Puberty and Adolescence
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 59

Puberty and Adolescence PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 100 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Puberty and Adolescence. OTHMAN MOHAMED OMAIR ALI ALFAQIRI. Puberty : is the process of physical changes by which a child 's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction.

Download Presentation

Puberty and Adolescence

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Puberty and adolescence

Puberty and Adolescence

OTHMAN MOHAMED OMAIR

ALI ALFAQIRI


Puberty and adolescence

Puberty:is the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction


Puberty and adolescence

Adolescence:is the age between 10 -19 yearse transitional stage of physical and mental human development generally occurring between puberty and legal adulthood


Physiology

PHYSIOLOGY

  • Puberty is initiated by hormone signals from the brain to the gonads (the ovaries and testes).

  • the gonads produce a variety of hormones that stimulate the growth, function, or transformation.


The normal puberty

The normal puberty

  • Physical changes.

  • Hormonal changes.


Puberty and adolescence

Hair distribution

Physical changes.

Menstruation+ fertility

Reproductive system maturation

Body composition

BMD


Physical changes

Physical changes.

  • Puberty proceeds through five stages from childhood to full maturity (P1 to P5) as described by Marshall and Tanner.

  • In both sexes, these stages reflect the progressive modifications of the external genitalia and of sexual hair.


Physical changes for males

Physical Changes for Males

1-testicular enlargement is the first physical manifestation of puberty

2-pubic hair often appears on a boy shortly after the genitalia begin to grow

3- voice change and Adams apple

4-Male musculature and body shape and Body odor and acne


Tanner staging of puberty in males

Tanner Staging of Puberty in Males

Tanner I 

prepubertal (testicular volume less than 3.5 ml; small penis of 3 cm or less)[

Tanner II 

testicular volume 6 ml; skin on scrotum thins, reddenss and enlarges; penis length unchanged

Tanner III 

testicular volume between 6 and 12 ml; scrotum enlarges further; penis begins to lengthen to about 6 cm

Tanner IV 

testicular volume between 12 and 20 ml; scrotum enlarges further and darkens; penis increases in length to 10 cm and circumference

Tanner V 

testicular volume greater than 20 ml; adult scrotum and penis of 15 cm in length


Breast development

Breast development

  • The first physical sign of puberty in girls

  • occurring on average at about 10 years of age.

  • Tanner stagingof puberty.


Tanner breast development

Tanner Breast Development

Breasts (female)

Tanner I 

no glandular tissue; areola follows the skin contours of the chest (prepubertal)

Tanner II 

breast budforms, with small area of surrounding glandular tissue; areola begins to widen

Tanner III 

breast begins to become more elevated, and extends beyond the borders of the areola, which continues to widen but remains in contour with surrounding breast [

Tanner IV 

increased breast size and elevation; areola and papilla form a secondary mound projecting from the contour of the surrounding breast [

Tanner V 

breast reaches final adult size; areola returns to contour of the surrounding breast, with a projecting central papilla. [


Pubic hair

Pubic hair

  • second noticeable change in puberty.

  • usually within a few months of thelarche.

  • Tanner staging.


Tanner pubic staging

Tanner Pubic Staging

Pubic hair (both male and female)

Tanner I 

no pubic hair at all (prepubertal Dominic state) [typically age 10 and younger]

Tanner II 

small amount of long, downy hair with slight pigmentation at the base of the penis and scrotum (males) or on the labia majora (females) [10–11.5]

Tanner III 

hair becomes more coarse and curly

Tanner IV 

adult-like hair quality, extending across pubis but sparing medial thighs [13–15]


Uterine development

UTERINE DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive system maturation

The Prepubertal uterus

tear-drop shaped

neck and isthmus accounting for up to 2/3 of the uterine volume.

Craniocaudal direction without the flextion of adult .

then, with the production of estrogens, it becomes pear shaped, with the uterine body increasing in length and thickness proportionately more than the cervix.


Puberty and adolescence

  • The mucosal surface of the vagina also changes in becoming thicker and duller pink in color.

  • Whitish secretions (physiologic leukorrhea ).

  • The ovaries usually contain small follicular cysts visible by ultrasound.


Puberty and adolescence

In prepuberty, the ovarian size volume extends from 0.3 - 0.9 TO cm3.

