known and shall prevent possible leaders from asserting their criteria over the other tasters.

    • He shall also be responsible for selecting, training and monitoring the tasters in order to ascertain their level of aptitude.


    Olive oil processing

    • To do so, he shall refer to the standard COJIT.20/Doc. no. 14, Guide for the selection, training and monitoring of skilled virgin olive oil tasters

    • The oil sample for analysis shall be presented in standardized tasting glasses conforming to the standard COIIT.20/Doc. no. 5 Glass for oil tasting.


    3 test conditions 3 1 presentation of the sample

    3. TEST CONDITIONS 3.1. Presentation of the sample

    • The glass shall contain 15 ml of oiland shall be covered with a watch-glass.

    • Each- glass and its attendant watch-glass shall be marked with the same randomly chosen code made up of digits or a combination of letters and digits.

    • The code will be marked with an indelible, odorless pencil.


    3 2 test temperature

    3.2. Test temperature

    • The oil samples intended for tasting shall be kept in the glasses at 28 C 2 C.

    • This temperature has been chosen because it makes it easier to observe organoleptic differences than at ambient temperature, when oils are used as a condiment.


    International olive council coi t 20 doc no 1 5 rev 2 september 2007

    INTERNATIONAL OLIVE COUNCIL COI/T.20/Doc. No 1 5/Rev. 2 September 2007

    • SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL METHOD FOR THE ORGANOTEPTIC ASSESSMENT OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL

      1. PURPOSE

    • The purpose of this international method is to determine the procedure for assessing the organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil

    • and to establish the method for its classification on the basis of those characteristics.


    2 field of application

    2. Field of Application

    • The method described is only applicable to virgin olive oils and to the classification of such oils according to the intensity of the defects perceived and of the fruitiness, as determined by a group of tasters selected, trained and monitored as a panel.

    • It also provides indications for optional labeling.


    Olive oil processing

    • 3. GENERAL BASIC VOCABULARY FOR SENSORY ANALYSTS

    • Refer to the standard COIIT.20/Doc. no. 4 Sensory Analysis: General Basic Vocabulary.


    4 specific vocabulary for virgin olive oil

    4. SPECIFIC VOCABULARY FOR VIRGIN OLIVE OIL

    • 4.1. Negative attributes

    • 4.1.1 Fusty/muddy sediment

    • Characteristic flavor of oil obtained from olives piled or stored in such conditions as to have undergone an advanced stage of anaerobic fermentation,

    • or of oil which has been left in contact with the sediment that settles in underground tanks and vats and which has also undergone a process of anaerobic fermentation.


    Olive oil processing

    • 4.1.2 Musty- humid

    • Characteristic flavor of oils obtained from fruit in which large numbers of fungi and yeasts have developed as a result of its being stored in humid conditions for several days.


    Olive oil processing

    • 4.1.3 Winey- vinegary Acid-sour Characteristic flavor of certain oils reminiscent of wine or vinegar.

    • This flavor is mainly due to a process of aerobic fermentation in the olives or in olive paste left on pressing mats which have not been properly cleaned and leads to the formation of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and ethanol.


    Olive oil processing

    • 4.1.4 Metallic :Flavor that is reminiscent of metals. It is characteristic of oil which has been in prolonged contact with metallic surfaces during crushing, mixing, pressing or storage.

    • 4.1.5 Rancid: Flavor of oils which have undergone an intense process of oxidation.


    Olive oil processing

    4.2. Other negative attributes 4.2.1 Heated or burnt: Characteristic flavor of oils caused by excessive and/or prolonged heating during processing, particularly when the paste is thermally mixed, if this is done under unsuitable thermal conditions.

    • 4.2.2 Haywood : Characteristic flavor of certain oils produced from olives that have dried out.

    • 4.2.3 Rough : Thick, pasty mouthfeel sensation produced by certain old oils.


    Olive oil processing

    • 4.2.4 Greasy : Flavor of oil reminiscent of that of diesel oil, grease or mineral oil.

    • 4.2.5 Vegetable Water : Flavor acquired by the oil as a result of prolonged contact with vegetable water which has undergone fermentation processes.

