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POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY FROM BIOMASS IN THE UK. Alex McBurnie ENV-2E02 Energy Resources. February 24 th 2005. LOOKING AT: Electricity Heat Transport 15-25 years in the future. BUT NOT: Energy from Waste Which would include : Straw Hedge Clippings Sawmill Waste

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potential for energy from biomass in the uk

POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY FROM BIOMASS IN THE UK

Alex McBurnie

ENV-2E02

Energy Resources

February 24th 2005

including ignoring
LOOKING AT:

Electricity

Heat

Transport

15-25 years in the future

BUT NOT:

Energy from Waste

Which would include:

Straw

Hedge Clippings

Sawmill Waste

Which could provide much energy by themselves

INCLUDING / IGNORING
energy from existing forests
ENERGY FROM EXISTING FORESTS
  • 12% of Britain is woodland – 2.8 million hectares (Forestry Commission, 2004)
  • By 2020 Britain will be producing 10 million tonnes a year more wood than is currently used – and demand is falling (RCEP, 2004)
  • This level is sustainable assuming restocking matches or exceeds extraction
how much energy could this produce
HOW MUCH ENERGY COULD THIS PRODUCE?
  • 10 million tonnes of wood
  • Energy Content Estimated 20 GJ / Tonne
  • Will therefore contain (not accounting for energy used in extraction):
  • 200 million GJ
  • 200 PJper Year
new planting
Wood

Short Rotation Coppice -4 year cycle

-20 year replacement

Longer growth - 15 years

Willow or Poplar Trees

For heat, electricity and CHP production

Non-wood

Miscanthus Grass

Oilseed rape for biodiesel

Sugar beet for bioethanol

1 season cylce

All have similar energy contents ~ 20GJ / tonne

NEW PLANTING
using set aside land
USING SET-ASIDE LAND
  • Under CAP an average (1999-2002) 640 ha land is under set-aside
  • Much of this lies fallow
  • At yields of 15 tonnes / hectare / year (conservative estimate) x 640 ha = 9600 tonnes per year
  • So 10,000 tonnes per year realistic estimate
set aside land continued
SET-ASIDE LAND CONTINUED…
  • 10,000 tonnes x 20 GJ = 200,000 GJ
  • 200,000 GJ =
  • 0.2 PJ per Year
using exiting agricultural land
USING EXITING AGRICULTURAL LAND
  • Grade 5 land largely too poor
  • Grades 1, 2 & 3 best used for food production
  • Grade 4 ideal for fuel crops
existing land continued
EXISTING LAND CONTINUED…
  • Grades 4 = 16% of UK agricultural land
  • NFU indicates 20% of UK crops are not needed for food
  • Suggests that use of grade 4 land will have no effect on food supply
how much
HOW MUCH?
  • 16% of UK’s 18.5 million hectares agricultural land = 3 million hectares (roughly)
  • At yields of 15 tonnes / hectare / year = 45 million tonnes
  • Assuming 20 GJ per tonne this could produce 900 million GJ = 900 PJ per year
summary of raw energy
SUMMARY OF RAW ENERGY
  • From exiting forests = 200 PJ
  • From set-aside land = 0.2 PJ
  • From agricultural land = 900 PJ
  • Minus extraction and transport overheads of 0.2 GJ / tonne (from Thetford Forest practical) x 55,010,000 t = >12PJ
  • Total = 1088.2 PJ per year
how will this be used
EFFICIENCIES

CHP (or heat only) = 85%

Straight electricity = 30%

Road transport = 70%

SO THE TOTAL USEABLE ENERGY PRODUCED COULD BE ANYWHERE BETWEEN 325 PJ and 925 PJ

HOW WILL THIS BE USED?
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