More than 1.0 cm3 indicates

that puberty has begin.

During puberty, the ovarian

size increases rapidly to a mean postpubertal volume of cm3.

OVARY DEVLOPMENT


Menstruation fertility

Menstruation+ fertility

  • menarche, and typically occurs about two years afterthelarche

  • The average age of menarche in girls is 11. years

  • The time between menstrual periods (menses) is not always regular in the first two years after menarche

  • Ovulationis necessary forfertility, but may or may not accompany the earliest menses

  • Starting of ovulation? By production of progesteron


Puberty and adolescence

Bone mineral density

  • 6-9 month after thelarche

  • 11.5 y at Ts 2-3

  • BMD

    Peak menerlization 14-16 y.

    Influence by

    Genetic

    Excersise

    GH.


Hormonal changes of puberty

HORMONAL CHANGES OF PUBERTY

  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

  • •Gonadotropins

  • •Adrenal steroids


Gonadotropin releasing hormone

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

  • GnRHissynthesizedandreleasedfromneuronswithinthehypothalamus.

  • Chromosome8.

  • GnRHstimulatesthesynthesisandsecretionofthegonadotropins .

  • GnRHissecretedinpulses .

  • LH ,FSH


Role of gonadotropins

Role of Gonadotropins

FSH

Stimulates the ovary

Involved in spermatogenesis in the testes

Induces receptors for LH

LH

Uses as substrate to produce estradiol in theca cells

Stimulates testosterone synthesis by Leydig cells

FSH is usually higher than LH in prepubertal stages, and this reverses in pubertal stages


Puberty and adolescence

Sex steroidsTestosterone external genitalia.Muscle growthestrogenbreast uterineadipose tissuebone mineralization epiphysiel plate


Abnormal puberty

Abnormal puberty

Precocious puberty.

Delayed puberty


Precocious puberty

Precocious puberty

the appearance of physical and hormonal signs of pubertal development at an earlier age than is considered normal.

girls < 7 years.

black girls 6-8 years.

boys< 8 years


Precocious puberty can be divided into 2 distinct categories

Precocious puberty can be divided into 2 distinct categories.

gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty

in which the presence of sex steroids is independent of pituitary gonadotropin release.

GIPP

gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty

involves the premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

GDPP


Causes

Causes

1.Constitutional or idiopathic:

  • In most cases of precocious puberty (90%) , no cause is found.

  • For some unknown reason the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete its gonadotrophic hormones.

  • There is normal menstruation and ovulation.

  • Pregnancy can occur at young age.


Causes1

Causes

2. Organic lesions of the brain:

  • The next common cause.

  • Organic lesions affecting the midbrain, hypothalamus, pineal body, or pituitary gland may lead to premature release of pituitary gonadotrophins.

  • Examples include traumatic brain injury, meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess, brain tumor as glioma, craniopharyngioma, and hamartomas.


Causes2

Causes

3. McCune-Albright syndrome.

4. Adrenal causes:

(a) Hyperplasia, adenoma, or carcinoma of suprarenal cortex.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and lead to precocious puberty in the male direction, i.e. heterosexual precocious puberty;

(b) Estrogen secreting adrenal tumor which is very rare.


Causes3

Causes

5. Ovarian causes :

(a) Estrogen producing tumors as granulosa and theca cell tumor;

(b) Androgen producing tumors as androblastoma;

(c) Choriocarcinoma because it secretes human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) which may stimulate the ovaries to secrete estrogen;

(d) Dysgerminomaif it secretes HCG.


Puberty and adolescence

6. Juvenile hypothyroidism:

Lack of thyroxine leads to increased production of thyroid stimulating hormone and the secretion of pituitary gonadotrophins may also be increased.

7. Drugs:

  • latrogenic may follow oral or local administration of estrogen.

  • A long course of estrogen cream used for treatment of vulvovaginitis of children may lead to breast development or withdrawal bleeding.

    8. Silver syndrome: Small stature, retarded bone age and increased Gonadotrophin levels.


Symptoms

Symptoms

Girls.

*breast enlargement, unilateral.

*Pubic and axillary hair.

*Axillary odor

*Menarche until 2-3 years after onset of breast enlargement.