    • 4.2.6 Brine : Flavor of oil extracted from olives which have been preserved in brine.

    • 4.2.7 Esparto: Characteristic flavor of oil obtained from olives pressed in new esparto mats. The flavor may differ depending on whether the mats are made of green esparto or dried esparto.


    Olive oil processing

    • 4.2.8 Earthy : Flavor of oil obtained from olives which have been collected with earth or mud on them and not washed.

    • 4.2.9 rubby: Flavor of oil obtained from olives which have been heavily attacked by the grubs of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae).

    • 4.2.10 Cucumber: Flavor produced when an oil is hermetically packed for too long, particularly in tin containers, and which is attributed to the formation of 2,6 nonadienal.

    • 4.2.11Wet wood: Characteristic flavor of oils extracted from olives which have been injured by frost while on the tree.


    4 3 positive attributes

    4.3. Positive attributes

    • 4.3.1 Fruity: Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which depends on the variety and comes from sound, fresh olives, either ripe or unripe. It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.

      4.3.2Bitter: Characteristic primary taste of oil obtained from green olives or olives turning color. It is perceived in the circumvallate papillae on the V region of the tongue.


    Olive oil processing

    • 4.3.3 Pungent: Biting tactile sensation characteristic of oils produced at the start of the crop year, primarily from olives that are still unripe.

    • It can be perceived throughout the whole of the mouth cavity, particularly in the throat.


    4 4 optional terminology for labelling purposes

    4.4. OPTIONAL TERMINOLOGY FOR LABELLING PURPOSES

    • Upon request, the panel leader may certify that the oils which have been assessed comply with the definitions and ranges corresponding to the following adjectives according to the intensity and perception of the attributes.


    Olive oil processing

    • -Positive attributes (fruity, bitter and pungent): According to the intensity of perception: Intense: when the median of the fruitiness is more than 6;

    • - Medium: when the median of the fruitiness is between 3 and 6;

    • - Light:when the median of the fruitiness is less than 3.


    Olive oil processing

    • -Fruity: Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which depends on the variety of olive and comes from sound, fresh olives in which neither green nor ripe fruitiness predominates.

    • It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.

    • Greenly fruity

    • Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which is reminiscent of green fruit, depends on the variety of olive and comes from green, sound, fresh olives. It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.


    Olive oil processing

    • Ripely fruity

    • Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which is reminiscent of ripe fruit, depends on the variety of olive and comes from sound, fresh olives, green or ripe. It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.Well balanced: Oil which does not display a lack of balance, by which is meant the olfactory gustatory and tactile sensation where the median of the bitter and/or pungent attributes is two points higher than the median of the fruitiness.

    • Mild oil: Oil for which the median of the bitter and pungent attributes is 2 or less.


    Glass for oil tasting and test room

    GLASS FOR OIL TASTING AND TEST ROOM

    • 5. GLASS FOR OIL TASTINGRefer to the standard COI/T.20/Doc. no. 5, Glass for Oil Tasting.

    • 6. TEST ROOM Refer to the standard COI/T.20/Doc. no. 6, Guide for the Installation of a Test Room.


    7 accessories

    7. ACCESSORIES

    • The following accessories, which are required by tasters to perform their task properly, shall be supplied in each booth and shall be within easy reach: - glasses (standardised) containing the samples, code numbered, covered with a watch-glass and kept at 28 C 2 C;


    Olive oil processing

    • - profile sheet (see Figure 1) on hard copy, or on soft copy provided that the conditions of the profile sheet are met, together with the instructions for its use if necessary; - pen or indelible ink; - trays with slices of apple and/or carbonated water; - glass of water at ambient temperature; - sheet recalling the general rules listed in sections 9.4 and 10.1.1; - spittoons.


    8 panel leader and tasters 8 1 panel leader

    8. PANEL LEADER AND TASTERS 8.1. Panel leader

    • The panel leader must be a suitably trained person with an expert knowledge of the kinds of oils which he or she will come across in the course of their work.

    • They are the key figure in the panel and responsible for its organization and running.

    • The work of the panel leader calls for basic training in the tools of sensory analysis, sensory skill, meticulousness in the preparation, organization and performance of the tests and skill and patience to plan and execute the tests in a scientific manner.


