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What are microbes?. helminths. yeast. viruses. cyanobacteria. protozoa. bacteria. algae. mold. Taxonomy. http://www.linnean.org/html/history/linnaeus_biography.htm. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/linn/. www.amazon.com. Taxonomy. Plantae. Animalia. Fungi. Protista. Monera.

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What are microbes?

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What are microbes l.jpg

What are microbes?

helminths

yeast

viruses

cyanobacteria

protozoa

bacteria

algae

mold


Taxonomy l.jpg

Taxonomy

http://www.linnean.org/html/history/linnaeus_biography.htm

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/linn/


Taxonomy3 l.jpg

www.amazon.com

Taxonomy


Five kingdom system l.jpg

Plantae

Animalia

Fungi

Protista

Monera

Five kingdom system


Three domain system l.jpg

Encephalitozoan

EUBACTERIA

EUKARYA

Hexamita

Valrimorpha

Cytophaga

Giardia

Chlorobium

Epulopiscium

Bacillus

Trichomonas

Agrobacterium

Synechococcus

Physarum

E. coli

Thermus

Trypanosoma

Thermomicrobium

Riftia

Chromatium

Thermotoga

Euglena

Aquifex

ARCHAEA

Naegleria

Entamoeba

Haloferax

Dictylostelium

Methanobacterium

Methanospirillum

Porphyra

Methanococcus

Methanosarcina

Organisms visible to human eye

Thermococcus

Paramecium

Methanopyros

Plants

Sulfolobus

Fungi

Animals

Thermoproteus

Thermofilum

pSL50

pSL4

pSL22

pSL12

pJP78

pJP27

Marine group 1

Three Domain System

Black, J.G. (2002) Fig. 9.13


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Taxonomical “ranks”

after Alcamo Fig. 3.4


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OR, underline if handwritten:

Enterococcus faecalis

  • strains? (subspecies)

Bacterial nomenclature

  • Genus + species

  • e.g.:

    • Escherichia (genus) coli (species)

    • Bacillus subtilis

    • Enterococcus faecalis


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Where do bacteria come from?

Palaeolyngbya

chroococcalean form

www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ bacteria/cyanofr.html


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Where do bacteria live?

  • EVERYWHERE! (almost)

  • humans host 1014 bacterial cells in 1013 human cells!

  • NOT found inside tissues (of organisms)


What do microbes do l.jpg

www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/ faq.html

What do microbes do?

  • Eat, grow, and divide!!

  • How to accomplish?

    • modify metabolism

    • make toxins

    • structuralmodifications


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Why do we care?

  • Disease

  • Agriculture

  • Food and beverages

  • Chemicals

  • Basic research

  • Biotechnology


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micrograph

microscope

How did microbiology become a science?

  • Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (late 1600’s)


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Spontaneous generation controversy

www.darwin.museum.ru/site_bac/ etap/etap2_A.htm


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Pasteur & Tyndall end spontaneous generation controversy


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Disease transmission?

miasma

www.ghosthunting.org.uk/ cemetary3.htm


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Fracastoro

“seeds” of contagion

infection

delpiano.com/millennium/html/ body_fracastoro.html

symptoms

courses


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Semmelweis

www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/ j/e/jel5/micro/art.htm


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John Snow

www.soi.city.ac.uk/ ~dk708/pg1_1.htm


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Germ Theory of Disease


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pw1.netcom.com/~aguldo/ agga/bt/txt/bt1899.htm

Lister

www.umanitoba.ca/.../medicine/ history/lister/anessurg.html

Joseph Lister


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Robert Koch

http://www.vdem.state.va.us/prepare/terrorismtoolkit/anthraxoverview.htm

www.robert-koch-stiftung.de/ ziele.html

Koch establishes causative link between B. anthracis & anthrax


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Suspected microbe must be present in EVERY case of the disease

Diseased subjects

Microbe not typically found in healthy subjects

Koch’s Postulates

Must isolate & grow pure culture of microbe

Same microbe must be isolated from diseased experimental host

Cultured microbe must cause disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible host


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Exceptions to Koch’s postulates

  • Organism can’t be cultured

    • e.g. Mycobacterium leprae

  • Combination of pathogens

  • Ethical considerations


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DISEASE

Anthrax

Gonorrhea

Typhoid fever

Malaria

Tuberculosis

Cholera

Diphtheria

Tetanus

Diarrhea

Pneumonia

Meningitis

Gas gangrene

CAUSATIVE AGENT

Bacillus anthracis

Neisseria gonorrhea

Salmonella typhi

Plasmodium spp.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Vibrio cholera

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Clostridium tetani

Escherichia coli

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Neisseria meningitidis

Clostridium perfringens

YEAR

1867

1879

1884

1880

1882

1883

1883-84

1885-89

1885

1886

1887

1892

“Golden Age” of Microbiology: Late 1800s


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What’s included in “microbiology”?

Microbiology

Basic research microbiology

Applied microbiology

In relation to disease

After Black (2002) Microbiology: Principles & Explorations, 5th Ed. Table 1.2

By kind of organism

By process

Bacteriology

Phycology

Mycology

Protozoology

Parasitology

Virology

Microbial metabolism

Microbial genetics

Microbial ecology

Immunology

Epidemiology

Etiology

Microbialtaxonomy


What s included in microbiology26 l.jpg

What’s included in “microbiology”?

Microbiology

Basic research microbiology

Applied microbiology

After Black (2002) Microbiology: Principles & Explorations, 5th Ed. Table 1.2

Disease-related

Environmental

Industrial

Infection control

Chemotherapy

Environmental microbiology

Food/Beverage technology

Pharmaceutical microbiology

Genetic engineering


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