*The pubertal growth spurt occurs early in female puberty.

boys

*testicular enlargement

*Growth of the penis and scrotum + appearance of pubic hair typically occur at least a year after testicular enlargement.

*Accelerated linear growth (the pubertal growth spurt) occurs later in the course of male puberty than in female puberty


Signs

Signs

*breast enlargement

*breast diameter inc

*areola darkens + thickens

*nipple becomes more prominent

*enlargement of the clitoris

*pubic hair

*deep-red color of vaginal mucosa

*Mild acne

*enlargement of the testes

*penis growth,

*reddening+thinning of the scrotum

*increased pubic hair

*the pubertal growth spurt, acne,

*voice change,

*facial hair.


Diagnosis of precocious puberty

Diagnosis of precocious puberty

1. History:

  • It excludes iatrogenic source of estrogen or androgen.

  • It differentiates between isosexual and heterosexual precocious puberty.


Puberty and adolescence

2. Physical examination:

  • It diagnoses McCune-Albright syndrome.

  • Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations exclude organic lesions of the brain.


Female precocious puberty

FEMALE PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY

3. Special investigations:

These are done according to the history and clinical findings and include:


Diagnosis

DIAGNOSIS

  • X-ray examination of the hand and wrist

    to determine bone age.

  • Estrogen stimulates growth of bone but causes early fusion of the epiphysis.

  • So the child is taller than her peers during childhood, but she is short during adult life.


Diagnosis1

DIAGNOSIS

b. Hormonal assay: including serum FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, testosterone, 17α-hydroxy progesterone, TSH, and human chorionic gonadotrophinto diagnose Choriocarcinoma.


Diagnosis2

DIAGNOSIS

c.Ultrasonography

to diagnose ovarian or adrenal tumor.

d.CT or MRI :

to diagnose an organic lesion of the brain, or adrenal tumor.


Puberty and adolescence

Hypothyroidism

retards bone age, and is the only condition of precocious puberty in which bone age is retarded


Idiopathic precocious puberty

Idiopathic precocious puberty:

is diagnosed after excluding all other causes.


Treatment of precocious puberty

Treatment of precocious puberty

1. Treatment of the cause, e.g., thyroxin for hypothyroidism, removal of ovarian and adrenal tumors.

2. Incomplete forms of precocious puberty do not require treatment, as estrogen production is not increased.


3 mccune albright syndrome

3. McCune-Albright syndrome

  • is treated with testolactone oral tablets.

  • The drug inhibits the formation of estrogen from its precursors, so reduces estrogen level.

  • The dose is 20 mg/kg body weight in 4 divided doses and increased to 40 mg/kg body weight during a 3 week interval.


4 idiopathic type

4. Idiopathic type

is treated by explanation and reassurance and by giving one of the following drugs which inhibit the secretion of gonadotrophins:

(a)Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues

(b)Medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets (Provera tablets)

(c) Danazolcapsules

(d) Cyproterone acetate tablets

Treatment is given till the age of 12 years (mean age of pubertal development).


Mccune albright syndrome

McCune-Albright Syndrome:

  • The disease is found more frequently in girls.

  • It consists of a triad of :

  • Precocious puberty,

  • Cystic changes in bones, and

  • Cafe-au lait patches of the skin.

  • The cause of precocious puberty is autonomous production of estrogen by the ovaries.

  • FSH and LH levels are low.

  • The treatment is testolactone oral tablets which inhibit ovarian steroidogenesis.


Delayed puberty

Delayed Puberty

Delayed puberty is indicated if no signs of puberty are observed in a girl by14 years in age and in a boy by 15 years in age

Evaluation also indicated of an arrest of pubertyal maturation occurs


Etiology of delayed puberty

Etiology of delayed puberty

1 -Constitutional

with +ve family history , short stature & normal fertility .

2 -Hypergonadotropichypogonadism

Gonadal damage secondary to chemotherapy/radiation

Enzyme defects in the gonads

Androgen insensitivity

Ovarian/testicular dysgenesis

3 -Hypogonadtropichypogonadism

A male has abnormal testicles that do not produce normal levels of the sex hormone, testosterone.

A female has abnormal ovaries that do not produce normal levels of sex hormone, estrogen.


