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MENTAL RETARDATION. Chapter 11. IDEA Definition. Mental retardation means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

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Mental retardation

MENTAL RETARDATION

Chapter 11


Idea definition
IDEA Definition

  • Mental retardation means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.


Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders definition
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Definition

  • Mild retardation – 50-55 to 70 IQ

  • Moderate retardation – 35-40 to 50-55 IQ

  • Severe retardation – 20-25 to 35-40 IQ

  • Profound – Below 20-25 IQ


American association on mental retardation definition
American Association on Mental Retardation Definition Definition

  • Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18 years.


Public schools
Public Schools Definition

  • Most schools consider an IQ score lower than 70 as significant sub-average general intellectual functioning. IQ scores lower than 70 accompanied by deficits in adaptive behavior qualify a student for the mental retardation classification and services.

IQ


Supports that will enable persons with mr to function independently
Supports that will enable persons with MR to function independently

  • Intellectual

  • Adaptive behavior

  • Participation, interactions, social roles

  • Context (environments and cultures)

  • Health


Incidence and causes of mr
INCIDENCE AND CAUSES OF MR independently

  • Approximately 3% of the population

  • Causes

    • Chromosomal abnormalities

    • Genetic metabolic and neurologic disorders

    • Congenital infections

    • Prenatal drug exposure

    • Perinatal factors

    • Postnatal factors


Characteristics of mr
CHARACTERISTICS OF MR independently

  • 87% are only a little slower to learn new information

  • 13% have IQ’s lower than 50 and have more difficulty learning and need more support systems to enable them to enjoy a satisfying life


Motor development delays
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT DELAYS independently

  • Unless provided an early intervention program, persons with MR will be lacking in coordination, balance, and perceptual motor development

  • Persons with severe MR have delayed postural reflexes which slows their ability to hold the head up, sit, stand, walk, and grasp objects


Physical health status
PHYSICAL HEALTH STATUS independently

  • Higher incidence of

    • Infections

    • Cancers

    • Motor vehicle accidents

    • Poor dental health


Physical fitness development
PHYSICAL FITNESS DEVELOPMENT independently

  • When not provided an appropriate physical fitness program, areas of concern are:

    • Lack of strength

    • Poor cardiovascular endurance

    • Low muscle mass


Appropriate areas to test
APPROPRIATE AREAS TO TEST independently

  • Physical fitness skills

  • Locomotor skills

  • Balance

  • Posture

  • Object-handling skills (catching, kicking, etc.)


Recommended tests
RECOMMENDED TESTS independently

  • Brockport Physical Fitness Health-Related Test for Youth

  • Physical Best and Individuals with Disabilities

  • Project M.O.B.I.L.T.E.E.

  • Motor Activities Training Program

  • Special Olympics Sports Skill program


Most common causes of mr
MOST COMMON CAUSES OF MR independently

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – leading cause resulting from alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy

  • Down Syndrome – most common chromosomal cause

  • Fragile X Syndrome – most common inherited cause


Atlantoaxial instability
ATLANTOAXIAL INSTABILITY independently

  • 10 to 30% of individuals with Down syndrome have atlantoaxial instability

  • Upper segments of the spine have a tendency to dislocate endangering the spinal cord

  • Avoid activities that involve forcefully flexing the neck

  • Require x-rays for participation in physical education and Special Olympics


Teaching strategies
TEACHING STRATEGIES independently

  • For young children use a bottom-up approach that stimulates their sensory input systems

  • Older students need a top-down, task analysis approach to teach specific skills coupled with clear cues and precise feedback immediately after the skill is performed


Physical education program
PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM independently

  • Include learners with mild and moderate MR in the general program whenever possible

  • Include activities that will promote

    • Growth and development

    • Physical fitness

    • Community-based recreational skills

  • Special Olympics Motor Activities Training Program (MATP) for severely retarded.


Adaptations
ADAPTATIONS independently

  • For learners with Mild/Moderate MR

    • Over teach, put in a less demanding position, follow the same routine daily, use peer tutors, and sensitize other students

  • For learners with More Severe MR

    • Work with P.T. and O.T. to position non-ambulatory individuals and select appropriate activities


Promote participation in community settings
PROMOTE PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS independently

  • Prepare for community involvement by using a series of lesser restrictive settings

    • Begin by restricting training only for persons with disabilities

    • Advance to participating on teams with individuals who don’t have disabilities

    • Achieve participation in normal community environments


Special olympics
SPECIAL OLYMPICS independently

  • Athletes can participate beginning at age 8

  • Compete according to age, ability, gender

  • Competition is preceded by no less than 10 hrs of training

  • Training records during practice must be submitted prior to competition

  • Head coaches must be formally trained


Special olympics programs
SPECIAL OLYMPICS PROGRAMS independently

  • Sports Skill program for 26 official sports

  • Unified Sports program using an equal number of persons with and with MR

  • Motor Activities Training Program (MATP) for persons with severe MR

  • Demonstration Sports program that explores new sports to add to the Special Olympics program


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