    Olive oil processing

    • They are the sole person responsible for selecting, training and monitoring the tasters in order to ascertain their level of aptitude.

    • They are thus responsible for the appraisal of the tasters, which must always be objective and for which they must develop specific procedures based on tests and solid acceptance and rejection criteria.

    • See standard COLT.20/Doc. no. 14, Guide for the selection, training and monitoring of skilled virgin olive oil tasters.


    Olive oil processing

    • Panel leaders are responsible for the performance of the panel and hence for its evaluation, of which they must give reliable, objective proof.

    • In any case, they must demonstrate at all times that the method and tasters are under control.

    • They hold ultimate responsibility for keeping the records of the panel. These records must always be traceable.


    Olive oil processing

    • They must comply with the assurance and quality requirements laid down in international sensory analysis standards and ensure the anonymity of the samples at all times.

    • They shall be responsible for inventorying and ensuring that the apparatus and equipment needed to comply with the specifications of this method is properly cleaned and maintained and shall keep written proof thereof, as well as of the compliance with the test conditions.


    Olive oil processing

    • They shall be in charge of the reception and storage of the samples upon their arrival at the laboratory as well as of their storage after being tested.

    • When doing so, they shall ensure at all times that the samples remain anonymous and are properly stored, for which purpose they must develop written procedures in order to ensure that the entire process is traceable and affords guarantees.


    Olive oil processing

    • In addition, they are responsible for preparing, coding and presenting the samples to the tasters according to an appropriate experimental design in line with pre-established protocols, as well as for assembling and statistically processing the data obtained by the tasters.

    • They shall be in charge of developing and drafting any other procedures that might be necessary to complement this standard and to ensure that the panel functions properly.


    Olive oil processing

    • They must seek ways of comparing the results of the panel with those obtained by other panels undertaking the analysis of virgin olive oil in order to ascertain whether the panel is working properly.

    • It is the duty of the panel leader to motivate the panel members by encouraging interest, curiosity and a competitive spirit among them.


    Olive oil processing

    • To do so, they are strongly recommended to ensure a smooth two-way flow of information with the panel members by keeping them informed about all the tasks they carry out and the results obtained.

    • In addition, they shall ensure that their opinion is not known and shall prevent possible leaders from asserting their criteria over the other tasters.


    Olive oil processing

    • They shall summon the tasters sufficiently in advance and shall answer any queries regarding the performance of the tests, but shall refrain from suggesting any opinion to them on the sample.

    • The people acting as tasters in organoleptic tests carried out on olive oils must do so voluntarily, with all the ensuing consequences of such a voluntary act in terms of obligations and the absence of financial payment.


    8 2 tasters

    8.2. Tasters

    • It is therefore advisable for candidates to submit an application in writing.

    • Candidates shall be selected, trained and monitored by the panel leader in accordance with their skills in distinguishing between similar samples;

    • It should be borne in mind that their accuracy will improve with training.


    Olive oil processing

    • Tasters must act like real sensory observers, setting aside their personal tastes and solely reporting the sensations they perceive.

    • To do so, they must always work in silence, in a relaxed, unhurried manner, paying the fullest possible sensory attention to the sample they are tasting.

    • Between 8 and 12 tasters are required for each test, although it is wise to keep some extra tasters in reserve to cover possible absences.


    9 test conditions 9 1 presentation of the sample

    9. TEST CONDITIONS9.1. Presentation of the sample

    • The oil sample for analysis shall be presented in standardized tasting glasses conforming to the standard COTJT.20/Doc. No 5 Glass for oil tasting.

    • The glass shall contain 1416 ml of oil, or between 12.8 and 14.6 g if the samples are to be weighed, and shall be covered with a watch-glass.

    • Each glass shall be marked with a code made up of digits or a combination of letters and digits chosen at random.

    • The code will be marked by means of an odor-free system.


    9 2 test and sample temperature

    9.2. Test and sample temperature

    • The oil samples intended for tasting shall be kept in the glasses at 28C 2 C throughout the test.

    • This temperature has been chosen because it makes it easier to observe organoleptic differences than at ambient temperature and because at lower temperatures the aromatic compounds peculiar to these oils volatilise poorly while higher temperatures lead to the formation of volatile compounds peculiar to heated oils.


