Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272
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Session 7. Deliberate and Emergent strategy. Why look at this?. To give you some of the vocabulary of strategy. To get you to think about the wider picture of how strategy can evolve in a range of ways, depending on the context and people.

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Deliberate and emergent strategy

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Deliberate and emergent strategy

Session 7

Deliberate and Emergent strategy

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Why look at this

Why look at this?

To give you some of the vocabulary of strategy.

To get you to think about the wider picture of how strategy can evolve in a range of ways, depending on the context and people.

Smaller businesses grow bigger and bigger businesses need a different approach.

Know what approach you prefer.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272

‘Of Strategy, Deliberate and Emergent’ Strategic Management Journal


Deliberate and emergent

Deliberate and Emergent

Strategy is an organisations plan for the future. Its a way of establishing the long range goals and action plans for implementation.

A strategy is a pattern in a stream of decision (as opposed to a random series of behaviours).

What we are looking at the difference between leaders intentions and what they actually did.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


What s the difference

What’s the difference?

  • By comparing intended strategy with realised strategy it is possible to differentiate:

    • deliberate strategy – realised as intended strategy - from

    • emergent strategy – patterns of consistencies realised in the absence of intention.

    • The difference being intention.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Types of strategy

Types of strategy

Unrealised Strategy

Emergent Strategy

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Pure theory

Pure Theory

Pure Emergent

Pure Intended

To be deliberate:

Precise and clear intentions, before action is taken.

Shared vision, common to all actors.

Outcome must be realised as intended.

To be emergent:

The complete absence of intention. There must be no strategy, not just an unrealised strategy.

Most organisations are somewhere on the continuum.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Planned strategy

Planned Strategy

Leader at the centre, precise intentions exist, formulated and articulated by the centre.

High level of control and direction.

The environment must be stable and predictable – usually based on industry standard programme.

Long in gestation and then adhered to.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


The entrepreneurial strategy

The Entrepreneurial Strategy

Vision

One individual, the person in control. Has a strong view of the organisations position in the world.

May articulate the vision, may not, but can impose their vision on others. Intentions may exist, but may be difficult to identify.

Market must be favourable, probably niche and safe. Might see this pattern in larger organisation in crisis, where people will follow the leader.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


The entrepreneurial strategy1

The Entrepreneurial Strategy

Vision may have planned as well as emergent characteristics. It provides a general sense of direction, which may shift as the entrepreneur spots a new opportunity.

Adaptability, control, flexibility – providing that the individual is willing to learn.

Articulated strategy locks it in place – which is why it may not be expressed clearly.

Vision 1

Vision 2

Planned strategy often follow entrepreneurial strategies.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Ideological strategy

Ideological Strategy

A collective vision. This may be many organisations sharing a common belief system. While in planned and entrepreneurial strategy emerge from one strong person, these are embraced by all members.

People will resist changing the strategy, but may look for different interpretations.

They are highly deliberate.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Umbrella strategy

Umbrella Strategy

A more relaxed approach, where control may be less tight.

Guidelines are set and boundaries clear, but people have room to manoeuvre.

From the perspective of the leader, strategies are allowed to emerge, within the boundaries. This might be seen as deliberately emergent.

Professional organizations may adopt this approach.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Process strategy

Process Strategy

Process

content

Influence is indirect, the process is guided, but the content emergent. Centrally leadership defines the process, but lets people emerge within it.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Others

Others

Unconnected – with no direction strategy emerges from enclaves. Strategies are organisationally emergent, whether deliberate or not.

Consensus – strategy originates by consensus, but will be emergent.

Imposed – by the environment, organisation has no choice, but may internalise it and make it deliberate.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


Why have one

Why have one?

  • Encourages entrepreneurs to assess and articulate a vision.

  • Ensures that you are auditing the environment and the organisations capabilities and resources.

  • May highlight new possibilities and opportunities.

  • Provides organisational focus.

  • Guide the structure formation as the business grows.

  • Guides decision making.

  • Provides a starting point to set objectives.

  • Acts as a common language.

Mintzberg, H. and Water, J. A. 1985:257-272


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