Puberty and adolescence

4- Gonadal Failure (bilateral)

In these cases, circulating levels of LH & FSH are high (hypergonadotropichypogonadism)

*Congenital

Turner Syndrome

Klinefelter’s Syndrome

Complete androgen insensitivity

*Acquired

Chemotherapy/Radiation/Surgery

Postinfectious (ie. mumps orchitis, coxsackievirus infection, dengue, shigella, malaria, varicella)

Testicular torsion

Autoimmune/metabolic (autoimmune polyglandular syndromes)

“Vanishing Testes syndrome”

“Resistant Ovaries syndomre” (gonadatropin receptor problems)


Puberty and adolescence

5- Eugonadotropic pubertal delay

*Congenital Anatomic Anomalies

Imperforate hymen

Vaginal atresia

Vaginal aplasia

*PCOS

*Hyperprolactinemia


Puberty and adolescence

6-Other Endocrine Causes

*Hypothyroidism

Interferes with gonadotropin secretion

*Hyperprolactinemia

Interfere with gonadotropin production

7- other causes

Malnutrition

Growth Hormone Deficiency

Brain tumors

Craniopharyngioma, astrocytomas, gliomas, histiocytosis X, germinomas, prolactinomas

Iron overload (pituitary damage)

GnRH receptor abnormalities


Investigating delayed puberty

Investigating Delayed Puberty

History :

1 - Family history , nutritional history , any systemic diseases

(e.g. history of endocrinal disturbance).

2 - Clinical picture of space occupying lesion in the ovary , adrenal, pituitary & hypothalamus.

3 - Periodic pain and +ve 2ry sexual characteristics in imperforate hymen .


Investigating delayed puberty1

Investigating Delayed Puberty

Examination :

(A) Body measurement for causes of amenorrhea + ↑or ↓weight, short or tall stature , proportions (upper / lower segment ratio & arm span / height ratio).

(B) Tanner staging of breast,testes, pubic & axillary hair if present.

(C) Neurological examination for smell sense (Kallman's syndrome), visual field & other cranial nerve lesions .


Puberty and adolescence

1-Primary investigations

Routine first-line:FBC and CRP or ESR to exclude anaemia, iron deficiency, malnutrition and hidden inflammatory disease.

RFT and LFT to exclude renal and liver diseases.

Bone profile.

TSH and free T4 to exclude hypothyroidism (central hypothyroidism cannot be excluded on TSH alone)

Second-line (endocrine):FSH and LH - low levels are associated with central or constitutional delay. Elevated levels are associated with primary testicular or ovarian disorder.

Prolactin - significant elevation is suggestive of pituitary microadenoma.

Early morning estradiol (girls) - low but detectable levels suggest pubertal development is imminent.

Early morning testosterone (boys) - low but detectable levels suggest pubertal development is imminent.

Elevated testosterone (female range) and LH:FSH ratio is suggestive of PCOS in girls.


Investigating delayed puberty2

Investigating Delayed Puberty

2- secondary investigations

Chromosomal study if short stature or hypergonadotropic type .

Radiological bone age study & radiologic study for pituitary adenoma


Treatment of delayed puberty

Treatment of delayed puberty

Exclusion of a serious organic disease or a chromosome variation is the primary goal in an adolescent presenting with true delayed sexual development.

If all is normal, and puberty is just late, simple reassurance is all that is needed.

Delay, especially when accompanied by short stature, can produce anxiety, depression and low self-esteem, isolation and school refusal.

As this is almost always a problem for boys due to the difference in physiological timing of events, a short-term course of around three to 12 months' treatment with low-dosage testosterone can boost growth, pubertal progress and morale.

Treatment options include monthly depot testosterone esters or daily oral capsules.


Treatment of delayed puberty1

Treatment of delayed puberty

Testosterone is usually continued until there is clear evidence of spontaneous puberty (testicular growth).

The duration and dosage of therapy should be monitored by a paediatric endocrinologist as overdosage or excessively long courses can reduce the period of pubertal growth.

Growth hormone is not necessary unless there is a proven deficiency.

Therapeutic management of simple delayed puberty is rarely required in girls, but very low doses of ethinyl estradiol are the mainstay of treatment.


Puberty and adolescence

Thank you


  • Login