    Olive oil processing

    • See the standard COIJT.20/Doc. No 5 Glass for Oil Tasting for the method which has to be used for heating the samples when in the glass.

    • The test room must be at a temperature between 20 and 25 C (see COIJT.20/Doc. No 6).


    9 3 test times

    9.3. Test times

    • The morning is the best time for tasting oils.

    • It has been proved that there are optimum perception periods as regards taste and smell during the day.

    • Meals are preceded by a period in which olfactorygustatory sensitivity increases, whereas afterwards this perception decreases.


    9 4 tasters general rules of conduct

    9.4. Tasters: general rules of conduct

    • The following recommendations apply to the conduct of the tasters during their work.

    • When called by the panel leader to participate in an organoleptic test, tasters should be able to attend at the time set beforehand and shall observe the following: They shall not smoke or drink coffee at least 30 minutes before the time set for the test.


    Tasters general rules of conduct

    Tasters: general rules of conduct

    They must not have used any fragrance, cosmetic or soap whose smell could linger until the time of the test.

    • They must use an un-perfumed soap to wash their hands which they shall then rinse and dry as often as necessary to eliminate any smell.

    • They shall fast at least one hour before the tasting is carried out.


    Tasters general rules of conduct1

    Tasters: general rules of conduct

    Should they feel physically unwell, and in particular if their sense of smell or taste is affected, or if they are under any psychological effect that prevents them from concentrating on their work, the tasters shall refrain from tasting and shall inform the panel leader accordingly.

    When they have complied with the above, the tasters shall take up their place in the booth allotted to them in an orderly, quiet manner.


    Tasters general rules of conduct2

    Tasters: general rules of conduct

    They shall carefully read the instructions given on the profile sheet and shall not begin to examine the sample until fully prepared for the task they have to perform (relaxed and unhurried).

    • If any doubts should arise, they should consult the panel leader in private.


    10 procedure for the organolepttc assessment and classification of virgin olive oil

    10. PROCEDURE FOR THE ORGANOLEPTTC ASSESSMENT AND CLASSIFICATION OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL

    • 10.1. Tasting technique

    • 10.1.1. The tasters shall pick up the glass, keeping it covered with the watch-glass, and shall bend it gently;

    • they shall then rotate the glass fully in this position so as to wet the inside as much as possible.

    • Once this stage is completed, they shall remove the watch-glass and smell the sample, taking slow deep breaths to evaluate the oil.


    Tasting technique

    Tasting technique

    • Smelling should not exceed 30 s.

    • If no conclusion has been reached during this time, they shall take a short rest before trying again.

    • When the olfactory test has been performed, the tasters shall then evaluate the buccal sensations (overall retronasal olfactory, gustatory and tactile sensations).

    • To do so, they shall take a small sip of approximately 3 ml of oil.


    Olive oil processing

    • It is very important to distribute the oil throughout the whole of the mouth cavity, from the front part of the mouth and tongue along the sides to the back part and to the palate support and throat,

    • since it is a known fact that the perception of tastes and tactile sensations varies in intensity depending on the area of the tongue, palate and throat.


    Tasting technique1

    Tasting technique

    • It should be stressed that it is essential for a sufficient amount of the oil to be spread very slowly over the back of the tongue towards the palate support and throat while the taster concentrates on the order in which the bitter and pungent stimuli appear.

    • If this is not done, both of these stimuli may escape notice in some oils or else the bitter stimulus may be obscured by the pungent stimulus.


    Tasting technique2

    Tasting technique

    • Taking short, successive breaths, drawing in air through the mouth, enables the taster not only to spread the sample extensively over the whole of the mouth but also to perceive the volatile aromatic compounds via the back of the nose by forcing the use of this channel.

    • The tactile sensation of pungency should be taken into consideration. For this purpose it is advisable to ingest the oil.


    Tasting technique3

    Tasting technique

    • 10.1.2. When organoleptically assessing a virgin olive oil, it is recommended that FOUR SAMPLES at the most be evaluated in each session with a maximum of three sessions per day, to avoid the contrast effect that could be produced by immediately tasting other samples.

    • As successive tastings produce fatigue or loss of sensitivity caused by the preceding samples,


    Olive oil processing

    • it is necessary to use a product that can eliminate the remains of the oil from the preceding tasting from the mouth.

    • The use of a small slice of apple is recommended which, after being chewed, can be disposed of in the spittoon.

    • Then rinse out the mouth with a little water at ambient temperature.

    • At least 15 minutes shall lapse between the end of one session and the start of the next.


    10 2 use of the profile sheet by tasters

    10.2. Use of the profile sheet by tasters

    • The profile sheet intended for use by tasters is detailed in Figure 1 of this method.

    • Each taster on the panel shall smell and then taste the oil under consideration.

    • They may refrain from tasting an oil when they notice any extremely intense negative attribute by direct olfactory means, in which case they shall record this exceptional circumstance in the profile sheet.

    • They shall then enter the intensity with which they perceive each of the negative and positive attributes on the 10-cm scale shown in the profile sheet provided.


    The old profile sheet

    The old profile sheet


    The new profile sheet

    The New profile sheet


    Use of the profile sheet by tasters

    Use of the profile sheet by tasters

    • Should the tasters perceive any negative attributes not listed in section 4, they shall record them under the others heading, using the term or terms that most accurately describes the attributes.


    10 3 use of the data by the panel leaders

    10.3. Use of the data by the panel leaders

    • The panel leader shall collect the profile sheets completed by each taster and shall review the intensities assigned to the different attributes.

    • Should they find any anomaly, they shall invite the taster to revise his or her profile sheet and, if necessary, to repeat the test.


    Use of the data by the panel leaders

    Use of the data by the panel leaders

    • The panel leader shall enter the assessment data of each panel member in a computer program like that appended to this method with a view to statistically calculating the results of the analysis, based on the calculation of their median.

    • See sections 10.4 and Annex 1 of this method.


    Use of the data by the panel leaders1

    Use of the data by the panel leaders

    • The data for a given sample shall be entered with the aid of a matrix comprising 9 columns representing the 9 sensory attributes and n lines representing the n panel members used.

    • When a defect is perceived and entered under the others heading by at least 50% of the panel, the panel leader shall calculate the median of the defect and shall arrive at the corresponding classification.

    • A method of calculation is illustrated in an example in the annex hereto.


    10 4 classification of the oil

    10.4. Classification of the oil

    • The median of the defects means the median of the defect perceived with the greatest intensity.

    • It is expressed to one decimal place and the value of the robust coefficient of variation which defines it shall be less than or equal to 20%.

    • The oil is classified by comparing the median value of the defects predominantly perceived with the reference intervals listed below.


    Classification of the oil

    Classification of the oil

    • The error of the method has been taken into account when establishing the limits of these intervals, which are therefore considered to be absolute.

    • When the appended optional computer program is applied, the classification is displayed in the table of statistical data and in graph form.


    Classification of the oil1

    Classification of the oil

    Olive oil shall be classified:

    • in the extra virgin category when the median of the defects is equal to 0 and the median of the fruity attribute is more than 0;

    • in the virgin category the median of the defects is more than 0 and less than or equal to 3.5 and the median of the fruity attribute is more than 0;


    Classification of the oil2

    Classification of the oil

    in the ordinary virgin category the median of the defects is more than 3.5 and less than or equal to 6.0 or when the median of the defects is less than or equal to 3.5 and the median of the fruity attribute is equal to 0;

    • in the lampante virgin category the median of the defects is more than 6.0.


    Classification of the oil3

    Classification of the oil

    • Note 1:When the median of the bitter and/or pungent attribute is more than 5.0, the panel leader shall state so on the test certificate.

    • In the case of analyses intended to check for compliance with the standards, one test shall be performed.

    • For appeal tests, the panel leader shall arrange for the analysis to be performed in duplicate.


    Classification of the oil4

    Classification of the oil

    • In the event of confirmation analyses, the assessment must be carried out in triplicate.

    • In these cases, the median of the attributes shall be calculated from the average of the medians.

    • All the replicates of the analyses must be carried out in different sessions.


    Annex 1

    Annex 1


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